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10 Horne Submission 53

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VIRTUAL REALITY  AND 3D MODELLING IN BUILT ENVIRONMENT EDUCATION  Margaret Horne,   Principal Lecturer  Northumbria University, School of the Built Environment, Newcastleupon Tyne, UK; [email protected] http://northumbria.ac.uk/sd/academic/sobe/divisions/construct/meet/horne/  Dr Emine M.  Thompson, Lecturer  Northumbria University, School of the Built Environment, Newcastleupon Tyne, UK; [email protected] http://northumbria.ac.uk/sd/academic/sobe/divisions/construct/meet/emine/  ABSTRACT : This study builds upon previous research on the integration of Virtual Reality (VR)  within the built environment curriculum and aims to investigate the role of Virtual Reality and three-dimensional (3D) computer modelling  on learning and teaching in a   school of the built environment. In order to  achieve this aim a number of academic experiences were analysed  to explore the applicability  and viability of 3D computer  modelling and Virtual  Reality (VR) into  built environment subject are as. Although  two-dimensional  representations have been greatly accepted by built environment professions and education, three-dimensional computer representations and VR applications,  offering interactivity and  immersiveness,  are not yet widely acc epted. The project builds on previous  studies which  focused on selecting and implementing  appropriate VR  strategies and technologies (Horne and  Hamza, 2006) and  offers an approach on how three-dimensional computer modelling and virtual reality maybe integrated into built environment teaching. It identifies the challenges a nd   perceived  benefits of  doing so by academic staff and reports on the systematic approach which was adopted by Northumbria University, School of the  Built Environment, to raise  awareness of  VR technologies across the spectrum of  built environment disciplines.   A  selection of case studies is presented which illustrate how VR and 3Dmodelling  have been integrated to extend traditional forms  of representation and enhance the students’ learning ex perience. The  attitudes perceptions, opinions and  concerns of academic staff  in regards to use of  3D and VR technologies in their  teaching  are discussed.  KEYWORDS:  Virtual Reality, 3D computer  modelling,  built environment,  curriculum. 1. INTRODUCTION Students are entering higher education increas ingly computer-lite rate. Built environme nt studentshave expectations that they will   be introduced to appropria te techn ologies for theirvario us subje ct discipline s,   perceiving that this, alongside theoretical knowledge,  will enhance their employment opportunities.  Academic schools are challenged by new technologies and require appropriate  strategies for its effec tive integration and adoptio n. Such strategies should foster greater  awareness and understanding of innovation, encouraging  others to learn more and embed changes within the academic curriculum (Knight,  2006). The need to identify the  role that computers can  play in built environment education, and the technology of computing, its application to built environment subjects, anduse as a teaching resource has long been recognized (Bridges,  1986). The latter ele ment raises some important is sues, such ashow,  when, and what type  of  computing to introduce into  built environment academic programmes. Recent discussi ons of teaching  and learning approaches in  built environment education have emphasised the role of  visualisations  and graphical representations to enhance students’ learning experiences (Frank, 2 005). This   paper identifies the challenges and   perceived   benefits of adopting such approaches by academic staff in the School of the Built Environment, Northumbria  University. 2. THE NEED FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL REPRESENTATION Messner et al (2003) point out “observing and experimenting with  the building construction  process” is  very important but “it is difficult to provide this opportunity to the students in an educationalsetting”.  With 3D, 4D and VR visualisations “students can experiment  with different ‘what-if’ scenarios and actively discover unique solutions to construction planning challe nges” (Messner et al, 2003). As Mantovani (2003) indicate s “thepoint is no mor e to establish whether  VR is useful or  not for education; the focus is instead on understanding how to design and use  VR 7 th International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality: October 22-23, 2007 90
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    Margaret Horne,Principal LecturerNorthumbriaUniversity, School of the Built Environment, Newcastleupon Tyne, UK;[email protected] http://northumbria.ac.uk/sd/academic/sobe/divisions/construct/meet/horne/

    Dr Emine M.Thompson, LecturerNorthumbriaUniversity, School of the Built Environment, Newcastleupon Tyne, UK;[email protected] http://northumbria.ac.uk/sd/academic/sobe/divisions/construct/meet/emine/

    ABSTRACT:This studybuilds upon previous researchon the integration of Virtual Reality (VR)within the builtenvironment curriculumand aims to investigate the role of Virtual Reality and three-dimensional (3D) computermodellingon learning and teaching in aschool of the built environment. In order toachieve this aim a number ofacademic experiences were analysedto explore the applicabilityand viability of 3D computermodelling and VirtualReality (VR) into built environment subject areas. Although two-dimensional representations have been greatlyaccepted by built environment professions and education, three-dimensional computer representationsand VRapplications,offering interactivity andimmersiveness,arenot yet widely accepted. The project builds on previousstudies whichfocused on selecting and implementing appropriate VRstrategies and technologies (Horne andHamza,2006) and offers an approach on how three-dimensional computer modelling and virtual reality maybeintegrated into built environment teaching. It identifies the challenges andperceived benefits of doing so byacademic staff and reports on the systematic approach which was adopted by Northumbria University,School of the

    Built Environment, to raiseawareness ofVR technologies across the spectrumofbuilt environment disciplines.Aselection of case studies is presented which illustrate how VR and 3Dmodellinghave been integrated to extendtraditional forms of representation and enhance the students learning experience. Theattitudes perceptions,opinions and concerns of academic staff in regards to use of 3D and VR technologies in their teaching arediscussed.

    KEYWORDS:Virtual Reality, 3D computermodelling,built environment,curriculum.1. INTRODUCTIONStudents are enteringhigher education increasingly computer-literate. Built environment studentshave expectationsthat they will be introduced to appropriate technologies for their various subject disciplines,perceiving that this,alongside theoretical knowledge,willenhance their employment opportunities. Academic schools are challenged bynew technologies and require appropriatestrategies for its effective integration and adoption. Such strategies shouldfoster greater awareness and understanding of innovation, encouraging others to learn more and embed changeswithin the academic curriculum (Knight,2006).The need to identify the role that computers canplay in built environment education, and the technology ofcomputing, its application to built environment subjects, anduse as a teachingresource has long beenrecognized(Bridges,1986). The latter element raises some important issues, such ashow,when, and what typeofcomputing tointroduce intobuilt environment academic programmes. Recent discussionsof teachingand learning approaches inbuilt environment education have emphasised the role of visualisations and graphical representations to enhancestudents learning experiences (Frank, 2005). This paper identifies the challenges andperceived benefits ofadopting suchapproaches byacademic staff in theSchool of the Built Environment, NorthumbriaUniversity.2. THE NEED FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL REPRESENTATIONMessner et al (2003) point out observing and experimenting with the building construction process is veryimportant but it is difficult to provide this opportunity to the students in an educationalsetting. With 3D, 4D andVR visualisations students can experimentwith differentwhat-if scenarios and actively discover unique solutionsto construction planning challenges (Messner et al, 2003). As Mantovani (2003) indicates thepoint is no more to

    establish whetherVR is useful ornot for education; thefocus is insteadon understanding how to design and useVR

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    to support thelearningprocess. The authors believe that 3D modelling and VR technology canbeuseful in builtenvironment education inorder to:

    prototype buildings, sites andcities demonstrate features andprocesses involvedin built environment subjects more specifically allow users toobserve and interact with thebuildings,designs, concepts in their entirety or aspartial close-

    up views. It also allows easy changeoverbetween these differentviews. provide motivation and make learning experiences more interesting

    allowusers toexperience a senseof immersiveness in thebuildings, designs and concepts offer an alternative when sitevisits etc are costly andhard toarrange because of health and safety issues

    Virtual Reality can be usedwhen teaching using the real thing is dangerous, impossible, inconvenient, too time-consuming ortoo costly (Pantelidis, 1997). Inorder to establish a shared understandingof the built environmentbetween diverse professions,different representationsof the realworld,such as sketches, scale models, drawings,photomontages etc are being used and built environment students are made familiar with these techniques. However

    it is also imperative that students should have some knowledge of new,emerging technologies appropriate to their

    subjectdiscipline in order to extend theirunderstandingof thebuilt environment (Horneand Thompson, 2007).3. METHODOLOGYThis paperpresents data thatwas gathered from a research projectdesigned to furtherVR integration in the School ofthe Built Environment, Northumbria University. A strategic, systematic approach was adopted toraise awareness of

    VR technologies in the school. A series of staff development events were held in the schools semi-immersiveVirtual Environment and staff were informed about different types of VR and potential applications for the builtenvironment. Academic staff were encouraged toproposefurther ideas and suggestions for the integrationof three-dimensional modelling andVR into their teaching and learning, and all suggestionswere recorded into a relationaldatabase. Forty-four projects were developed for staff across the school, and twelve of these were selected for

    analysis in this study. The methodofselectionfocusedon examples of academic practice where three-dimensionalmodelling andVR were being used to extend traditional forms of representation and enhance the students learningexperience. Projects were developed using commercially available 3D-modelling and VR software. Qualitativeresearch methodswere seen as themost suitable way of collecting, analysing and reporting data for this study in orderto understand the attitudesperceptions, opinions and concerns of academic staff in regards to use of 3D and VRtechnologies in their teaching. A total of 11 semi-structured interviews were conducted with keyparticipantsinvolved in the integrationof3D technologies into thebuilt environment curriculum. Each interview lasted one hourand was audio-taped to facilitate data analysis. The interviews were then transcribed and analysed. The interviewquestions were designed to gather data systematically, although it should also be acknowledged that the researchers

    experiences, thoughts andbeliefs inevitably played apart in the final analysis.4. INTEGRATION PROCESSThe School ofthe Built Environment, Northumbria University,provides undergraduate and postgraduatedegreesinArchitecture, Architectural Technology, Construction, Building Services Engineering, Building Surveying, EstateManagement, Housing,Project Management, andQuantity Surveying. Two-dimensional CAD was introduced intothe academic curriculum in 1990 and this has become well integrated and applied throughoutthe School. In 2003 theSchool implemented a strategy to embed three-dimensional computer modelling and Virtual Reality (VR)technologies into the academic curriculum of its multi-discipline degree programmes. Building InformationModelling (BIM) andVirtual Reality technologies were selected,andmodules were designed to introduce both thetheoretical and hands-on useof these technologies to students (Horne and Thompson, 2006). VR was selected toextend the traditional forms of representation by offering interactivity and immersiveness in the simulations ofbuildings, sites, cities and landscapes. TheSchools semi-immersive VR facility, called the Virtual Environment,was commissioned during 2005. After careful consideration of location andneeds ofusers, the facility was centrallysituated in theheartof theschool, to alloweasy access andto promote thistechnologyto students, staff andvisitors.

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    FIG. 1:Collaborativevirtual environment.TheVR facility was designed to beusedby groupsof up tothirty participants and to allow staff and students to viewdesigns in stereoscopic format, frommultiple viewpoints, andnavigate through space inreal time. The aim fromtheoutset was tofoster VR applications across all disciplines within the School and to encourage collaboration with localpracticesand other researchers.4.1 Awareness raisingThe integration process involved raising awareness of VR as another teaching tool across the built environmentsubject fields. The School selected desktop VR and semi-immersive VR technologies as appropriate types of virtual

    reality to beusedby students andacademics. Figure 2shows how VR relates to all subject areaswithin the school.

    FIG. 2:VR and builtenvironment subjectareas.Inorder toraise awareness of the capabilities of the technology an exemplar project was developed bycreating a VRmodel of the university campus followedby a systematic programme of staff development events. These informedacademic staff across the school about the potential of the technology, the types of VR available, and thepossibilities it couldoffer to enhance teaching and learningactivities andstudents learning experiences.

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    4.2 Recording ideasTheprocessof systematically contacting staff and collecting ideasbeganwith informaldiscussions with staffwhichthen led to individual meetings with interested academics. Ideas were systemically recorded and stored in aMicrosoft Accessrelationaldatabase where datacould be easily accessedand quantified(Figure 3).

    FIG.3: Opening pageandproject entry formof relational database.Ideas for projects were enteredonto the Project Entryform on thisdatabase anddifferentreports could be createdfrom the gathered data. Projects were classified under fivecategories:Learning and Teaching(L&T), ContinuedProfessional

    Development (CPD), Research, Management/Strategy, and StaffDevelopment.

    Every project was

    allocated aproject number andname, alongwith astart and an enddate. A small project description was alsonotedonto the system.

    A total of 44 projects to enhance teaching and learning weresuggested and, within aperiod of six months, half werecompleted with the end results integrated into the curricula ofvarious subject areas across the School. This paperdescribes a selection of the projects to illustrate the rangeof applications fordifferentbuilt environmentsubjects andhow they arebeing used to support student learning of concepts that have often been difficult to understand viatraditional methods. Areas of the curriculum currently supported by 3Dmodelling or VR in teaching and learning


    PropertyMarketing (Year 2) Commercial Property Marketing (Year 2)

    Measurement,Surveying and

    Drawing Skills (Year


    Site Surveying (Year2) The Evolutionof the Built Environment (Year1) Project InformationSystems (Postgraduate) Construction Economics (Year2) Town and Country Planning (Year 2)

    Design Technology and Procedure(Year2) Professional Practice(AT) (Year 2) Architectural TechnologyDesignProject (Final Year) Building Surveying Project(Final Year) Professional PracticeProject (Year2) The BuildingEnvelope andEnvironmental Service (Year2) Measurement and Co-ordinatedProject Information (Year1) Health and Safety (FinalYear) Interior Design (Year1)

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    5. CASE STUDIES5.1 Measurement, surveying and drawing skillsThisproject isbased on the translationof two-dimensionalrepresentations into a three-dimensionalform. Studentsweregiven2D plansof a model (Figure4), and asked todescribe the3D shape. Students found it very difficult tovisualise the 3D shape and therefore a3Dmodel of the object and section drawings of theobjectwere created in ordertohelp to students in this interpretation process. The 3Dmodel wascreated using SketchUp and incorporated intoPowerPoint for presentationpurposes.

    FIG.4:The translationof two-dimensional representationsintoa three-dimensional form.5.2 Site surveyingThis three-dimensional model was used as an example ofvertical control points that can be used to establish design

    points, during construction. It demonstrated the use of sight rails in conjunction with a traveller to control theexcavation levels in a trenchfor adrainagerun. The model helps to explain the calculationsrequired to determinesuitable traveller lengths. It also visually depicts the use of the traveller in conjunction with the sight rails indetermining whether the excavation is at the correct level. The model ismore effective at demonstrating how theinformation is being used than any 2D drawing or description. The 3D model was created using SketchUp andincorporatedintoPowerPoint for presentation purposes.

    FIG.5:Visualisationof traveller and sight rails.

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    5.3 Measurement and coordinated project informationThis model was used as an example of showing sub-structures and translating 2D plan information into a three-dimensional form. Students received a drawing in two dimensions and were asked to visualise it in 3D. Somestudents found this very difficult. Students need to be able to appreciate a 2D plan andgain an understandingof whatis actually happening when looking at sub-structures and earthwork supports. The 3D model was created usingAutodesk Revit then incorporated into PowerPoint forpresentationpurposes.

    FIG.6: Measurement and co-ordinatedproject information.5.4 Architectural technology design projectFinal year students of Architectural Technology have to ensureoptimumbuildingperformance and efficiency andhave a specific need to resolve both technical and design issues. Students appliedtheir knowledge of Virtual Reality,both theory andpractice, to interact with their designs in a way that had not been possible previously. Theyprogrammed behaviours into their models which enabled the exploration of external and internal claddingoptions,movement of doors, vehicles, elevators etc and simulation of air flow. Suchbehaviours provided the perception of

    immersiveness when navigating around themodels using stereoscopicprojection in theVirtual Environment. Figure7 shows the endresults of a fully immersive, interactiveVR model ofa sustainable design. The 3Dmodels werecreatedusing3ds Max and VR4Max.

    FIG.7: Interactive VR modelof architectural technologydesign project (student Karl Brown).

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    5.5 Health and safety projectFinal year construction students were assigned a project in which they had to communicate the issuespertaining to

    potential hazards on a construction site. Whilst the application of VR was not a prerequisite in thismodule, somestudents felt its application was appropriate, and they were able to model a fully interactive simulation whicheffectively communicated the issues they had identified. The 3D models were created using Revit,3ds Max andVR4Max.

    FIG.8: VRmodel simulatinghazardsona construction site (student David Lee).6. FEEDBACKQualitative research methodswere seen as the most suitablewayof collecting, analysingand reportingdata for thisstudy inorder tounderstand the attitudes perceptions,opinions and concernsof academicstaffin regardsto use of3D andVR technologies in their teaching. The introductoryknowledge transfer in thisstudy, regarding VRand3Dmodeling, took place in:

    Presentations,demonstrations of existingVR models Development of specific models for tutors to use

    Lectureand seminar seriesA total of 11 semi-structured interviews were conducted with key participants involved in the integration of 3Dtechnologies into the built environment curriculum. Each interview lasted one hour andwas audio-taped to facilitate

    data analysis. The followingthemes were identifiedby analysis of the transcribed interview recordings. During thecontent analysis of these transcripts, similar beliefs, perceptions and concerns were collated under the followingheadings:

    VR and 3D modelling in thebuilt environment curriculum Initial perception of3D andVR technologies by tutors Tutors requirements after the initial integrationwith3D andVR technologies Tutors concerns

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    6.1 VR and 3D modelling in the built environment curriculumThe tutors who were involved in this studycan becategorised in two main groups. The first group hadalreadyintroduced a significant level of 2D andor 3D computervisualisation into their teaching curriculum. The secondgroup consisted of tutors who wished to develop better understanding of their subject areas by adapting newtechnologies into their teaching environments. These groups were not intentionally selected in thismanner but fell

    naturally into these two main groups. Although the tutors came from different backgrounds and subject fields and

    their visualisation software capabilities differed widely,

    the interest they showed towards the VR and

    3Dvisualisation area were similar. Therewere two main focuses in usingthis technology in their teaching. The first onewas that, by using available technology,they discovered that they could explain complex issues in amuch easier way.They believed that as acommunication tool, VR and 3Dvisualisation would improve studentsunderstanding ofbuiltenvironment elements. The second focus was that they wanted the students to be exposed to thistechnology. So, by at least introducing the technology and helping students become aware of its capabilities, theybelieved that studentswouldmake use of itduring theirprofessional careers.6.2 Initial perceptions of VR and 3Dmodeling technologies by tutorsAlthough some tutors had initial uncertainty and apprehension towards the technology and the VR facility itself, this

    changed rapidly when they were taken through the introduction and implementation stages with informaldiscussions and presentations. Thenext logical step wasforsome of the tutors tobegin to integrate the technologyinto their teaching activities. Some thought that VR would allow them to enrich the student experience and wouldresult instudents becomingmore involvedin the subjectfields they were studying. Tutorsalso thought that overallthe technology and the facility was an attractive and valuable resource to use in their teaching activities. The use of afamiliar Windows based operatingsystemresultedin stafffeeling someconfidence fromtheoutset.6.3 Tutors requirements after the initial integration of 3D and VR technologiesMore integrationwas thegeneral requirement of the tutors. Thisrangedfor more detailed anddeveloped models touse in teaching, to the establishment of hands-on workshops for more students touse the 3D modelling and VRsoftware. Staff also required an ability to demonstrate tostudents appropriate applications of VR currently used in

    practice. Althoughdigital media usagevaries broadly in thedifferentbuilt environment subject areasand theuseofAutoCAD, or any other two-or three-dimensional visualisation software, is not requirement for every subject, a basicintroduction to 3D modelling and VR was requested. Tutors suggested involvement at this stage could onlybeachieved by enhancing their existing modules with 3D and VR visualisation lectures and tutorials.Whilst hands-onsessions

    for students

    were a


    request, the need for


    flexible levels of involvement was apparent.

    It canbesaid that, according to thedifferent subjectgroups, there is aneed for avarying degree of intensity for the lectures

    and tutorials. Someacademictutors expressed awishto learnhow to use the three-dimensional modelling softwarethemselves, so that they coulduse and createbasicmodels. They also expressed awish tobe able touse the VirtualEnvironment themselves.

    6.4 Tutors concernsThe main concern was the time and timetabling arrangements that would be necessaryto effect further integration.Time to develop ideas and integrate these into already crowded curriculum was one of the main issues. Another main

    concern for some of the tutors was the highnumberof studentsrequiring some level of hands-on sessions to apply thetechnology in a practical way, and theway theschool could manage and accommodate this.7. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSFinding effectiveways to use technology toenhance learning is a challenge that educators, academics, policymakersand the technology industry must work together to solve(Gates, 2002). This study sought to investigate the effects ofVirtual Reality and three-dimensional computer modelling on learning and teaching in a school of the builtenvironment. The benefits of using a systematic approachin recordingideas forpossible applications were evidentand aided thedevelopment of projects utilizing the technology. A numberof academic experienceswere analysed toexplore the usefulness and viability of three-dimensional modelling applied to various subject areas. The reviewedcase studies related to ways that the technology could aid communication to, and from, students. The benefits ofusing visualisation technologies were seen as having enabled academic built environment tutors to

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    support students learning. The benefitsofusingVirtual Reality and 3D modelling technologies are varied,butwereseen as having thepotential to improve andextend the learningprocess, increase studentmotivation and awareness,and add to thediversity of teaching methods.The difficulties and barriers encountered to date were not somuch concerned with technical issues butmore withorganisational issues. The selected technical specification for the Virtual Environment and supportive three-dimensional modelling software hasprovedto bereliable andstable, andcompatible with that used in industry, thusfacilitating model exchange. The study found that the greatest problem at present is lack of available time foracademic tutors and the support staff involved in the integration process. In time, with higher demand forintegration in several subject fields, therewill be aneedformore personnel who canhelpwith this process.7.1 Limitations of studyTime limitations of this study have resulted in an evaluationof the integrationof three-dimensionalmodelling andvirtualreality so far confined to interviewing those academic tutors who showedpositive interest and support afterattending staffawareness events. Todetermine the extent of opinion across the school wouldhavenecessitated thegathering of feedback fromtutors withless positive reactions, and this wasbeyond the scope of this study. Howeverthis would enable a clearer picture to emerge about otherissues and concernsregarding the valueof the technology toimprove students learning. Nonetheless the study has demonstrated that a well planned, systematic approachsupported by a carefully designed strategy is very important to ensure new technology is embedded into thecurriculum effectively.

    8. FUTURE WORKFutureworkwill reporton further applications of advancing technologies and the challengesof integrating these intothe academic curriculum of a schoolof thebuilt environment. Further development of theprojects ideas which werecompiled into the database is ongoing and will result in additional case study material. The establishment of arepository of three-dimensional and VR models for builtenvironment learning and teaching, which could be shared

    between other schools ofthe builtenvironment,isamajor projectwhich wouldneedto be undertaken separately.9. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSJournal for Education in theBuilt Environment (JEBE) for agreeing topublish partsof this study. Academic staffinterviewees: Andy Dunhill, Kevin Elliot, Claire Fallow, Peter Fisher, Minnie Fraser, Neveen Hamza, DerekLavelle, Elaine Paterson, Simon Robson, SusanWeinder, and CraigWilsonfor giving their views openly and fortheir time. Student projects: Karl Brown and David Lee for excellent application of VR to design projects.Professional practices Insite Environments and Waring and Netts for granting permissions to use models frompractice for educational purposes. Management of the School of the Built Environment for funding the VirtualEnvironment.

    10. REFERENCESBridges A.H. (1986).Any progressin systematic design? Computer-aidedarchitectural design futuresCAAD

    Futures Conference Proceedings, Delft (TheNetherlands), p. 5-15.http://cumincad.scix.net/data/works/att/a6f1.content.pdf[visited 2005,0730).

    Frank A. (2005).What do students value inbuilt environment education?CEBE Transactions,2(3), p. 21-29.GatesB. (2002). A Vision for lifelonglearning-Year 2020-introduction by BillGates,Vision 2020:Transforming

    EducationandTraining through Advanced Technologies,http://www.technology.gov/reports/TechPolicy/2020Visions.pdf(visited 2006, 07 03).

    Horne M. andHamza N. (2006). Integrationof virtual reality within thebuilt environment curriculum, ITCon,11,311-324. URL:http://www.itcon.org/2006/23.

    Horne M. andThompsonE.M.(accepted forpublication 2007).The roleof virtual reality in built environmenteducation,Journal forEducation in theBuilt Environment.

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    Horne M. andThompsonE.M. (2006). Extending thepalette, eCAADe24,Proceedings of the 24th Conference onEducation in Computer Aided ArchitecturalDesign in Europe, Volos, Greece.p. 444-453.

    KnightP.(2006). Lessons learntfrom the evaluationof large scale innovation,Leading and embeddinginnovationsin Higher Education Institutions,Higher Education Academy, London.

    MantovaniF.(2003). VR learning: potentialchallenges for theuse of 3Denvironments in education andtraining,Towards Cyber Psychology:Mind CognitionandSociety in the InternetAge, RivaG andGalimberti C(Eds), Amsterdam IOS Press,http://www.vepsy.com/communication/book2/2SECTIO_12.PDF(visited2006, 06 30).

    Messner J.I. andHorman J.M. (2003). Usingadvancevisualisation tools toimprove construction education,Proceedings ofCONVR 2003 Conference, VirginiaTech.

    PandelidisV.S. (1997).Virtual reality and engineering education,Computer Applications in Engineering EducationJournal, 5 (1), 3-12. JohnWiley andSons, Inc.

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