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Основы DWDM

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  • II

    Guide to WDM Technology and Testing

  • III

    621.396.2 681.327.8

    32.81 32.889

    . WDM. .:EXFO, 2001. / . . . .. , .. ,.. . / ..

    WDM , WDM . , , WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing).

    WDM, , , - WDM, , , .

    EXFO, 2001

    . .. , ..

  • IV

    .....................................................................................................................IV

    ................................................................................................................VIII

    ........................................................X

    - ......................................... 11.1 ............................................21.2 WDM ........................................................31.3 DWDM...................................................................................41.4 WDM ...............................................................................................................51.5 ..............................61.6 ..............................6

    ............................................................................................................................. 92.1 .......................................................................102.2 ...............................................................102.3 WDM ......................................................142.4 DWDM.......................................................................152.5 DWDM............................................................................16

    2.5.1 ..........................................................................................................162.5.2 ....................................................................................................202.5.3 ........................................................................................................212.5.4 ........................................................................................................222.5.5 - OXC .............................................222.5.6 .......................................................................................232.5.7 ..................................................................242.5.8 ..............................................................252.5.9 / .......................................312.5.10 .......................................................................................322.5.11 ...........................................................................................40

    2.6 WDM TDM ...........................................................................................422.6.1 .......................................................................422.6.2 ...............................................................................................43

    WDM..................................................................... 453.1 ..............................................................................................463.2 .....................................................47

    3.2.1 ................................................................................483.2.2 ..................................................................................533.2.3 .................................................................................................55

  • V

    3.2.4 ....................................................................................................573.2.5 ...........................................................................................58

    3.3 .............................................................................................583.3.1 ...................................................................................583.3.2 ................................................................613.3.3 ...................................653.3.4 .......................................................................................................66

    3.4 ........................................................................................723.4.1 ......................................................................743.4.2 -..........................................................................................................763.4.3 ................................................................78

    3.5 ...............................................................................................................783.5.1 .....................................................................................803.5.2 ....................................................................................813.5.3 ..............................................................................81

    3.6 ...................................................................................................................813.7 .................................................................................823.8 .........................................................................................................833.9 .............................................................................................................833.10 ..................................................................................................................84

    ............................... 854.1 ................................................................................................................................864.2 .............................................874.3 .........................................................................88

    4.3.1 ......................................................................884.3.2 .....................................................................884.3.3 ...................................................................................91

    4.4 .....................924.4.1 /.................................................................924.4.2 ...................................................................................................1004.4.3 ......................................................................................1014.4.4 ..........................................................................................................1024.4.5 EDFA................................................................................................1024.4.6 .........................................................................................1104.4.7 ...........................................................................................................1114.4.8 ...............................................................................................................112

    4.5 ................................................................................1194.6 ............................................................................1214.7 ...........................................................123

    4.7.1 ........................................................................1234.7.2 ......................................................................................................123

  • VI

    4.7.3 .....................................................................1244.7.4 PMD ........................................................................125

    , WDM.............................. 1275.1. WDM ...........................................................128

    5.1.1 ........................................................................................1295.1.2 ...............................................................................................1315.1.3 .........................................................................................1315.1.4 / .....................................................................................1325.1.5 .....................................................................................1345.1.6 .....................................................................1355.1.7 .......................................................1365.1.8 ........................................................................................1365.1.9 ........................................................................................1375.1.10 ............................................................................1375.1.11 ............................................................1385.1.12 ...............................................................................1395.1.12 WDM ....................................................................139

    5.2. WDM..................................................................1405.2.1 .....................................................................1405.2.2 - ...................1415.2.3 .................................1425.2.4 .............1425.2.5 ......................................142

    5.3 WDM ...........................................................1435.3.1 ........................................................................................................1435.3.2 ..........................................................................................................1445.3.3 .......................................................................................1455.3.4 ............................................................1465.3.5 ........................................................................1495.3.6 ........................................................151

    5.4 WDM .............................................1525.4.1 / OSNR .........................................................................1535.4.2 .................................................................................................................1535.4.3 ..............................................................1545.4.4 .................................................................................1545.4.5 .........................................................................................1545.4.6 .......................................................................................................1545.4.7 ........................................................................................155

    5.5 WDM..............................................................................1555.5.1 .......................................................................1555.5.2 RFTS .................................1565.5.3 ........159

    DWDM................................................................ 1636.1 ?.................................................................................1646.2 ? ...........................................................164

  • VII

    6.3 , DWDM................................................................................................................................................165

    6.3.1 ITU .....................................1656.3.2 IEC ......................................168 IEC 86: ........................1696.3.3 TIA ........................172

    6.4 .........................................................................................174

    ......................................... 1757.1 DWDM ..............................................................1767.2 DWDM ......................................................1777.3 , .................1797.4 ...........................................................180

    ............................................................................................................... 1818.1 ...............................................................1828.2 .......................................................................................................................1838.3 .............................................................................................................1838.4 ............................................................................................184

    EXFO WDM ........................ 1879.1 .....................................1899.2 : .................................1949.3 ........................................................................................2029.4 ..............................................................................................................207

    9.4.1 .......................................................................................................2079.4.2 .......................................................................209

    9.5 .................214

    ........................................................................................................................ 2

    .................................................................................................. 24

    .................................................................................................... 31

    ............................................................... 37

  • VIII

    , - , . , - .

    WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) . . WDM - WDM .

    EXFO " WDM". , , WDM DWDM (Dense WDM). WDM, , WDM, . WDM , WDM .

    1 WDM. - WDM, - WDM .

    2-5 WDM - : 2- ; 3- WDM; 4- -

    WDM ; 5- ,

    WDM. 6 WDM. , - WDM . - , .

    WDM, - , - MAN (Metropolitan Access Network). 7- .

  • IX

    8 WDM WDM .

    9- WDM, .

    (Andre Girard), Ph. D, Senior Member of Technical Staff

  • X

    . , , . , , , . , - - . . , - . , , -. - () - , "-" . - , . , "" , - . "" , . ATM, IP, SDH (STM-16/64) . , - - . , - , WDM (WavelengthDivision Multiplexing). WDM , - , - . WDM - , . - , , WDM, WDM . WDM 1330 1550 . 4- , 8-10 1550 . - " " WDM DWDM (Dense WDM) 8, 16, 32, 64 . 0,8 . 192 .

  • XI

    1 - , , - [1-4]. , - [1, 5-9]. - [10-12]. [1, 4, 10, 13, 14]. [12, 15]. , [14]. - , ( ) - . - . - WDM/DWDM. - WDM . . WDM , - WDM, , - . , , WDM DWDM. EXFO - . EXFO , , EXFO , - . EXFO . EXFO .

    .. ,.. ,

    ..

    1 , , (..)

  • XII

  • 1

    -

  • 1

    -

    2

    1.1

    -. . , - , - , . -, .

    1990- , . , -- . World Wide Web -, . (. 1.1).

    , . TDM (Time Division Multiplexing). - . - WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing).

    . 1.1. (, ).

  • 1

    -

    3

    1.2 WDM

    WDM - () . . , , . WDM - (1 = 10-9 ), DWDM (Dense WDM). WDM , , , - . .

    DWDM , EDFA (Erbium Doped FiberAmplifier). , 1530-1565 . EDFA - , .

    TDM , , () . - (-). , ( - ), , . , () -.

    , WDM , . - , . , - . , WDM TDM, - .

    WDM 4 16 , SDH/SONET 2,5 /. DWDM . , - 1 /.

  • 1

    -

    4

    . . 1.2 WDM.

    . 1.2. .

    1.3 DWDM

    DWDM 1996 , . DWDM . - , , DWDM, , .

    CLEC (CompetitiveLocal Exchange Carrier) - DWDM - , , . ILEC(Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier) DWDM. - ILEC DWDM ILEC.

    DWDM, - MAN (Metropolitan Area Networks). (DWDM MAN) - . , SDH/SONET, , ., , SDH/SONET. - .

  • 1

    -

    5

    IP DWDM (IP DWDM) , SDH/SONET.

    DWDM , AON (All OpticalNetwork), . - DWDM .

    , -, , . / OADM (Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer). . -OXC (Optical Cross Connect,), , - SDH/SONET. , , .

    1.4 WDM

    , . , - . , - . DWDM , . DWDM .

    -, DWDM - . , - . , - EDFA (, L- 1565 1625 ), , - 1200 .

    . 2,5 / 10 /. 40 / , - 1921 40 / .

    1 CIENA, TT, 192

  • 1

    -

    6

    5 / ( 1000 -- ) . , , DWDM .

    1.5

    , . . DWDM - - . , , , OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer) . TDM, - , . DWDM , , . ,

    1

    . 1.3. .

    DWDM ( , - ), . -, , - .

    .6

    , , . , - .

  • 1

    -

    7

    . , , - . , - , .

    , -. , . - , , - . - , . -- , , . , - , .

  • 1

    -

    8

  • 2

  • 2

    10

    2.1

    C WDM, , , . 2 TDM . WDM . 2 TDM WDM WDM 3.

    2.2

    , . .

    TDM, . . (-), . , - , , , , , . . (. 2.1).

    . 2.1 TDM -

    -. -, .

    TDM - 10 /. 10 / TDM

  • 2

    11

    2,5 /. 10 / TDM. , . TDM 40 / . , , - . . 2.1 SDH/SONET.

    2.1 .

    SONET SDH

    OC-3 STM-1 155 (155,52) /

    OC-12 STM-4 622 (622,08) /

    OC-48 STM-16 2,5 (2,48832) /

    OC-192 STM-64 10 (9,9533) /

    OC-768 STM-256 40 (39,813) /

    , , . , . ( 0,1 ) 2,5 / (STM-16) 10 / (STM-64) - 16 . , , , . (G.652 ITU) 10 / 50-75 .

    , . - FWM (Four-Wave Mixing), 3. , . (Chirp), , . . ,

  • 2

    12

    , .

    TDM . , (, ) . , , , .

    FEC (Forward Error Correction) . FEC . . . FEC , , . , - ( , , , ..).

    PMD (Polarization Mode Dispersion), , ( ). PMD - , SOP (State of Polarization) . , PMD . PMD .

    , . 1999 40 / ( STM-256). , STM-256 2001 , 40/ 100 . STM-256 ADM (Add/Drop Multiplexing) -.

    SDH/SONET, STM-16 STM-64 STM-256. , STM-256 . STM-256 . , .

  • 2

    13

    . , , , ( ). , . , , , , . . , , . . , , . (. 2.2).

    . 2.2

    , TDM , IP, SONET/SDH, . TDM . TDM , . WDM TDM .

  • 2

    14

    2.3 WDM

    WDM , TDM. , , TDM, WDM ( ), .

    WDM . WDM , , . , , , .. , .

    WDM . , - ( ) . , . WDM .

    WDM , . WDM. , , . 100 (~ 0,8 ) DWDM. , WDM 1550 . .

    DWDM . -, . -, WDM , , , TDM STM-16.

    TDM WDM , . WDM

  • 2

    15

    , - .

    2.4 DWDM

    DWDM TDM. , , , . . , . / - (. 2.3).

    . 2.3 WDM / -

    DWDM TDM , DWDM . , DWDM TDM.

    DWDM , , EDFA, /, (), , , , .

  • 2

    16

    2.5 DWDM

    DWDM , . ,, , .

    , , , .. , DWDM. DWDM , , . ,, DWDM , BFT (Fused BiconicTapered Coupler), AWG (Array WaveguideGrating), . ( , ) .

    , , . , . , , .

    . DWDM , (, ) . , ( , , ..) .

    2.5.1

    - - . . , , , . - , . ( ), ( ).

  • 2

    17

    DFB (Distributed Feed Back) 0 (1 ) . . , , . , , , .

    , . . , , .

    DWDM DFB- -. , (. 2.4). , ( 100 ). 40 (. 2.5). . -, .

    . 2.4 DFB- . 2.5 DFB-

    DFB- , , . DFB- : 0 40 .

  • 2

    18

    . . , . , .

    -(Mach-Zehnder) , . (LiNbO3) (InP) . , .

    EDFA SOA (Semiconductor Optical Amplifier) , ( +17). +17 IIIb ( IEC 60825), 1M , , +20 .

    DFB- . - ( ) , . , , . , ., , 1.

    , WDM , WDM . , WDM ITU-T(International Telecommunications Union, ITU) SG15 , (Study Group 15 on TransportNetworks, Systems and Equipment). ITU-T G.692

    1 . .

  • 2

    W

    ITU 193100 . 50 . . 2.2 ITU.

    2. 2. ITU

    () () () () () ()197,1 1521,02 195,0 1537,40 192,9 1554,13197,0 1521,79 194,9 1538,19 192,8 1554,94196,9 1522,56 194,8 1538,98 192,7 1555,75196,8 1523,34 194,7 1539,77 192,6 1556,56196,7 1524,11 194,6 1540,56 192,5 1557,36196,6 1524,89 194,5 1541,35 192,4 1558,17196,5 1525,66 194,4 1542,14 192,3 1558,98196,4 1526,44 194,3 1542,94 192,2 1559,79196,3 1527,22 194,2 1543,73 192,1 1560,61196,2 1527,99 194,1 1544,53 192,0 1561,42196,1 1528,77 194,0 1545,32 191,9 1562,23196,0 1529,55 193,9 1546,12 191,8 1563,05195,9 1530,33 193,8 1546,92 191,7 1563,86195,8 1531,12 193,7 1547,72 191,6 1564,68195,7 1531,90 193,6 1548,51 191,5 1565,50195,6 1532,68 193,5 1549,32 191,4 1566,31195,5 1533,47 193,4 1550,12 191,3 1567,13195,4 1534,25 193,3 1550,92 191,2 1567,95195,3 1535,04 193,2 1551,72 191,1 1568,77195,2 1535,82 193,1 1552,52 191,0 1569,59195,1 1536,61 193,0 1553,33 190,9 1570,42

    WDM DWDM . , , , , . 2, .2.06.

    2 .

    DM.

    19

    100 . ( = c , c=299792500 /).

    () () () ()190,8 1571,24 188,7 1588,73190,7 1572,06 188,6 1589,57190,6 1572,89 188,5 1590,41190,5 1573,71 188,4 1591,26190,4 1574,54 188,3 1592,10190,3 1575,37 188,2 1592,95190,2 1576,20 188,1 1593,79190,1 1577,03 188,0 1594,64190,0 1577,86 187,9 1595,49189,9 1578,69 187,8 1596,34189,8 1579,52 187,7 1597,19189,7 1580,35 187,6 1598,04189,6 1581,18 187,5 1598,89189,5 1582,02 187,4 1599,75189,4 1582,85 187,3 1600,60189,3 1583,69 187,2 1601,46189,2 1584,53 187,1 1602,31189,1 1585,36 187,0 1603,17189,0 1586,20 186,9 1604,03188,9 1587,04 186,8 1604,88188,8 1587,88 186,7 1605,74

    .

    . 2.6.

  • 2

    20

    . . . , , , . , , .

    , . , , WDM .

    2.5.2

    . , . , , .

    , . , . , . ( ), . , . . , TDM , .

    : PIN- APD (Avalanche Photodiode). PIN- (5 ), . PIN- 10 / 40 /. , . ,

  • 2

    21

    , PIN-.

    ( A/W ), ( , - ), , , . . , , . , , .

    2.5.3

    , , EDFA (. 2.7).

    . 2.07.

    . 2.8-a

    . 2.8-b. (1

  • 2

    22

    WDM. ( ) , "" EDFA (.2.8-.). , EDFA . : , , , , . 2.8-b.

    2.5.4

    WDM , .

    - , . WDM3.

    . , - NxN, N . . - OXC(Optical Cross Connect), 4.

    1xN , . .

    2.5.5 - OXC

    . , (,) , . -.

    , .

    3 . .

    4 . .

  • 2

    23

    MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) . , , ( 80 ) .

    - , , , ( , ).

    , .

    /

    / (Addressable Add/Drop Device) DWDM. , . / , , . AWG. - OXC .2.9. , , . , .

    . 2.9 i

  • 2

    24

    2.5.6

    WDM . , . , , , , . WDM 1310 1550 , 980 1480 1550 , , EDFA.

    2.5.7

    WDM . , ( ). , - ( ). .

    , . 2.10. , , . DCD (Dispersion Compensation Devices) , . DCD , DCF (DispersionCompensating Fibers) , DCG (DispersionCompensating Gratings).

    . 2.10. , ,

  • 2

    25

    2.5.8

    WDM . () ( ) . , , MUX ( OM). DEMUX ( OD). TDM, , , WDM , .

    . 2.11.

    . , , , , , ( ).

    100 (~0,8 ), WDM. 50 . , . DWDM MUX/DEMUX, -, .

  • 2

    26

    , , , .

    , . - . ( ) . , , (. 2.12).

    . 2.12 1 , 2 , 3

    . , , . , , . , , , .

  • 2

    27

    , ( ) . , . , . , , , , (. 2.13).

    . 2.13

    WDM 16- 32- . .

    , , , . , (), . , . , , , .

    . 2.14

    1 2 3 4

  • 2

    28

    , ( ), . .

    , . , , .

    , , / (. 2.15).

    . 2.15 /

    / . DWDM . (. 2.15, ). , (. 2.15, ). . , .

    - .

    , EDFA, .

  • 2

    29

    , , , . , (. 2.16).

    . 2.16

    , . , . . .

    , . , , . .

  • 2

    30

    . . , . .

    . , . , , , , DWDM.

    ( 100) AWG (Arrayed Waveguide Gratings), . 2.17.

    . 2.17 AWG

    , , . N , . N , , , . , .

    AWG , () (. 2.17) () . DWDM. , .

    AWG (DragonRouters), .

  • 2

    31

    FBT (Fused Biconic Tapered) , . , , . , , . , . , .

    (. 2.18), , -. . , . .

    . 2.18

    , ( ), . , .

    , , WDM DWDM - . , .

    2.5.9 /

    . , , . / OADM (Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer), , (. 2.19).

  • 2

    32

    . 2.19 /

    / , 2.5.8. , SDH WDM. /, .

    2.5.10

    , EDFA (Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier) . EDFA , , , (. 2.20). DWDM .

    . 2.20 EDFA

    EDFA , . . EDFA

    ,

    ,

    (

    0.1

    )

  • 2

    33

    1525 1565 . 40 DWDM.

    , , , , , . , EDFA "" , , ( ) . EDFA , ATM IP , . DWDM. , EDFA , ASE (Amplified Spontaneous Emission). EDFA . , . EDFA , ( ) ( ) . OC-48 (STM-16) DWDM , DWDM. DWDM .

    CATV, (""). FTTH (Fiber to the Home). CATV FTTB(Fiber to the Building) FTTC (Fiber to the Curb), . , CATV, / , . CATV , . .

    FTTH , , . . , CATV "", .

    EDFA 1570 1605 (L-). LWEDFA (Long WavelengthEDFA).

  • 2

    34

    EDFA (. 2.21). , . EDFA . , . EDFA, , .

    . 2.21 EDFA

    EDFA 980 1480 . , . . , EDFA 980 , 1480 , DWDM. , 1480 . , , , . EDFA , .

    0,2 / 1550 +16 , 80 0 (1 ) ( , . .). 0, 80 16 . - , , 80 . , , . 1310 , 1550 , , .

    1980- (Payne) (Laming) (University of Southampton) , . . :

  • 2

    35

    1550 .

    EDFA 1480 980 (.2.22).

    . 2.22 EDFA (DCD , dispersioncompensation device)

    (. 2.22-) . ( , . 2.23). (. 2.22-b) . , (, . 2.23).

    1480 , 980 . . 1480 , , 980 .

  • 2

    36

    EDFA , ( , . 2.23), +16 . ( , . 2.23) 5-6. EDFA (980 1480 ) +26 . ( ) : , ASE (Amplified Spontaneous Emission) .

    . 2.23. EDFA

    EDFA - (. 2.23).

    ( , . 2.23) () . .

    ( , . 2.23) . , , .

    ( , . 2.23) . . .

    EDFA (. 2.24).

  • 2

    37

    . 2.24. EDFA

    EDFA 1535 1540 1560 . 20 EDFA, DWDM.

    , EDFA 40 . , EDFA . LWEDFA, , 1610 . DWDM DWDM.

    EDFA , . ASE EDFA, . , , EDFA (. 2.22-d).

    EDFA . . , . 1525-1560 , , EDFA , (. .2.25).

  • 2

    38

    . 2.25- EDFA

    . 2.25-b EDFA

    EDFA . EDFA , .

    EDFA, . , , , .

    , . , PDFFA (Praseodymium Doped Fluoride-based Fiber Amplifier) 1310 . PDFFA , , EDFA. PDFFA , , EDFA. 1310 , 1550 , (. . 2.26), 1310 .

    , , , , . - . .

  • 2

    39

    , PDFFA .

    . 2.26.

    , . , TDFFA (ThuliumDoped Fluoride-based Fiber Amplifier) : 1460 1650 . , . .

    ( ) . . (Raman amplifiers) EDFA. ( 300 ), EDFA . , , DWDM , . , , . , , , .

    SOA (Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers). ( , , ). , , ( 5-6 , EDFA, ). , SOA

  • 2

    40

    , DWDM . , SOA .

    SOA, PDFFA, , .

    , . , . , , SOA .

    2.5.11

    , , - . , . , 1310 (G.652 ITU), . 1980- 80 . DWDM, , .

    G.652 1310 , 1550 (18/*). , EDFA (1550 ). , DWDM G.652 . , 1550 .

    (G.653 ITU), 1550. , 1310 , 1550 , . , DWDM. , - .

  • 2

    41

    DWDM. DWDM , - . FWM , 1550 . , FWM , DWDM , 1550 . , ITU.

    . 2.27.

    . 2.28.

    , FWM, , EDFA (1530-1565 ) (.2.28) (G.655 ITU). EDFA G.655 , ( 3 /* 1530 0,7 /* 1560 ). ,

  • 2

    42

    FWM 2,5 / 1000 . G.655 DWDM.

    FWM DWDM . , ITU.

    , , . , , , .

    2.6 WDM TDM

    WDM TDM . , , , , .

    2.6.1

    , TDM , . TDM - , . -. DAMA (Demand Assignment MultipleAccess). - . , ). , TDM , , - . TDM , .

    WDM , , TDM. WDM - , . WDM Ethernet (10/100/1000/), , . WDM -, TDM.

  • 2

    43

    2.6.2

    TDM . . , , -, , . , . , , , , .

    T/, 1 (1 /). , , TDM - . TDM - , - . , .

    WDM , TDM, , . , . , , WDM . TDM, , WDM . WDM , , .

    , DWDM, , TDM DWDM . DWDM , , . , , 4.

  • 2

    44

  • 3

    WDM

  • 3

    WDM

    46

    3.1

    DWDM, , - . DWDM . , -. DWDM .

    , - TDM, -, . 3.1.

    . 3.1 , TDM

    , , . , . PMD , ( ) , . , : , , RIN (Relative Intensity Noise) BER (Bit Error Rate).

    WDM, . 3.2.

    : , - EDFA, -. : () , , ( ). , : ASE, EDFA, , FWM ( ). , , --, . 3.2). WDM , , -

  • 3

    WDM

    47

    . , , WDM , .

    . 3.2 WDM - -

    , , WDM.

    3.2

    MUX , . 3.3. . 4 , 7 -, 13 16- .. , . DWDM .

    . 3.3 -

  • 3

    WDM

    48

    DEMUX . , -, , . , DEMUX , , MUX ( -). , . - . , DEMUX , . - .

    3.2.1

    / . - , . 3.4. :

    . 3.4 /

    1.

    - , -/. - : 2lowerupper + . , ( 3 ). - ..

    - ( ) . - , . - . . 3.5.

  • 3

    WDM

    49

    . 3.5 , -

    - . , ITU (. 2.2, 2).

    2.

    - WDM. -, . ITU 100 .

    , FWM, . -. , .

    3. 3 ( , 5,0 , 20 )

    ( , , , ), . , 3 FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum). . , .

    , -, . 3.6. ( 20 30 ) DWDM. , .

  • 3

    WDM

    50

    . 3.6

    . 3.7 -

    ( ) .

    - FOM (Figure of Merit), . . , , , -, .

    4. FEXT (Far-End Crosstalk)

    , - i . . ( - ) .

    - , . , - , . , . ( ) - . i i :

    )()(

    lg10minijout

    iiin

    iji PP

    Isolation

    =

    ,

    )( iiinP i , )( ijoutP i , j ( j i ).

  • 3

    WDM

    51

    , 30 , 30.

    - i :

    = ij

    ijoutiiini PPCrosstalk )()(lg10

    . 3.8 A, B C. B; B . B B, A. , . , ( ). - , , , - . AWG, .

    . 3.8 3-

    . 3.9 8- . , . , - , . , .

  • 3

    WDM

    52

    . 3.9 8-

    - WDM, . 25 . , . . , , - , .

    5. ( - , . 3.10)

    DWDM- . , -. - . - .

    . 3.10 . -

    , . 3.10. .

  • 3

    WDM

    53

    - . ( ) ( loss ). , , - DWDM-.

    6.

    /.

    3.2.2

    - . , - . - , .

    , - , , , , . , - , - , .

    , - . - , . . -, -. .

    , PDL

    , PDL (Polarization Dependent Loss) . (. 3.11) . ( ) , PDL , - .

  • 3

    WDM

    54

    . 3.11 -/

    PDL , , . PDL . PDL 0,1 .

    , , - (. 3.12), , PDL.

    . 3.12 -/

    PMD (Polarization Mode Dispersion) - - . - . , (. 3.13). , , PDL , , BER -, , CATV. PMD

  • 3

    WDM

    55

    , L , . - PMD ( ) -

    LKPMD PMD= ,

    PMDK PMD (/). PMDK PMD

    1 .

    - , , , -/. PMD ().

    . 3.13 PMD: ( ) -

    3.2.3

    IL (Insertion Loss) -

    ( )outin PPIL lg10= , inP outP . - . DWDM . , .

    DWDM- . . 3.14 DWDM . -

  • 3

    WDM

    56

    ITU, ( ), .

    . 3.14 /

    , - . , - . - . , , ITU .

    . - - . , . - .

    . . . , PDL, . - . - (, ). - . IL PDL .

    , , IL .

    3.2.4

  • 3

    WDM

    57

    (Directivity), - NEXT (Near-End Crosstalk), - (. 3.15). .

    . 3.15 1

    - . , .

    . . 3.15 . 1 , . ( ) . . - , -. i - :

    )()(

    lg10minijout

    iiin

    iji PP

    yDirectivit

    =

    ,

    )( iiinP i , i , )( ijoutP i ,

    j .

  • 3

    WDM

    58

    3.2.5

    (, - ) , - , - . - : - . . . . 75 1550 , . - (, .) , - .

    :

    .

    , DWDM, - , - / . .

    . - . - MPI (Multipath Interference).

    , EDFA , - - .

    55 - 50 .

    3.3

    , WDM - , - .

    3.3.1

    , , , . , , , . -

  • 3

    WDM

    59

    , . , . 3.16.

    .3.16

    - . , - , , . , - , .

    , , . ( , - ), , , . - , . - .

    , , - . 0 - . 1310 . .

    - . , , , , .. .

    WDM, -, (. ITU-T G.653). 0

  • 3

    WDM

    60

    0S , 0 , . 3.17. , 0 . 0S 0 .

    . 3.17 : 0 0S -

    chr ( ) -

    LDchr = )( ,

    )(D (/(*)) , L (). , .

    . 3.18 (1) (2) .

    . 3.18 ( .)

  • 3

    WDM

    61

    :

    ;

    (.. ).

    :

    ;

    .

    :

    ;

    .

    WDM (. ITU-T G.652) , 1550 .

    3.3.2

    . , . , - , . , - , . 3.19. , - , . , , . , , .. - , , .

    . 3.19 PMD -,

  • 3

    WDM

    62

    , .

    - - , , , . , - . , - ( -) . PMD , , - . ( .) , . - , - , .

    , ( , , - ).

    , , - PSP (Principal State of Polarization). , - . - DGD (Differential Group Delay), . PMD DGD - , . 3.20.

    . 3.20 DGD, , - PMD

    , PMD, , PMD - . - , , . 3.21. , -

  • 3

    WDM

    63

    , .

    . 3.21 (0, 1) ,

    PMD , . 3.22.

    . 3.22 PMD

    PMD , , . PMD , :

    21

    1

    2

    =

    =

    N

    nntotal PMDPMD

    , , 9 10 PMD 0,2 , PMD 2 , PMD 2,088 . . . , PMD, PMD.

  • 3

    WDM

    64

    PMD :

    ( );

    ( - );

    ( - ).

    PMD ( -, , , EDFA, 40 ). PMD , ( ). PMD , . -, , - PMD, , . 3.23.

    . 3.23 1 (- ) , -

    PMD WDM , . ITU-T G.652 ( 1980- 80 ). - , . ITU-T G.653, G.654 G.655, PMD .

    PMD, , ITU, . 3.24. PMD /.

  • 3 WDM

    65

    . 3.24 PMD

    PMD 99,994% - 0,1 - 1 (/)

    PMD () PMD 400 (/)

    2,5 40 2,0

    10 10 0,520 5 0,25

    40 2,5 0,125 . 3.25 PMD . - (.. ).

    . 3.25 , PMD

    , PMD , - . , PMD , . PMD - .3.3.3 PMD , - , - . 10 /, , . PMD - PMD . ( -

  • 3 WDM

    66

    ). , PMD - . PMD , , PMD . PMD . PMD . DGD PMD , . PMD - DGD . PMD - .

    . 3.26 PMD - (. ., DGD)

    3.3.4 ( ). -. . . . , - - - . - . , WDM c - . , - ( ) . -

  • 3 WDM

    67

    , - , .

    . 3.27

    , E - P , 2n - effA , :

    [ ]dztzPizEdzzE )2),(2(exp)()( ++=+ , , , , ))(2( 2 effAn . , , MFD (Mode Field diameter):

    2MFDAeff =

    (. ITU-T G.653) (. ITU-T G.655) effA 50-602, (. ITU-T G.652) 80 2. effL ( ~ effL1 ), , effA . -

    effL 20 .

    . ( - ) ( ).

    () ( ) . :

  • 3 WDM

    68

    ( );

    ( -).

    , , :

    Innn 20 += ,

    0n , 2n n2 - ((23)10-16 2/ ), I - . , ,: ;

    ; -

    . -

    - - , .. - , ., , () ( ). - , ., 1525 , - . ITU-T G.653, 10,7 (+0,085 ) 60 . . ITU-TG.652 11 (+0.088 ) 30 . SBMS , - 6 . - . (~50 ) 1 , (30-60 ).

  • 3 WDM

    69

    . 3.28 - 11 ()

    () ( - 10-12 /), -. . 1550 10 15 , 100 . ( 7 55 ). WDM - .

    .3.29 ()

    . (- ). , - . WDM , .

  • 3 WDM

    70

    : ; ( - ); . WDM .G.652 ( 1310 ) , 1550 (. ITU-T G.653) - (. ITU-T G.655). - . : ; ; .

    , - . CPM (Cross-Phase Modulation) , , . , , , CPM : ; ; WDM, .

    FWM (Four-Wave Mixing) - WDM. i , j , k

    kji . . -:

    2/)1(2 NN

    N , . , WDM 24 , 16- 1920!, . 3.30.

  • 3 WDM

    71

    .

    . 3.30.

    : ; ; ( ,

    ). , (. G.653). (. G.655), - . . : ; . DWDM, (. G.652) 1550 , - . - (. G.653) FWM .

  • 3 WDM

    72

    3.4 EDFA DWDM. EDFA - , . EDFA - . EDFA , . , - - - EDFA . - , , , . - . , , . , - . (. 3.31), , -. , , , , .

    . 3.31

    G ( ) outP inP , ASE (Amplified Spontaneous Emission)

    ( )[ ])(/)()(lg10 cincASEcout PPPG = )( coutP c ; )( cASEP ; )( cinP - .

  • 3 WDM

    73

    , . 3.32. - (, >30 EDFA < 20 ). . . 3 .

    . 3.32 EDFA

    ( EDFA >3 ) . , , ( 1). , ( 3 ) - . - , . DWDM- - . - , . . , . - , () , .

  • 3 WDM

    74

    - . PDG (Polarization Dependent Gain) . , , . EDFA - , , , - . , -. (. . 3.32). (, ) - , , , . , ( ), -. DWDM. . ( ) , - , /. .3.4.1 ASE. ASE - . - . ASE. - (.. -) , . - . , . 3.33.

  • 3 WDM

    75

    1N 3N , - 2N . ( 12 NN ) 1550 , .

    . 3.33 EDFA

    ( 10 )., - , . . EDFA (. 3.34) , - ( ) . () ASE. ASE .

    . 3.34 (z, z+z) - ASE

    , )(inN )(outN , ASE :

    ASEinout PGNN += )()(

    ASE . (. . 3.35).

  • 3 WDM

    76

    . 3.35 ASE 1

    3.4.2 -- NF (Noise Figure) / . - . / - , ASE, . / : ; - ( ); - ( ); ; ( ) . - , , , , - . , .. . N , 21N ( - ). ASE -- - (ASE-ASE , ), -

    1 , ( 0 3.35) - , , . , . . .

  • 3 WDM

    77

    . ASE , . - , . , - . EDFA ASE (-, 1 ) , , . 3.36. - .

    . 3.36 - ; ASE - ASE

    - (ASE- ) - ASE. ASE , , , . - - EDFA.- NF ( ), - , ASEP c ( . 3.37ASEP ), G

    B ( ) :

    =

    BhGPNFc

    cASE

    )()(

    lg10

    - - , - .

  • 3 WDM

    78

    . 3.37 - ASE

    3.4.3 MPI (MultiPath Interference) - EDFA, -. - - ( ), RIN , . EDFA - , -, .., MPI . - . . - . - MPI - :

    )()()( = inoutMPI SNRSNRNF ,

    , inSNR outSNR / . , . -, .. - , 3 - 980 .

    3.5 DWDM - . EDFA. , . - . WDM -. , -

  • 3 WDM

    79

    , . - .

    . 3.38 LED, - DFB-

    DWDM . - , , -/. , , . . (-) , , - DWDM. , . , - , -, ( ). - - . . , . - -, . , , -. , , ( , )

  • 3 WDM

    80

    . . . DFB- 0,1 / 0,01 /; 0,002 /, 0,001 /. -, 40 - . , EDFA . , , ( - ). . : - .3.5.1 . (). . , DWDM, - , , . , - BER - , . , , - . LED LD, - , - WDM. , 2,5/, ., , -, , . , , - , . , , .. .

  • 3 WDM

    81

    3.5.2 - . ( , - ) , . - , , . , . 2,5 / . (/) .3.5.3 , ITU. - , - , .

    3.6 , - - . BER, . BER, , , , .

    . 3.39 BER ( 10-9)

  • 3 WDM

    82

    , BER . , , , - . , , , - ( ), - .

    3.7 , - . , - . , - . , , (-) . ,. 3.40. - , .

    . 3.40

    - , - . , .

  • 3 WDM

    83

    3.8 . - . /. -, , , , - , : ; ; , ; ; ; ; .

    3.9 WDM , , EDFA, . , . , , , : ; ; ; , ; ; ; ; .

  • 3 WDM

    84

    3.10 , - , DFB-. - - . : , , -

    20 . - (), 3 .

    ( 1 ), 35 () 60 () - .

    PMD. - , PMD( 50 100 ). , PMD, , - .

    , PDL, .

    ( , - ).

    , DWDM, DWDM, , . - , , . . , - , . , .

  • 4

  • 4

    86

    4.1 , - , . - , DWDM , . , - DWDM. DWDM : ( ); ( ); - (, ); ( ,

    ); ; /; -; ; . DWDM -, , .

    . 4.1

    , , . -

  • 4

    87

    , - , . 4.1. , . , - , . -, , , .

    4.2 , . , . - - , , , 40 . , . , -, ( , LED ASE) , WDM. , . ASE -. , . ECL (External Cavity Laser). (- ) , 120 . ECL , - . -, . ECL . - , , - EDFA . , ECL ( -65 ).

  • 4

    88

    , -, . 4.2.

    . 4.2

    4.3 WDM . - - , ., , - . , , . , .4.3.1 -, . . ( InGaAs). . ( ) , - , .4.3.2 . 4.3 (a, b, c) , - .

    0

    900700 800 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800

  • 4

    89

    . (- ), - . , - , () .

    . 4.3, a. - .

    (. 4.3, b) , . , , . .

    . 4.3, b.

    (. 4.03, c) , - . - ( ).

  • 4

    90

    . 4.03, c. -,

    : -

    . -, , , , - 50 .

    -.

    RBW (Resolution Bandwidth) , - DWDM. RBW - .

    . , -, , . OSA, , . - DWDM. - : . . - OSA . - . (, ECL ) - . , OSA, - ,

  • 4

    91

    , OSA . , ( , ). , , .4.3.3 . , , . 4.3, a. - - . , - . , . OSA, . -, , - ( ) , OSA ( OSA ). , . - , - - (He-Ne). , (-, 0,005 ), - , , 80- WDM. ( 30 ), - DWDM, . , - - OSA. , .

  • 4

    92

    4.4 - DWDM , . 4.4. - () .

    . 4.4 OSA

    . -/ , , , - . , - .4.4.1 / DWDM, , , , , , . -/ ( - ).

    . 4.5 -/. / ASE, . , OSA, - . , - OSA.

  • 4

    93

    (OSA RBW) -. -, 1xN. - .

    . 4.5 ASE - OSA ( )

    PDL

    OSA , (PDL). . - PDL. - . , .

    . 4.6 PDL

    PDL -, OSA , .4.6. - . OSA - , .

  • 4

    94

    , PDL 2-5 . DWDM (, ) PDL . - - .

    . 4.7 PDL -

    PDL DWDM , - PDL, - . PDL , . PDL -

    S . ( 3210 ,,, SSSS ) , - ,. 4.8.

    . 4.8

  • 4

    95

    DWDM . 44 M :

    MSS =

    S , S . - PDL - . ( 0, 90, 45, ) () . . - (transmission coefficient) ( ). PDL( ) :

    ( )maxminlg10 TTPDL = . - , PDL . - . - ( 4.5), . 4.9.

    . 4.9 -

  • 4

    96

    - PDBW(Polarization Dependent Bandwidth). ,. 4.10.

    . 4.10

    minmax BWBWPDBW =

    PDBW . - . PDCW(Polarization Dependent Central Wavelength) - , . 4.11. PDCW (1 ), - DWDM.

    . 4.11

    DWDM, ASE, - , - .

  • 4

    97

    ( ) OSA /. - , . , - , 0,001 , . 4.12, a. , ; , OSA , . 4.12, b. .

    . 4.12 :) OSA b)

    ORL (Optical Return Loss) , , OCWR (Optical Continuous Wave Reflectometer). - - ; . , , ORL. , - ORL 70 .ORL . , - , ( ASE); OSA , . 4.13. - - OSA ORL 40 .

  • 4

    98

    . 4.13 ORL

    , . - . . 4.14 .

    . 4.14 , ASE OSA,

    (, - 0,1 ), , OSA, . 4.15. - ( 0,01 ) - . (~ 100).

  • 4

    99

    . 4.15 -

    -, . , . 4.16, - TLS (Tunable Laser Source). - , . , . (. ), .

    . 4.16 PDL

    - , - ( ) , . TLS (, ) 65 . , ORL PDL .

  • 4

    100

    -.

    PMD : JME (Jones Matrix Eigenanalysis), PSA (Poincar Sphere Analysis), WSFA (Wavelength-Scanning/Fixed-Analyzer) - IM (Interferometric Method). JME PSA - () DGD . IM WSFA PMD . (, - ), , - PMD .4.4.2 , -, . 4.17.

    . 4.17

    . , - . , - . , , . , , .

  • 4

    101

    4.4.3 WDM, - (, , ) -. . . 4.18 - - . - 41 .

    . 4.18

    :1. ,

    , .2. . -

    , . - , , - , .

    3. (L-I) , , - ( ). .

    PDL (. 2) , ITU-T, - ( ). - ( ).

  • 4

    102

    -, ITU. - .4.4.4 - , . p-i-n - , , . , ( -, - ), , . . 4.19 . .

    . 4.19 -

    4.4.5 EDFA , EDFA, DWDM, . , . -, , . . , , . 4.20.

    . 4.20

  • 4

    103

    EDFA, / . - EDFA ( ), PMD, PDL PDG (Polarization Dependent Gain). EDFA, - . EDFA ( InGaAs Ge ), - +25 . 1550 , - . . 30 , - , , - 3 . , . - , , . -. , , . EDFA , OSA . , , . , , - . , EDFA , .. . - (LED ASE ) OSA. - , . . 4.21.

    . 4.21

  • 4

    104

    EDFA , -, . - ORL . EDFA, , . 4.22,.

    . 4.22 ORL

    (, ASE), OSA 21 , . 4.22, b. EDFA, , , EDFA. EDFA . EDFA , , EDFA , - . , . , , . . 4.23 . , - , , , . - . OSA. - EDFA . : , . EDFA. , - : ,

  • 4

    105

    . , : , , . - EDFA, - .

    . 4.23 OSA EDFA

    , . 4.24, EDFA .

    . 4.24 , EDFA

    , ( - 4% 13.9 ), (EDFA) , , . / 1 .- EDFA , : - . -

  • 4

    106

    - , , (ASE), . - , , , . . : , (Time-domain Extinction). . . ASE ASE , . 4.25.

    . 4.25 - EDFA

    ASE , ASE , - -. , -, , . ASE , , :

    SSEASEtotsASEamp PGPP = )(

    ASEampP ASE s , ASEtotP () ASE, G EDFA SSEP ASE .

    , , - . SSE (Source SpontaneousEmission), - . , -

  • 4

    107

    , ASE EDFA , . , SSE , , . - ; - (ASE) , . 4.26.

    . 4.26 - EDFA

    SSE - ASE. , , PMD. , , - , EDFA, . ASE . , -, ASE , . 4.27.

    . 4.27 - EDFA

    (~ 10 ), . , , -, .

  • 4

    108

    - EDFA; . , - RIN (Relative Intensity Noise), - , . 4.28.

    . 4.28 (RIN)

    RIN - - . , , , - -, - ESA (Electrical Spectrum Analyzer), . 4.29.

    . 4.29 RIN - EDFA

    - , , - RIN, . 4.30. RIN MPI (Multipath Interference), . , - . RIN ,

  • 4

    109

    .

    . 4.30 RIN EDFA

    PMD, , EDFA, . - LED 1531 ,. 4.31. MPI, - - ( ).

    . 4.31 PMD, , - PMD

    MPI - . ( -) MPI. , , , - -. EDFA MPI , , - . - . (0 ) .

  • 4

    110

    PDG (Polarization Dependent Gain) PDL ( -) , . 4.32. .

    . 4.32 EDFA

    EDFA : - . - , , , 4.33.

    . 4.33 2x2

    4.4.6 /, , , , - . - , . 4.34. ASE . 7-8 . - .

  • 4

    111

    . 4.34 -

    4.4.7 , - , ASE, - . . , , - . , -, ASE OSA. PDL , 1550 ( DWDM), , . 4.35.

    . 4.35 PDL

    , , , - . - , , , PMD. -, - . PMD /, . 4.36.

  • 4

    112

    . 4.36 PMD

    - , , .4.37.

    . 4.37 PDL

    4.4.8

    , , (). , 1550 , . 4.38.

    . 4.38

    . , . , - . ,

  • 4

    113

    . , .

    PMD , . -. : . - , : - (JME) (PSA). PMD: - DGD. , - JME.

    , . 4.39.

    . 4.39

    . . - , . , - ,. 4.40.

  • 4

    114

    . 4.40

    . - PMD. - PMD ( ). : PMD

    . . , -

    , - .

    .

    , .

    - .

    .

    PMD , - -, . 4.41. , ( DWDM 1550 ), PMD . - PMD , -. , . OSA.

  • 4

    115

    . 4.41 PMD

    PMD . , , . , . / , , . , . , . . - , , . PMD , . , - PMD . , (- ). , , 5C.PMD . . . , () , -, , . 4.42. , PMD - -. . PMD

  • 4

    116

    / /. PMD , : , .

    . 4.42 PMD

    , PMD . ( ) (. 4.43):

    >=< 43

    >< PMD - , , .

    . 4.43 PMD ,

    - , - L>< / /. , -. . -

  • 4

    117

    , / PMD1 , 5 10%. PMD 0.1 - 20-25%. - PMD. PMD . PMD - ( ) , .PMD ( 2PMD ), PMD , :

    3/)(2 2212 = PMDcPMD

    1PMD PMD , c ., PMD 0,5 / - 0,15 /(). PMD

    . -

    . . . . .

    PMD , , PMD. PMD , - , PMD. : JME PSA. - WDM . (-) .

  • 4

    118

    JME , - PSA . EXFO PSA - , JME. , , , - . , - DGD ( ). JME , , PSA ( EXFO) . , / . . (.. ) . . , .. , . DGD ( ) , , . DGD , . - - ( ) ( ) , . 4.44. , .

    . 4.44 DGD , JME PSA (-)

    PMD DGD .

  • 4

    119

    . PMD /

    / DGD (~0.01 ) - .

    .

    .

    -. ,

    . ( )

    . PMD

    ( ) . -. PMD PDL . ,

    - .

    JME, - -. ., PSA - . . - DGD PSA , . - PMD -, .

    4.5 - , , -, . DWDM-.

  • 4

    120

    () , - . , . - , 60 . - . : , , , , , , , - , PDL. PDL - . - PDL . () . , - 32, 64 - . -. - . , , , /, (-) , DWDM-. : . ,

    , . - .

    . - . ( -) ASE.

    WRM (Wavelength Reference Module). . : , , -, ORL.

    . , WRM. , - WRM. -

  • 4

    121

    . - OSA.

    (PSA). PSA - (SOP). SOP , , PDL - . , PDL, .

    . PDL . , .

    . . , , . - .txt , . - , , - , , .

    4.6 -, , : , , . - . -.- , -, - , . . . - : , , - - . - (, -), . , .

  • 4

    122

    EDFA, , . , -. , -, . , , (, - ). , - , - , ASE, . - . -: OSA, . EDFA . , WDM, , . , , - - , , . , - , , . - . , , . . / - , .

  • 4

    123

    4.7 , - . -, . , , , . , , . - . DWDM .4.7.1 Optical Loss Test Set (OLTS), DWDM, 1525 1565 . , , . OSC (Optical Supervisory Channel): 1480 , 1510 1625 , - . - DFB . 1625 , - , . , .4.7.2 (OTDR) - 1625 1. 1625 , - . , - 1625 , DWDM EDFA . , - 1625 , DWDM . - 1625 , , -, - , . 4.45.

    1 , ITU 5- L- (Long) 1565-1625 , 6- U- (Ultra-long) 1625-1675 . (. .)

  • 4

    124

    . 4.45

    4.7.3 ORL . WDM . : , , , . ,, /, ORL . - , , , . DFB-, . , - ORL . - . . : ORL . ORL , , - . -, . , ( 0,1 ) / ORL. - OSA -. ORL: , ,. 4.46.

  • 4

    125

    . 4.46 ORL

    4.7.4 PMD , PMD - , . , , , , . PMD . , , PMD . , - DGD, PMD, PMD . - /, BER. PMD . , PMD , , . , - , . . -, - . -, - , / . :

  • 4

    126

    PMD :

    ( ) 21222121 PMDPMDPMD +=+ 21+PMD PMD , 1PMD 2PMD - - PMD ., PMD 40 2,5 (0,4 /). 40- , PMD 1,5 (0,24 /), 3 (0,47 /), 80 3,35 (0,37 /). , , , - ., PMD 2 (0,32 /), - 4 (0,63/1/2), 80 4.47 (0,50 /), -, . , - . : , , ., PMD - , 10 / . PMD - , - , , , PMD. EDFA , - , PMD. PMD . ; - . - , PMD . . DWDM . . , , , . , , (, PDL). - , - , , . - , , .

  • 5

    , WDM

  • 5, WDM

    128

    WDM . WDM . , , . WDM. WDM . , , , , . . , . WDM, , , . , , WDM, , , WDM.

    5.1. WDM . , WDM , . , , , , . WDM : . , . , . . . , 40 2,5 / (STM-16) 100 /. . ITU-T 100 ( 0,8

  • 5, WDM

    129

    ). 50 ( 0,4 ) 25 . () 2,5 / (STM-16) 10 / (STM-64). . EDFA. EDFA ( 40 ) 30-40 . . , , . WDM, .5.1.1 BER (Bit Error Rate), 103 1012 . , BER. WDM BER . - , . 5.1. , ?

    . 5.1 -

    , . , BER. , , .

  • 5, WDM

    130

    . 5.1.. 5.1 -

    (P1)

    3

    -5 , ..

    -

    -1 ST-,

    -0,25 -20

    -1 ST-,

    () -27,25

    , (P2=P1-)

    -24,25

    (N) -40

    (P2-N)

    15,75

    , , , , BER. , . 15,75 . 10 . , - ; , . , , . . BER . 5.2.

  • 5, WDM

    131

    . 5.2 BER

    5.1.2 . . ,, . . . .5.1.3 - , . , - , . , . . , . , DWDM, . , / . EDFA . .

  • 5, WDM

    132

    . ORL (Optical Return Loss) - , . :

    )/lg(10 refin PPORL = inP , refP . ORL . , ., , 1 , 1 , 30 . ORL ,, . (, . .)

    )/lg(10 inref PPK = refP , ( !), inP . , , , . , , . , , 1 , 1 , 30 . , , .5.1.4 / BER , , WDM, /. / OSNR (Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio) WDM . OSNR, .

  • 5, WDM

    133

    , BER / OSNR . OSNR BER. , OSNR, , BER. WDM OSNR. OSNR . 5.3. 40 . OSNR. OSNR , EDFA . EDFA OSNR 3-7 . OSNR 20 .

    . 5.3. . SNR .

    . , ( , ), EDFA . - ASE (Amplified Spontaneous Emission) EDFA. , EDFA , , . , . ASE / , . - , , ,, .

  • 5, WDM

    134

    OSNR () WDM . . 5.3, :

    [ ])/lg(10)/lg(10min rmiii BBNPOSNR +=: iP i - , rB ( ), 0,1 , iN ( ) mB i - :

    2)]()([ ++= iii NNN

    , . / . . / , .5.1.5 . EDFA , , . 5.4. / , . . , . .

    . 5.4. EDFA

  • 5, WDM

    135

    5.1.6 . . , , . . , , . 5.5.

    . 5.5 50

    DWDM , , . 100 ( 0,8 ). , . DWDM 50 . DWDM . DFB (Distributed Feedback), , . DWDM. , DWDM. SDH , . DWDM SDH. DFB ( ,

  • 5, WDM

    136

    DWDM ). STM-16 DFB.5.1.7 . - . . 5.6 , 12 . , .

    . 5.6

    , . , . , .5.1.8 . . (, , ) . 4.4.1. , . 25 , . 5.7. 17 , 13 .

  • 5, WDM

    137

    . 5.7 ( )

    , , . , . , .5.1.9 , , . , 3.3.4. , .5.1.10 FWM, - . , , . 5.8.

    . 5.8. -

  • 5, WDM

    138

    FWM , . FWM , . FWM , . , , . , .5.1.11 , , PMD (Polarization Mode Dispersion) : - , , , .5.9. , PMD :

    >

  • 5, WDM

    139

    ( L >> cL ), . PMD :

    LKPMD PMD=

    PMDK PMD, /. PMD PMD 1 . PMD , 80- . , , PMD . , , . PMD. , 80- , , STM-64.5.1.12 , . . , , .5.1.12 WDM - , : , :

    (); ();

    , : (); (); ();

    , : DGD (); , PDL ();

    / (), , WDM;

    3 4.

  • 5, WDM

    140

    5.2. WDM WDM . WDM , . , WDM. , . SDH , , WDM, . , . /, , , WDM. - , . WDM , ,, , . : ; ( ); ; ; .5.2.1 - WDM. , . 1310 1550 , . . ( , ),

  • 5, WDM

    141

    . (STM-64), , , - .5.2.2 - , . - , .. . , , . , , . , , , . / OSNR . OSNR DWDM OSA, OSNR . WDM , , , . , , . , , , /, , , , , , , () . 5.3.

  • 5, WDM

    142

    5.2.3 , . , , / . WDM , , . () WDM (/) () (/), DCC (Data Communications Channel), LAN (Local Area Network) OSC (OpticalSupervisory Channel). , , 5.4. . , , . . , . RFTS (Remote Fiber Test System), 5.5.5.2.4 , , . , . , (, , ) . (ITU ) , , , , .5.2.5 . WDM -, SDH. , / OADM,

  • 5, WDM

    143

    . , , -, . , , . . , , . WDM - . . WDM / , . , , , .

    5.3 WDM , , . , WDM . . . , . , .. . , , . , , WDM.5.3.1 , OSA , . 5.10. : XY .

  • 5, WDM

    144

    MWM (Multiwavelength Meter) ITU.

    . 5.10.

    5.3.2 BER. BER, , . 5.11. ITU, .

    . 5.11 BER

    . OSA ,.5.12, 5.13.

  • 5, WDM

    145

    . 5.12 OSA .

    . 5.13 (/-) Siemens.( Siemens)

    5.3.3 EDFA , . 1550 , .5.14.

    . 5.14 EDFA

    , 1550 1 . EDFA 3 . OSA, . 5.15. EDFA 32 ( 1530 1562 ). EDFA.

  • 5, WDM

    146

    OSA ( 980 , 1480 ).

    . 5.15 OSA

    ASE (Amplified Spontaneous Emission) . . ( : / /0,1 ).5.3.4 . . , . , . BER EDFA. BER, .5. 16. ( ). OSA. 3 , .

  • 5, WDM

    147

    . 5.16. BER WDM ,

    . 20 , . 5.17.

    . 5.17.

    . , , ( ) OSA, , . 5.18. , .

  • 5, WDM

    148

    . 5.18 :) OSA ;b)

    . . OSA ( OSA), . 5.19. ITU. ( 3 ) 0,2 .

    . 5.19 :) ASE OSA ;) OSA

    . OSA, . 5.20.

  • 5, WDM

    149

    . 5.20 OSA

    5.3.5 , . . DWDM , . DWDM / OSNR. OSA , . 5.21.

    . 5.21 OSA

  • 5, WDM

    150

    -, OSA OSNR . / ( ), . 18 .-, / . 2,5 / 21 . , . 5.22. . OSA ( ). OSNR ( 28 0,1 ), 2 .

    . 5.22. OSA OSNR

    BER . BER (15 ) , , 50 25 . BER , BER (1012 25 ). BER BER (15 ). 24 , . OSNR .

  • 5, WDM

    151

    - . . ( ) MWM. 50 5 . . BER , . , 1 . , . . BER WDM , , . 5.23.

    . 5.23.

    5.3.6 , . . , . , . , , , .

  • 5, WDM

    152

    , TEC (Thermo-Electric Cooler), . EDFA. , EDFA. . ( , , ). , - . , , - , . . EDFA. , ( ) .

    5.4 WDM DWDM 90- , . , , WDM, , . 5.24. BER - DFB-, EDFA, EDFA . . , . , , . , .

  • 5, WDM

    153

    . 5.24 ,

    5.4.1 / OSNR / OSNR. , , . OSNR OSA. OSNR ( , ) . /.5.4.2 WDM . OSA., MWM. . , , ,

    ; . OSA, . . RFTS.

  • 5, WDM

    154

    5.4.3 PMD - , . , PMD .5.4.4 , . . DWDM , . , , , BER.5.4.5 ( DWDM EDFA) - . . OSA, . EDFA, , . OSNR . .5.4.6 MWM, . DWDM 0,005 . MWM (30-40 ). , MWM OSA.

  • 5, WDM

    155

    MWM .5.4.7 , OSA . , . , .

    5.5 WDM WDM . , , , . , . DWDM, , , , .. , . , .5.5.1 . OSC (Optical Supervisory Channel). OSC , , . OSC , , . OSC, , EDFA. OSC : , . OSC , . . OSC , . OSC , .

  • 5, WDM

    156

    OSC - ; . OSC 1510 1625 , EDFA , . 1510 , OSC 1480 1310 ( ). OSC - , . , OTDR. OTDR . OSC, EDFA. . DWDM. OSC, EDFA. SONET/SDH . EDFA , . RTU (Remote Test Unit) RFTS (Remote Fiber Test System) .5.5.2 RFTS . , MWM OSA. PMD, OTDR . RFTS . RFTS . , , . 5.25. RFTS , . : (

    ).

  • 5, WDM

    157

    ( DWDM (STM-16 STM-64) ).

    .

    - , DWDM, RFTS . , ( SDH). ( 120 ), .

    . 5.25 RFTS

    DWDM . DWDM . WDM , DWDM . RFTS , .

  • 5, WDM

    158

    OTDR , OSA DWDM. OSNR, . , , DWDM OSA , - EDFA.

    DWDM . DFB- , ( ) . (0,1-0,2 ) DWDM . 0,02 . MWM RFTS 0,003 , DFB- . PMD STM-64

    . - PMD STM-64. PMD . RFTS PMD. PMD , DGD . DGD . - . , RFTS. RFTS , .

  • 5, WDM

    159

    5.5.3 . . , , . . . 5.26 .

    . 5.26 1.

    . , - . MWM OSNR , . 5.27. BER (, 1013) /OSNR 18 ( OSNR 22 ). , 8 . ( MWM).

    . 5.27 OSNR

  • 5, WDM

    160

    2. , , . 5.28. 5 2 . , .

    . 5.28. OSNR 3. ,

    (), , . 5.29.

    . 5.29. DFB- WDM

  • 5, WDM

    161

    4. EDFA. . 3 , . 5.30

    . 5.30. EDFA ( )5. (SDH, SONET, IP .)

    . BER 20 . : .

    , , DWDM . , . , , - , . , .

  • 5, WDM

    162

  • 6

    DWDM

  • 6 DWDM

    164

    6.1 ? , - . , - , -. . , - . -, , . - - ; . - , . , - , -, , , , . SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) . , . SONET SDH - .

    6.2 ? . ITU (InternationalTelecommunication Union), , IEC (InternationalElectrotechnical Commission), . - . - , - TIA (Telecommunications IndustryAssociation) , ETSI (European Telecommunication Standard Institute) TTC - (. . 6.1).

  • 6 DWDM

    165

    . 6.1 ,

    ITU IEC ETSI CENELEC TTC JISC

    EIA/TIA -. , , - . , . , -. , - , .

    6.3 , DWDM DWDM - , . , -- , TIA (TelcordiaTechnologies ( Bellcore)) IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). - : IEC ITU. - ().6.3.1 ITU ITU , - . ITU . ITU ITU-R, - ITU-T ITU-D. ITU-T - . , . ITU-T - SG (Study Group), - ITU. - ITU WTSC

  • 6 DWDM

    166

    (World Telecommunication Standardization Conference) - , . ITU , , - . SG 15 ITU-T

    ITU-T , . , SG 15 ( , ), DWDM. SG 15 - , , . , SG 15 - IP(Internet Protocol). , ITU-T , , - . SG 15 345 26 78 . - ITU-T. SG 15 89 ( ) , : (xDSL); ( , GSTN, IP); SDH/SONET (, , , IP

    SDH/SONET);

    ATM ( IP ATM); (, , ,

    , IP ); (, ,

    , , IP).

    SG 15 WP (Working Party): (Network Access), (Network Signal Processing), - (Multiplexing) (Switching and Transmission). - WP 4/15, , , ,, . - WP 4/15:

  • 6 DWDM

    167

    - ; -

    ; - ITU-T; IP WDM. WP4/15 DWDM , : ;

    ; ; ;

    ; - ; ,

    SDH;

    ;

    SDH - (.G.692);

    ;

    . , -. -. WP 4/15 , , , . WP 4/15 - , - . , ., - - IP (Internet Protocol) - . WP 4/15 , ( -, ) IP WDM. ,

  • 6 DWDM

    168

    , . WP 4/15 - WDM. WP 4/15 50 , 100 , - ( 128 ) - ( ). WP 4/15 TDM 10 /, WDM. , TDM 40 /. , WP 4/15 1620-1660 , RFTS (. 5.5.2).6.3.2 IEC ITU, - ( -, , ..), - IEC . IEC , -, , , . 50 IEC. (National Committees). - , . . - IEC . - , IEC - . IEC , - IEC. IEC - , - ISO (International Organization for Standardization)ITU, WTO (World Trade Organization), - CENELEC (EuropeanCommittee for Electrotechnical Standardization). - TIA IEC.

  • 6 DWDM

    169

    IEC (IEC Council), - , 200 TC (TechnicalCommittee) SC (SubCommittee) 700 WG (WorkGroup). 10 000 , . - IEC , - IEC. TC , - . TC 86 - , . TC 86 . 6.2.. 6.2 IEC TC 86

    IEC 86: ITU (ITU-T) IEC 100 D ( ) (WG)WG 1: WG 4: - WG7: / - ( ) (S)SC 86 A: WG 1: WG 3: SC 86 B: - -WG 4: WG 6: WG 7: SC 86 C: - WG 1: WG 2: WG 3: , , , -. , TC 86IEC ITU . , TC 86 IEC,

  • 6 DWDM

    170

    ITU , PMD (Polarization Mode Dispersion), WDM, , - . ITU PMD TC 86 ., TC 86 IEC 61282-3 PMD - . - PMD (IEC 61941), PMD - . PMD . , PMD , PMD , PMD . SB 4 (Sector Board), - , WDM. , SB 4 , : ; DWDM ; xDSL ; ; ,

    ADSL;

    . ( ) DWDM. IEC 61074 IEC SC 86B . ITU-T . IEC 61291-1. ( IEC61291-4) . - : , . IEC 61291-4 - , , . IEC 61291-4 - , -, ( , , ..).

  • 6 DWDM

    171

    :1. (IEC 61290-1):

    a) -;

    b) (- , );

    c) -;

    d) ;e) , .

    2. (IEC 61290-2):a) ;b) ;c) ;d) ;e) ;f) .

    -:1. ( ) ( )

    , - EDFA; IEC 61290-3-1 ( OSA ) IEC 61290-3-2 ( ESA - RIN (Relative Intensity Noise)) IEC 61290-10-2 ( OSA).

    2. , - , . IEC 61290-4-1 ( ).

    3. , EDFA. IEC 61290-5-1 ( OSA), - IEC 61290-5-2 ( ESA), IEC 61290-5-3 ( -).

    4. , - . IEC 61290-6-1 (- ).

  • 6 DWDM

    172

    5. , . IEC61290-7-1 ( ).

    IEC SC 86C - , , , - . , , IEC 61290-1-3 - , - , OSA. - , , OSA. - , . IEC 60793-1-x .6.3.3 TIA - TIA(Telecommunications Industry Association). TIA , - : FO-2.0 ( ), , FO-6.0 (- ), . , WDM : FO-2.1.1 (, ), FO-2.1.2 ( ), FO-6.3.5 ( - ) FO-6.6.5 ( ). TIA - ANSI(American National Standards Institute). . TIA ITU IEC, TIA . FO-2.1.1 , , , , . FO-2.1.2 - / OSA , / - (OFSTP-6, Optical Fiber Standard Test Procedure). OSA -

  • 6 DWDM

    173

    0,1 . , 10 / - 0,2 , 2,5 / - 0,09. FO-6.3.5 - PMD , PDL, , WDM. FO-6.6.5 , -, -, PMD .. 6.3. TIAFO-2.1

    FO-2.1.1 ,

    -

    FO-2.1.2

    FO 2.2 -

    FO-2.2.1

    FO-2.3 ,

    FO-2.4 -, ,

    FO-2.5 -

    FO-2.6 -- -

    FO-6.1 -

    FO-6.1.1

    FO-6.3 FO-6.3.1

    FO-6.3.3 -

    ()FO-6.3.4 -

    FO-6.3.5 -

    FO-6.3.6 FO-6.3.8 -

    FO-6.3.10 FO-6.6 FO-6.6.1

    FO-6.6.2

    FO-6.6.3 FO-6.6.5

    FO-6.6.6 -

    FO-6.6.7 FO-6.6.8

    FO-6.6.9

    FO-6.7 - FO-6.7.1 FO-6.7.10 -

    - FO-6.7.14 FO-6.7.15 IEC

    /.FO-6.7.16

    FO-6.7.17

    FO-6.8

    FO-6.9 - FO-6.9.3/6.6.3 FO-6.9.4 PN -

  • 6 DWDM

    174

    6.4 ITU-T IEC. : ITU ( -

    ); ITU 100 50 25 ; DWDM (1528-

    1602 ); ( ) 128 256 ; 22 25 ;

    - 40-80 ; ITU ,

    ; +17 IIIb

    ( , 1 , IV ,


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