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10. Methods and Apparatus; Mathematics of Interest to Ecologists Journal of Animal Ecology, Vol. 41, No. 3 (Oct., 1972), pp. 808-810 Published by: British Ecological Society Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3245 . Accessed: 02/05/2014 14:42 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp . JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact [email protected]. . British Ecological Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Journal of Animal Ecology. http://www.jstor.org This content downloaded from 130.132.123.28 on Fri, 2 May 2014 14:42:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
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Page 1: 10. Methods and Apparatus; Mathematics of Interest to Ecologists

10. Methods and Apparatus; Mathematics of Interest to EcologistsJournal of Animal Ecology, Vol. 41, No. 3 (Oct., 1972), pp. 808-810Published by: British Ecological SocietyStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3245 .

Accessed: 02/05/2014 14:42

Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at .http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp

.JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range ofcontent in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact [email protected].

.

British Ecological Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Journal ofAnimal Ecology.

http://www.jstor.org

This content downloaded from 130.132.123.28 on Fri, 2 May 2014 14:42:12 PMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

Page 2: 10. Methods and Apparatus; Mathematics of Interest to Ecologists

808 Abstracts

150. Rowe, F. P. & Redfern, R. (1969). Aggressive behaviour in related and unrelated wild house mice (Mus musculus L.). Ann. appl. Biol. 64, 425-31.

Small family groups of house mice isolated in a room or a pen were rarely aggressive among themselves but attacked introduced unrelated mice and then became more aggressive to each other. When two family groups met, unrelated animals frequently attacked each other and the families remained separate. Males and females isolated from their family were attacked if returned after 2 or 3 weeks, but not after only 1 week. It is possible that odour discrimination may influence dispersal and the build-up of free-living groups in wild populations.

151. Russell, G. E. (1969). Effects of sucrose sprays and darkness on aphid colonization of sugar beet and on aphid transmission of yellowing viruses. Ann. appl. Biol. 63, 351-6.

The results of glasshouse experiments in which spraying sugar-beet plants with sucrose solution encouraged settling and larviposition by Myzus persicae and Aphis fabae, and keeping the plants in darkness before or after infestation with M. persicae reduced settling and larviposition, indicate that settling may be associated with unusually high sugar contents in the leaves.

152. Samsuddin, M. (1966). Behaviour of larval tabanids (Diptera: Tabanidae) in relation to light, moisture, and temperature. Quaest. entomol. 2, 271-302.

The anterior part of the head capsule is sensitive to light, and the larvae are negatively photo- tactic. Although not appearing to select dry or wet substrates larvae behave abnormally on uni- formly dry substrates. Effects of desiccation are discussed. The preferred temperature range is wide, 37-40? C is lethal. Light and heat are the most important environmental factors of those studied.

153. Stainton, J. M. (1970). Coot in flight at Barn Elms. Lond. Bird Rep. 33 (1968), 96-102. In winter, coot (Fulica atra) feed on grass on the causeways and banks surrounding the basins of

the reservoir, which they reach by springing up from a ledge on the retaining wall or flying up from the water, both some 3 ft below. In doing so, they frequently collide with the wall, especially in calm weather. They also often tumble or fall on or just before alighting on land or water. They seem reluctant to take off and their flight is clumsy. This is partly owing to anatomical causes, but it also seems possible that their ability to estimate wind speed and direction and the presence or absence of air currents over the edge of the basins is limited or impaired. Wigeon (Anas penelope) also graze the grass, but cope successfully with the conditions.

154. Stebbins, L. C. (1971). Seasonal variations in circadian rhythms of deer mice, in north- western Canada. Arctic, 24, 124-31.

In the boreal forest, Peromyscus maniculatus showed longer and higher peaks of activity in spring than in winter. In winter, torpor is frequent and activity mainly at night. In spring activity starts before dark and extends 4-5 hours into the next day.

See also Abstracts 7, 8, 9, 12, 18, 23, 44, 56, 66, 75, 82, 83, 84, 123.

10. METHODS AND APPARATUS; MATHEMATICS OF INTEREST TO ECOLOGISTS

155. Anderson, A. J. B. (1971). Ordination methods in ecology. J. Ecol. 59, 713-26. Some of the more commonly used procedures of ordination are examined and the traditional

reference set methods are discredited. A new method is proposed which is shown to give good results.

156. Baker, C. R. B. (1969). Apparatus for studying nocturnal patterns of oviposition and larval eclosion, and diel patterns of moth emergence. Bull. ent. Res. 58, 553-7.

157. Beyers, R. J. & Smith, M. H. (1971). A colorimetric method for determining oxygen con- centration in terrestial situations. Ecology, 52, 374-5.

A colorimetric method for determining gaseous oxygen in, for example, the burrows of field mice, by an adaptation of Winkler's method for determining oxygen dissolved in water.

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Page 3: 10. Methods and Apparatus; Mathematics of Interest to Ecologists

Abstracts 809

158. Clark, J. P. (1971). The second derivative and population modeling. Ecology, 52, 606-13. Deficiencies in first-order differential equations are discussed as a motivation for considering

second-order equations. The rate of change of a population, instead of the population size directly, is investigated as a basis of a model for the dynamic of populations. It is not claimed that any model is inherently right or wrong, but it is merely pointed out where certain models may be more or less useful.

159. Coaker, T. H. & Dodd, G. D. (1970). An apparatus for dispensing mechanically the eggs of the cabbage root fly (Erioischia brassicae (Bch.) (Dipt., Muscidae)). Bull. ent. Res. 59, 703-5.

160. Erman, D. C. & Helm, W. T. (1971). Comparison of some species importance values and ordination techniques used to analyse benthic invertebrate communities. Oikos, 22, 240-7.

161. Finch, S. & Coaker, T. H. (1969). A method for the continuous rearing of the cabbage root fly Erioischia brassicae (Bch.) and some observations on its biology. Bull. ent. Res. 58, 619-27.

162. Frank, J. H. (1967). A serological method used in the investigation of the predators of the pupal stage of the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (L.) (Hydriomenidae). Quaest. entomol. 3, 95-105.

Describes a method of producing antibodies to winter moth pupae antigens in rabbits. The method was useful in studying the predation of winter moth pupae by some beetles.

163. Gadgil, M. (1971). Dispersal: population consequences and evolution. Ecology, 52, 253- 61.

A mathematical analysis of dispersal. The author shows that on his mathematical assumptions, isolated and poorly accessible sites will become less crowded than the average site. Uneven crowding will follow an episode of dispersal. The total population size will be depressed over its entire range.

164. Graham, P. (1969). A comparison of sampling methods for adult mosquito populations in central Alberta, Canada. Quaest. entomol. 5, 217-61.

Nine methods were tried, Malaise traps, Malaise traps with C02, light traps, visual attraction traps, rotary sweep net, animal bait, human bait, and caught within a mobile laboratory trailer. Trap localities and type affected size and composition of the catch.

165. Hall, A. V. (1970). A computer-based method for showing continua and communities in ecology. J. Ecol. 58, 591-602.

A revised method for grouping sites on the basis of their vegetation is described. A clustering method is used in forming a dendogram which can be interpreted to give essentials of group structure but not the precise nature of transition zones. Similarity maps are used for this purpose.

166. Harry, 0. G. (1069). A jar for maintaining parasite-free insects and for collecting infected faeces. Bull. ent. Res. 58, 833-4.

167. Houston, K. (1971). A mechanical time sorting pitfall trap. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 106, 214-6.

Designed to separate captures of carabids into predetermined periods. Could be left unattended for 8 days.

168. Hurlbert, S. H. (1971). The nonconcept of species diversity: a critique and alternative parameters. Ecology, 52, 577-86.

A critique of some mathematical measures of species diversity, in which it is suggested that some of the indices used by authors are neither appropriate nor useful.

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Page 4: 10. Methods and Apparatus; Mathematics of Interest to Ecologists

810 Abstracts

169. Jeffrey, D. W. (1970). A note on the use of ignition loss as a means for the approximate estimation of soil bulk density. J. Ecol. 58, 297-9.

It is shown that the regression of bulk density on log ignition gives a good fit and a conversion table is presented from which bulk density may be predicted if ignition loss is known.

170. Lindahl, P. E. & Schwanbom, E. (1971). A method for the detection and quantitative estimation of sublethal poisoning in living fish. Oikos, 22, 210-14.

Fish are placed in a rotating tube and their ability to remain upright measures the degree of poisoning.

171. Mead, R. (1971). A note on the use and misuse of regression models in ecology. J. Ecol., 59, 215-9.

Some misconceptions about multiple regression are discussed and the correct statistical approach outlined. The suitability of polynomial models for biological situations is discussed.

172. Milbrink, G. (1971). A simplified tube bottom sampler. Oikos, 22, 260-3. Three versions are described.

173. Orloci, L. (1971). An information theory model for pattern analysis. J. Ecol. 59, 343-9. The method is applicable to categorical data, such as counts or frequencies.

174. Roughgarden, J. (1971). Density-dependent natural selection. Ecology, 52, 453-68. 175. Charlesworth, B. (1971). Selection in density-regulated populations. Ecology, 52, 469-74.

These two papers contain mathematical analyses of density dependent factors, based upon hypothetical population models.

176. Smith, K. L. (1971). A device for sampling immediately above the sediment-water inter- face. Limnol. Oceanogr. 16, 675-7.

Describes a simple and inexpensive device consisting of a bottom sled, hose and deck pump, which can be operated from any stable platform. It has been used successfully at depths of 7-10 m, but greater depths can be sampled dependent on the capabilities of the pump.

177. Thomas, A. W. (1971). An apparatus and method for the field separation of tabanid larvae (Diptera: Tabanidae) from moss. Quaest. entomol. 7, 407-8.

Describes a portable field apparatus which requires no power. Its shortcomings are mentioned.

178. Thomson, R. C. Muirhead- (1969). A laboratory technique for establishing Simulium larvae in an experimental channel. Bull. ent. Res. 59, 533-6.

179. Wadsworth, R. M. (1970). An invisible marker for experimental plots. J. Ecol. 58, 555-7. A technique for marking experimental plots with buried magnets is described.

180. Wyatt, I. J. (1969). A laboratory method for studying the biology and control of pests in mushroom compost. Ann. appl. Biol. 64, 441-8.

See also Abstracts 11, 67, 88.

11. REPORTS OF ORGANIZATIONS

181. Field Studies Council (1971). Annual Report 1969-1970, 56 pp. Contains reports of the Chairman (Professor F. Grimes), the Scientific Director (the late Dr J. D.

Carthy), the warden of each of the ten Field Centres and the Director of the new Pembrokeshire Countryside Unit.

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