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1 The Chemistry of Acids and Bases Chapter 16. 2 Some Properties of Acids þ Produce H + ions in...

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The Chemistry of Acids and BasesChapter 16
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Taste sour
Corrode metals
pH is less than 7
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Taste bitter, chalky
pH greater than 7
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ACIDS
HCl
HBr
HI
HNO3
H2SO4
HClO3
HClO4
BASES
LiOH
NaOH
KOH
RbOH
CsOH
Sr(OH)2
Ba(OH)2
Arrhenius acid is a substance that produces H+ in water
Arrhenius base is a substance that produces OH- in water
HCl H+ + Cl-
NaOH Na+ + OH-
Acid/Base theories
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Acid/Base theories
#2: Brønsted – Lowry – describes acids and bases in terms of protons
Acids – proton donor
Bases – proton acceptor
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The Brønsted – Lowry Theory
When an acid dissolves in water the hydrogen ion leaves the acid and bonds to the water molecule, forming hydronium ion (H3O+)
HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl-
When a base dissolves in water, a hydrogen leaves from water and bonds to the base, leaving hydroxide ion (OH-)
NH3 + H2O ↔ NH4+ + OH-
(part of the Brønsted – Lowry Theory)
Conjugate Acid- is the species produced when a base accepts a hydrogen ion from an acid.
Conjugate Base- is a species that results when an acid donates a hydrogen ion to form a base.
Conjugate Acid-Base Pair- consists of two substances related to each other by the donating and accepting of a single hydrogen ion.
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How to identify conjugate acid – base pairs:
An acid’s formula begins with an ionizable hydrogen (HA)
Its conjugate base is the particle formed after the hydrogen ion leaves (A-)
A base accepts the hydrogen ion from the acid
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Try to identify acid, base, conjugate acid and conjugate base
NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) NH3(aq) + H2O (l)
CH3NH2 + H2O CH3NH3+ + OH-
pH
The pH of a solution is a measure of the hydronium ion concentration in that solution
The formula for calculating pH is:
pH = -log [H3O+]
*** For ALL strong acids, the hydronium ion concentration is equal to the concentration of the acid given in the problem
To calculate the pH of a strong base, use this formula:
pH = 14.00 – (-log[OH-])
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pH of salts
Consult the following chart to determine whether a salt is acidic, basic or neutral
For example KBr is neutral, because KOH and HBr are both strong, but NaF is basic because NaOH is strong and HF is weak
If the cation is from a…
And the anion is from a…
The salt is…
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1 The Chemistry The Chemistry of Acids and of Acids and Bases Bases Chapter 16 Chapter 16
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