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06 basic cooking principles

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Methods of heat transfer
  • 1. Basic Cooking Principles Chef Mehernosh Dhanda2/8/2013 BAC 101 Culinary Foundation Level 11

2. Scope After this session you will be able to: Know what is heat How heat is transferred to foods What is the effect of heat on different constituents of food2/8/2013BAC 101 Culinary Foundation Level 12 3. What is Heat? Heat is a type of energy. When the food item is heated, the molecules absorb this energy they vibrate rapidly, expand & bounce off each other causing the transmission of heat. The faster the molecules move, the higher is the temperature.2/8/2013BAC 101 Culinary Foundation Level 1 3 4. Heat TransferTransmission of heat occurs by: Conduction Convection Natural Mechanical Radiation Infrared Microwave Induction2/8/2013BAC 101 Culinary Foundation Level 1 4 5. Conduction The movement of heat from one item to another with direct contact.2/8/2013 BAC 101 Culinary Foundation Level 15 6. Convection The transfer of heat through a medium (liquid/ gaseous) There are two types of convection, namely Natural Mechanical2/8/2013 BAC 101 Culinary Foundation Level 1 6 7. Natural convection Natural convection occurs due to the tendency of warm liquids/gasses to rise upwards while cooler ones fall2/8/2013 BAC 101 Culinary Foundation Level 17 8. Mechanical convection Mechanical convection requires a fan or stirring action to circulate heat quickly & evenly.2/8/2013 BAC 101 Culinary Foundation Level 1 8 9. Radiation Radiation method does not require physical contact between the heat source & the food, instead the heat energy is transferred by waves of heat or light which strike the food There are two types of radiation heat transfer, namely Infrared Microwave2/8/2013 BAC 101 Culinary Foundation Level 1 9 10. Infrared radiation Infrared radiation uses high temperature electric/heat sources which transfer the energy as radiant heat to the food. Eg: The coils of an electric toaster2/8/2013 BAC 101 Culinary Foundation Level 110 11. Microwave radiation Microwave radiation uses high frequency waveswhich penetrate inside the food & agitate the watermolecules , causing friction which in turn increasesthe temperature & results in cooking2/8/2013 BAC 101 Culinary Foundation Level 1 11 12. Induction Induction heating is theprocess of heating anelectrically conducting object(usually a metal)by electromagneticinduction Heat is generated directly inthe pot or pan (cookingvessel), as opposed to beinggenerated in the stovetop byelectrical coils or burning gas2/8/2013BAC 101 Culinary Foundation Level 1 12 13. Effects of Heat on Foods Carbohydrates Fruit and vegetable fiber Proteins Fats Minerals, vitamins, pigment, and flavor components Water2/8/2013BAC 101 Culinary Foundation Level 1 13 14. Proteins coagulate Starches gelatinize Sugars caramelize Water evaporates Fats melt Fiber is softened Vitamins and pigments can be destroyed2/8/2013BAC 101 Culinary Foundation Level 1 14 15. Cooking Times Consider: The cooking temperature The different speeds of heat transfer The size, temperature, and individual characteristics ofthe food2/8/2013 BAC 101 Culinary Foundation Level 1 15 16. Group assignment Prepare a word document of 500 words on any of the following topics:1. Green fuels/Eco friendly fuels for commercial food preparation (e.g. Solar cooking)2. Conserving energy costs in a commercial hotel kitchen2/8/2013BAC 101 Culinary Foundation Level 116 17. Thank You Sir, didnt you have a full-faced beard 3 seconds ago?2/8/2013 BAC 101 Culinary Foundation Level 1 17

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