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12 Technology Transfer

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    Micro-hydro power development technologies in Indonesia mainly consist of thoserelating to electrical and mechanical equipment, which were originally transferred by

    the GTZ. A small number of technologies are firmly rooted in local NGOs, constituting

    a unique feature which is not observed in other Southeast Asian countries.

    Many of the micro-hydro power plants so far constructed in Indonesia utilize the

    technologies transferred by the GTZ and their current conditions are described in

    Chapter 7. However, these technologies are not yet rooted in government organizations

    or rural regions where many unelectrified areas are located, making the extension of a

    comprehensive range of micro-hydro power development technologies, including those

    for the exploration of promising sites and the management of power plants, essential.

    Under the this Study, a manual featuring a comprehensive technological system relating

    to micro-hydro power development has been prepared to solve the problems described

    above. In addition, OJT and Wrap-up-workshops were organized through theconstruction of the pilot plant project for the purpose of extending these technologies.

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    12.2.1 Overview

    The extraction of promising micro-hydro power generation sites in Indonesia hastraditionally been conducted by a kabupaten-related body (mainly the kabupaten office

    of the Ministry of Cooperatives which has an office in every kabupaten) based on

    information provided by local residents in unelectrified areas. However, a full-scale

    survey of these sites has often found the construction of a hydropower plant to be

    difficult because such information, the nature of which is listed below, sometimes fails

    to appreciate the negative factors described in brackets.

    Ease of securing the necessary head because of the presence of a waterfall (steeptopography makes it difficult to set up a settling basin and headrace, etc.)

    Sufficient water volume (there is no quantitative data on the droughty waterdischarge)

    Existence of a micro-hydro power plant with an output of kW in the past (the

    output figure simply indicates the installed capacity of the past hydropower plant

    and is not based on the available hydraulic energy and discharge)

    Existence of many unelectrified households (households are scattered over a largearea)

    Others (there is a lack of information on the local socioeconomic situation,

    particularly on a possible body to be in charge of power plant management in thefuture and other vital aspects)

    As described above, the information provided by local residents tends to be qualitative

    and government bodies at the kabupaten level do not appear to have sufficientknowledge to check the validity of such information.

    For the present Study, it was recognized that there is a need for technology transfer with

    emphasis on the following points to enable government offices to accurately extractpromising sites instead of depending solely on information provided by local residents.

    Topographical and functional conditions relating to the introduction of variouspower plant structures

    Estimation of the discharge based on the rainfall level and size of the catchment

    area and an on-site discharge observation method

    Measurement method of the available head

    Method of setting the scope of a study

    Study method for the socioeconomic conditions and importance of the balance

    between supply and demand

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    12.2.2 Civil Engineering Aspect(1) Indigenous Technologies Effective for Micro-hydro Power Development

    Paddy rice cultivation is very popular throughout Indonesia and the irrigation

    technologies which have been nurtured by such farming can be effective for

    micro-hydro power development. The technologies listed below are particularly

    effective from the technical viewpoint to ensure the durability and stability of

    hydropower generation equipment and these technologies are incorporated in themanual in one way or another.

    a. Intake Weir Using Gabions

    Gabions are made up of a metal net and boulders and are frequently used for intake

    weirs for irrigation because of their flexibility, easy procurement of materials and low

    cost, etc. The surface of many weirs is reinforced by mortar concrete to prevent theirdestruction by metal net corrosion, one of the weak points of gabions.

    b. Intake Using Orifice

    In general, an intake is accompanied by a sluice gate to prevent an excessive water flow.

    In regard to the irrigation channels constructed by Indonesian farmers, a popular type of

    intake structure is that using natural stones to prevent an excessive water flow. Even

    though such a structure is empirically adopted, it uses the orifice effect from the

    technical viewpoint which is an extremely useful and simple way of preventing loss ofthe headrace due to an excessive water inflow through the intake.

    c. Manually Dug Water Channel

    Most small-scale irrigation channels in Indonesia are manually dug channels. A largeproportion of the cost of a headrace is incurred by the lining and the use of a dug

    channel can make a major contribution towards cost reduction. Although a dug channel

    is rather prone to destruction by seepage water or scouring of its inner face, it can be

    effectively used for micro-hydro power generation provided that the cross-sectional

    slope of the passing area is gentle and/or the flow speed inside the water channel isslow.

    (2) Technical Problems

    As described above, the use of traditional irrigation technologies is possible in

    Indonesia. There is a single decisive difference between the irrigation technologies andmicro-hydro power generation technologies in regard to the prevention of sedimentinflow and sediment disposal.

    At some micro-hydro power development sites, the prevention of sediment inflow andsediment disposal have not been taken into proper consideration and many power plants

    at these sites have been destroyed by sediment inflow.

    Under the present Study, the prevention of sediment discharge and sediment disposal

    are the subject of intensive guidance and are described in detail in the manual.

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    12.2.3 Electrical and Mechanical Aspects

    (1) Current Situation of Technologies

    As already described in Chapter 11 Pilot Plant, it is practically impossible for

    villagers in remote areas in Indonesia to operate and maintain imported electrical andmechanical equipment if such equipment breaks down because of the difficulty of

    communicating the nature of the problem to the foreign manufacturer or even its

    domestic agent and also because of the extremely costly as well as time-consuming

    process of investigating the cause of a problem and repairing the equipment. Even

    though long-term problem-free operation is desirable for all equipment, all equipment is

    inevitably liable to wear and tear and possible breakdown. Accordingly, one absolute

    condition for equipment procurement is the selection of products which are made by

    Indonesian manufacturers in Indonesia which are capable of conducting repair or

    products which are readily available in the Indonesian market.

    Based on this condition, the following assessment was made for the equipment to beused for the project after examining the design and manufacturing capabilities(including actual performance) in Indonesia from the purely technical viewpoint.

    Water Turbine

    Although a domestic manufacturer in Indonesia claims that it is capable ofmanufacturing various types of water turbines, only the cross-flow type or reverse

    pump type (small output) is recommended from the technical point of view because of

    the current situation in Indonesia where no reliable technical backing in the form ofmodel tests, etc. exists. The water turbines which can be designed and manufactured in

    Indonesia for micro-hydro power generation are as follows.

    - Cross-flow type: turbine output (10 250 kW); effective head (4 50 m); flow rate

    (100 820 litters/sec)

    This turbine is designed by SKAT (T13 or T14 model) and its technical base is well

    established with design data being fully available. It can be commended in the sense

    that the design of a water turbine which is compatible with the actual on-site civil

    engineering design conditions can be produced with relative ease. Some are already in

    actual use.

    - Reversible pump type: turbine output (2 7 kW); effective head (4 20 m); flow rate(4 130 litters/sec)

    In the case of this type, the pump used for pumping water is reversed as a

    generating turbine. Readily available pumps of this type in Indonesia are small with a

    generating capacity of up to around 7 kW. This type of pump turbine can be applied at

    site where the flow rate does not vary but cannot be used at sites where the flow rateconsiderably varies If this type is opted for, the generator will be a direct-coupled

    induction motor.


    As explained in clause 11.5.5.,the speed of water turbine with dummy load type speed

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    governor hardly increases and does not reach to run-away speed even in case the full

    load is cut off suddenly during operation due to the reason that the actual load is

    transferred fully to dummy load. Therefore, the generator for diesel engine can be used.

    Diesel generators (synchronous generators with AVR) are currently manufactured inIndonesia under license from European manufacturers and can be used for micro-hydro

    power generation. These synchronous generators mounted with an automatic voltageregulator (AVR) and a brushless exciter are extremely effective for a cross-flow type

    water turbine and are capable of supplying high quality electricity. As there are many

    models with various outputs, a product which is suitable for a specific design output canbe easily selected. In the case of a reverse pump type water turbine characterized by a

    small output, the use of a small induction motor which is readily available in Indonesia

    is recommended as an integral type incorporating an induction generator and a pump.

    - Synchronous generator (for Cross flow type water turbine: 380/220 V, 1,500 rpm, 12

    250 kVA, with a brushless exciter and automatic voltage regulator under license from

    European manufacturer)

    As this is manufactured in Indonesia, the selection of a standard type of this

    generator makes procurement quick and easy.

    - Induction generator (for reverse pump: using an induction motor incorporated with a

    small pump, speed 1500rpm as standard or speed of pump, output 2 7 kW). Theinduction motor is strong and cheaper in cost due to squirrel-cage type. For using as

    generator, it is required for excitation to add capacitors (condensers) separately. It is

    afraid that additional cost for replacement may be required due to the quality

    (particularly regarding its lifetime) of the capacitor and some power-cut may occur in


    Speed Increase

    In case of synchronous generator, speed increaser is required to coordinate the speed

    of the water turbine and speed of the generator. Given the small output associated with

    micro-hydro power generation, belt type ncreaser using apulleys is appropriate. Thisincreaser is manufactured in Indonesia (the material for the belt is imported and is kept

    in stock) and the price is not high. Belt type increaser which is commonly used and ofwhich the technological base is well established can be safely opted for.

    Spped Governor (Dummy Load Type)

    The use of an ordinary hydraulic governor which regulates the rate of water flow by

    automatically moving the guide vane is impossible for a small water turbine because of

    its prohibitive high price. Accordingly, a dummy load type governor which is cheap and

    already used in Indonesia should be opted for. The control part, which is equipped in

    one substrate, is furnished in ELC type panel for synchronous generator or IGC panel

    for induction generator. It is strongly requested for proper operation to select either type

    carefully because the excitation system of both kind of generator is completely

    different Because of the use of a thyrister, for ELC and trasister for IGC, the reaction

    performance of this type is excellent for interchanging between consumer and dummyload. This type of governor is the best choice for micro-hydro power generation despite

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    its shortcoming of the some energy consumption from generator output by the dummy

    load. The performance of a dummy load type governor is judged to be good enough for

    micro-hydro power generation. as it is of static type without mechanical moving part

    Control Panel

    The recommended control panels are the ELC type and the IGC type (both of which are

    equipped with a dummy load type governor) manufactured in Indonesia. Many of these

    have already been used for micro-hydro power generation and no immediate problemsregarding their use are foreseen. The ELC type is used for a synchronous generator

    while the IGC type is used for an induction generator. Each type is equipped with the

    minimum range of devices and instruments (meters) required for a micro-hydro power


    Dummy Load Heater

    The dummy load heater used for above speed governor is a simple air-cooled electricheater which can be cut to achieve a suitable length corresponding to the capacity of the

    dummy load. The dummy load is same in its construction but it is used as AC load forELC type and DC load for IGC type. The installation location of the dummy load

    should be determined to ensure its efficient cooling. To be more precise, a separate

    room with louvred window should be set up as described in Chapter 11.

    Inlet Valve

    The inlet valve is to control the water inlet to the turbine and such manual operation

    butterfly valve with international standard of the sizes required for micro-hydro power

    plant (MHP) can be procured in Indonesia and its simple manual operation ensures itslong life. The relevance of an inlet valve for micro-hydro power generation is debatable

    because of its extra cost. However, it is judged that the use of an inlet valve ispreferable in view of better equipment maintenance, easy starting up and stoppage of

    operation and better safety for operators, etc.

    (2) Technical Problems

    One Indonesian manufacturer advertises that it is capable of manufacturing various

    types of turbines, including the Pelton type, propeller type and Francis type. It appearsthat this manufacturer can simply copy the form of such turbines and does not have the

    technical capability to design a turbine which meets the specific conditions at ageneration site. Accordingly, technical guarantee is currently only available for a

    cross-flow type turbine (manufactured by SKAT under license) for which there is

    suitable design data based on the model test or a small output reverse pump turbine

    integrating a pump and an induction motor as described earlier. In the case of other

    types of water turbines (particularly low head and high flow rate propeller turbines

    using irrigation water for micro-hydro power generation), it is necessary to wait for

    further technological improvement.

    In the case of generators, small generators for diesel generation are manufactured under

    licence in Indonesia and these can be used for micro-hydro power generation without

    any problems subject to application of dummy load type speed governor.

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    The technological base for control panels incorporating a dummy load type governor

    has been largely established in Indonesia and the available control panels of ELC type

    or IGC type in the market can be used for independent network without alteration.

    However,some revision is required for control system in future in case the independentnetwork is to be connected to other network (such as PLN network).

    12.2.4 Transmission and Distribution Aspects

    The PLN has well-established technical capability to handle 20 kV as well as 380/220

    V distribution lines related to micro-hydro power generation as already described in

    Chapter 11 and it is judged that no problems exist in regard to transmission anddistribution, including indoor wiring at user premises. All of the necessary materials can

    be procured in the domestic market and the installation of a distribution/service line inaccordance with the set procedure is sufficient. However, it is recommended to

    consult these procedures of design and construction to the specialists of NGO or PLN

    because the full understanding of these procedures is difficult by the persons concerned

    except some specialist.

    12.2.5 Management of Organization

    Many of the existing micro-hydro power plants in Indonesia are managed by local

    village or hamlet communities and the management situation considerably varies from

    one micro-hydro power plant to another. Some plants are managed relatively well with

    the cooperation of the KUD, etc. while others, particularly those developed at the

    initiative of local people, fail to collect the electrical tariff after collecting the initial

    charge to cover the construction cost.

    Management of the organization is a very important issue for micro-hydro powerdevelopment in Indonesia. It can be said that the potential capability of local people,who are the very people affected by development, to manage a power plant in an

    organized manner is quite high.

    Nevertheless, past examples of failure suggest that equipment breakdowns at a power

    plant and/or insufficient maintenance, including repair, are often caused by a lack of a

    proper understanding as the management organization composed of local people wasnot properly taught how to manage a micro-hydro power plant. The problems do not

    relate to the skills of local people but instead appear to originate from a lack ofknow-how of power plant operation and management on the part of upstream

    organizations and also from insufficient education and guidance for local people.

    Strengthening of the kabupaten level organization is essential to improve the skills of

    local people as such organization as in-depth knowledge of the level of peoples

    awareness and local problems because of its hierarchical proximity to the frontline of

    hydropower development.

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    12.3.1 Members of Working Group

    A working group, i.e. the subject for technology transfer, was formed with the

    following members in view of the facts that it would play a leading role in (i) thedevelopment of the pilot plant and technology transfer and (ii) the extension of rural

    electrification by micro-hydro power in the three target provinces (the working group

    was formed during the fourth field survey period).

    Representatives of the central government (MEMR, SMOC and SMEs)

    Representatives of provincial governments (three target provinces: Minerals andEnergy Division and Cooperatives Division)

    Representatives of the kabupaten government (Tana-Toraja: Minerals and Energy

    Division and Cooperatives Division)

    Representatives of NGOs (those operating in Tana-Toraja: Yayasan, NTT: EDEN)

    o Yayasan Turbine Desa: This NGO is based in South Sulawesi Province and is

    engaged in rural electrification based on technologies transferred by the GTZin the early 1990s (particularly technologies relating to the manufacture of

    SKAT-T3 turbines).

    o EDEN: This NGO is based in Kupan in East Nusa Tenggara Province and the

    teaching staff of an industrial college play a leading role in forest conservation

    and rural development. It plans to assist rural electrification using micro-hydropower as a new field of activity and participated in the OJT in collaboration

    with the provincial government.

    Representatives of the local community: Head of Lembang (new administrative unitreplacing Desa) Berau (who also acts as the representative of the Masanda Power

    Plant management body) where the pilot project was implemented and two local

    residents (to be trained as power plant operators)

    12.3.2 On-the-Job Training

    The OJT as a technology transfer exercise consisted of the following items.

    (1) Preliminary Survey (conducted during the fifth field survey period)

    Selection of candidate development sites

    Several candidate sites were selected on the topographical map (scale: 1 to 50,000)and the potential of each site was calculated based on the estimated river flow andhead to finalize the candidate development site.

    Site conditions survey

    After identifying the development site, a topographical survey and hydrological

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    survey were conducted together with the gathering and analysis of hydrological and

    meteorological data.

    Demand survey

    A survey and analysis were conducted on the number and distribution of users andthe socioeconomic conditions together with forecasting of the future demand.

    (2) Project Planning (conducted during the fifth field survey period)

    Supply and demand plan

    Analysis of the electricity supply and demand prospects

    Evaluation of development potential

    Analysis and examination of the optimal scale of development, economic relevance,benefits and secondary effects

    Electrification plan

    Planning of the development schedule, estimation of the construction cost andplanning of the actual funding


    Rough specifications, basic design and cost estimation for the required equipment

    (3) Establishment of Maintenance System and Charge Collection System (conducted

    during the first half of the sixth field survey period)

    Establishment of maintenance system and charge collection system

    The organization responsible for operation and maintenance was established by

    incorporating additional local people in the working group and a role was assigned to

    each member. Moreover, the charge collection system was established by setting the

    charge and collection system, etc. and the necessary ledgers for book-keeping, etc. werearranged. The work involved required guidance by a person with in-depth knowledge of

    the local customs and situation in addition to that by the counterpart organization. The

    involvement of a person to assist the promotion of the pilot project was, therefore,

    sought in the form of subcontracting.

    Funding plan to sustain operation

    The fund and income management method to ensure continuous operation was

    examined and the ledgers and other necessary items were arranged.

    (4) Detailed Design (conducted during the first half of the sixth field survey period)

    Detailed design

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    The detailed design was conducted based on the concept of the maximum use of locally

    procured equipment and materials. In addition, the working group members and

    personnel of the counterpart organization were taught the basic knowledge required to

    conduct a detailed design.

    Cost estimation

    The cost was estimated based on the detailed design results.

    Preparation of tender documents

    The tender documents regarding the procurement of equipment and construction of the

    power plant were prepared.

    (5) Supervision Regarding Construction Work Under Pilot Project (conducted during the

    second half of the sixth field survey period)

    The construction work under the pilot project (micro-hydro power plant) by a local

    contractor was supervised. As it was difficult for the Study Team to be stationed at the

    site throughout the work period, the technical know-how required for the smooth

    progress of the work was transferred.

    (6) Operation and Maintenance (conducted during the second half of the sixth field

    survey period)

    The operation of the pilot plant, the test operation and inspection of which was

    completed, commenced. Guidance was provided to ensure an appropriate operation

    system based on the already established maintenance system and charge collectionsystem. The system to continue monitoring by local people without reliance on

    outsiders was established by clarifying the check items for monitoring and actually

    commencing monitoring work.

    (7) Monitoring (conducted during the seventh field survey period)

    The progress of operation control at the pilot plant was checked and any necessaryimprovements were made following consultations with the working group.

    (8) System Evaluation (conducted during the eighth field survey period)

    The entire system of the pilot plant was evaluated from various angles, includingtechnology, maintenance and financial management. The actual evaluation items were

    decided through consultations with the working group. In the case of any improvement

    being required as a result of evaluation, efforts were made to make such improvement

    following consultations with the working group.

    12.3.3 Workshops

    Various workshops were organized to extend the achievements of the OJT to a wide

    range of people related to the pilot project. As the counterparts in Indonesia were

    primarily responsible for organizing these workshops, arrangements were made to make

    the working group members present reports. Meanwhile, the JICA Study Teamprovided technical as well as financial support. The timing of the workshops which

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    corresponded to the progress of the OJT is given below.

    First workshop : during the fifth field survey period (preliminary study and project


    Second workshop : during the second half of the sixth field survey period (detaileddesign, work supervision and operation and maintenance)

    Third workshop : during the second half of the seventh field survey period (monitoring)

    Fourth workshop : during the eighth field survey period (system evaluation)


    During the various field study periods, OJT was conducted as described below.

    OJT was conducted on the following matters through a combination of various training

    techniques, including lectures by the Study Team members, demonstration at theMasanda site and existing micro-hydro power plant sites, practical exercises by the

    participants and test exercises.


    Kabupaten Tana-Toraja, South Sulawesi Province (Masanda, Makare and Rantepao)


    - OJT during fifth field survey: 13 days between 24thJune and 10thJuly, 2002

    - OJT during sixth field survey (first half): from 30thAugust to 4thSeptember, 2002

    - OJT during sixth field survey (second half): from 24th

    to 28thOctober, 2002

    - OJT during seventh field survey (first half): from 16thto 20thJanuary, 2003

    - OJT during seventh field survey (second half): from 20th

    to 23rd

    February, 2003

    - OJT during eighth field survey: 5thand 6thJune, 2003


    Table 12-4-1 List of OJT Participants

    Name Affiliation Remarks

    1 Teta Baturante Dinas Ke erasi Tator Coo eratives and SMEs Division,

    2 Ilham - ditto - - ditto -

    3 Markus Molloli Pinas Pertamban an Tator Ener and Mineral Resources

    4 Purwanto Kamurullah - ditto - - ditto -

    5 Andarias T.P. Masanda Resident in the Pro ect Area

    6 Welem Sambolan i - ditto - - ditto -

    7 Paulus Pa an Dats - ditto - - ditto -

    8 Helmi P. Nain olan MEMR MEMR counter art

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    9 Rusdi Taher SMOC and SMEs SMOC and SMEs counter art

    10 Abdullah - ditto - - ditto -

    11 Habel P. Ya asan Turbin Desa NGO active in Tana-Tora a

    12 Yunus Tandi - ditto - - ditto -

    13 Luther Pon rekun - ditto - - ditto -

    14 Haris Yasi Dera - ditto - - ditto -

    15 Simon Boroh LPA-SDA Eden Institute NGO active in NTT, voluntar

    16 Okitavianus Dharma - ditto - - ditto -

    17 Silas Kase - ditto - - ditto -

    Outline of OJT Subjects

    - OJT during fifth field survey: preliminary study; project planning

    - OJT during sixth field survey (first half): establishment of maintenance and electrical

    tariff (collection) systems; detailed design

    - OJT during sixth field survey (second half): operation and maintenance; distribution

    equipment; work supervision

    - OJT during seventh field survey (first half): monitoring

    - OJT during seventh field survey (second half): monitoring

    - OJT during eighth field survey: system evaluation

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    4thJul. Meeting room at the office of

    the Cooperatives Division,Tana-Toraja Government

    A lecture was given on the following subjects.

    i. Participation by and human resources development in the local co

    ii. Management by the local community and operation plan

    iii. Community council

    iv. Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)

    v. Electricity supply business management body

    vi. Management of technical and maintenance aspects

    vii. Community education program

    viii. Technical education

    ix. Management education

    x. Failure of business management

    xi. Income sources and budget

    xii. Awareness and education of the local community

    xiii. Benefits of using electricity

    xiv. Demand management

    xv. Financial management

    5thJul. Meeting room of a hotel


    Exercises on Project Planning and Overall Evaluation

    Exercise themes on project planning and the design of civil engineering s

    participants for the purpose of improving their understanding of these matt

    8th 9



    Meeting room of a hotel(Rantepao)

    Preparation of Wrap-Up Workshop

    10thJul Meeting room of a hotel

    (Rantepao)Wrap-Up Workshop

    After an opening address by the Deputy Governor of Kabupaten Tana-Toraon their experience of the OJT on a different theme, followed by an active

    30thAug. Meeting room of a hotel

    (Rantepao)Cost Evaluation

    - Cost evaluation at the rough planning stage (exercise conducted)

    - Cost evaluation at the detailed design stage

    Sixth FieldSurvey

    (First Half)

    Establishment ofMaintenance and

    Electrical tariff(Collection)Systems; Detailed

    Design 31th Aug. Masanda Village (target

    village of the pilot project)Construction

    - How to prepare a work plan

    - Outline of civil engineering work and transmission/distribution work

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    Sep Meeting room of a hotel

    (Rantepao)Design of Electrical Equipment

    - Electrical equipment at a power plant

    - Design of electrical equipment (continued at the next workshop)

    - Design of mechanical equipment (continued at the next workshop)



    Meeting room of a hotel

    (Rantepao)Maintenance System

    - Basic ideas of maintenance - Management system and ele

    24thOct. Existing Tendan Dua

    Micro-hydro Power PlantOperation and Maintenance

    Basics of operation and maintenance

    25thOct Meeting room of a hotel

    (Rantepao)Distribution Equipment

    Outline and important points of distribution equipment

    26thOct. Masanda Village (target

    village of the pilot project)Work Management

    Outline of work management



    Meeting room of a hotel

    (Rantepao)Preparation of Wrap-Up Workshop

    Sixth Field


    (Second Half)

    Operation and


    DistributionEquipment; Work



    Oct. Meeting room of a hotel(Rantepao)

    Wrap-Up Workshop

    As in the case of the previous wrap-up workshop, each group of OJT partic

    different theme, followed by an active Q & A session (and the exchange of


    17th Jan.


    Meeting room of a hotel


    - Explanation of the draft manual and confirmation of the schedule

    - Preparation of a checklist, etc.

    18thJan. Masanda Village (target

    village of the pilot project)Monitoring

    Monitoring was actually conducted at the pilot project site.

    Seventh Field


    (First Half):


    20thJan. Meeting room of a hotel


    A review exercise was conducted led by the counterparts based on the chec

    Seventh Field


    (Second Half)

    Monitoring 20thFeb. Meeting room of a hotel


    - Continued OJT on monitoring from the previous OJT session

    - Compilation of the OJT results, i.e. preparation of materials to be used at

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    12.5.1 Important Points for Preparation of the Manual (Knowledge Obtained Through

    OJT, etc.)

    The following knowledge obtained through the OJT was incorporated in the preparationof the manual.

    Table 12.5-1 Knowledge Obtained Through OJT and Its Incorporation in the Manual

    Knowledge Obtained Through OJT Incorporation in the Manual

    The concept of catchment area is not


    The definition of catchment area,

    calculation method and relationship between

    rainfall and discharge are described in detail.

    There is no previous experience of extracting

    candidate sites based on an existing

    topographical map.

    The method to extract candidate sites from a

    topographical map is described together with

    important issues relating to site selection.

    It is difficult to establish understanding of the

    relationship between a measured flow value and

    correction factor for calculation of the average

    flow velocity.

    The meaning of the correction factor for

    each type of flow velocity measuring method

    and river conditions is explained together

    with illustrations.

    There is insufficient understanding of how to

    measure the head and flow when a measuring

    instrument is not available (inability to conduct

    measurement without advanced equipment).

    A measuring method using locally available

    simple measuring tools (such as a hose and

    float, etc.) and a recording method are




    There is no previous experience of conducting arural social conditions survey.

    The necessary survey items in connectionwith electrification using micro-hydro power

    are listed in the form of a survey sheet.

    Knowledge of the functions of each civil

    engineering structure and of the selection of a

    desirable location is insufficient.

    The functions of each structure and

    important issues relating to the selection of a

    location are described.



    Knowledge of the selection of generating

    equipment is insufficient.

    Procurable equipment in Indonesia and the

    selection method are introduced.

    Theoretical understanding of the basic

    structures of various civil engineering structuresand the method to determine their dimensions is

    occasionally found to be difficult to achieve.

    Only basic theoretical issues are described

    and basic dimensions are described in amanner which they can be determined with

    the use of diagrams and tables.

    Basic knowledge of detailed electrical and

    mechanical design is insufficient.

    Only the minimum descriptions necessary to

    determine the specifications to be ordered

    are given and the details of design are

    described in the Annex.



    Understanding of such detailed issues as the

    selection of economical cables and the

    suitability of transformer installation for power

    distribution purposes is insufficient.

    Basic issues for distribution planning are

    simply described. As the details are

    determined on a case by case basis, it is

    recommended that the cooperation of thelocal PLN, etc. is obtained.

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    Knowledge of items to be considered when

    deciding the charge level, etc. is insufficient.

    The items to be considered when deciding

    the charge level and the calculation method

    are described using examples.




    Kabupaten officials have no special difficulty in

    organizing people and preparing rules ofManagement, etc. because of their experience

    of village-based cooperatives but their

    knowledge of the importance of accounting

    reports and need for accounting transparency is

    slightly insufficient.

    Concrete descriptions are given using

    examples of actual pages of an accountsbook to ensure transparent accounting


    12.5.2 Roles and Scope of Application of the Manual

    The manual in question compiles technical knowledge relating to the community-based

    development of micro-hydro power in unelectrified areas, targeting kabupaten officialsand members of cooperatives and NGOs that are anticipated to play a central role in

    electrification efforts.

    The manual also intends to achieve the active use of locally procurable resources in

    Indonesia (human resources, local materials and equipment made in Indonesia, etc.) andits target scale of development is outlined below.

    Scale of generation : up to 200 kW

    Applicable water flow : 5 800 litters/sec

    Effective head : 4 50 m

    12.5.3 Composition and Outline of the Manual

    The manual consists of eleven (11) chapters and the contents of each chapter areoutlined below.

    Table 12.5-2 Composition of the Manual

    Chapter 1 Introduction

    Purposes of micro-hydro power development; outline of basic components; mechanism of power

    generation; concepts of catchment area, etc.

    Chapter 2 Finding of the Potential Sites

    Site extraction method using a topographical map; important points; flow estimation method

    based on rainfall

    Chapter 3 Site Reconnaissance

    Outline survey of the site; measuring of water flow and head; demand survey method and

    important points

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    Chapter 4 Planning

    Generation method; scale of generation; selection of installation locations of various structures;

    supply and demand balancing method and important points

    Chapter 5 Design for Civil Engineering

    Methods to determine the basic structure and main dimensions of each civil engineering

    structure; important points for design

    Chapter 6 Design for Mechanical and Electrical Structures

    Selection of generating equipment, mainly cross-flow water turbine or reversible pump turbine,

    both of which are procurable in Indonesia; method to decide the items necessary to place an order

    for equipment

    Chapter 7 Design for Distribution Facilities

    Basic issues regarding transmission/distribution; design concept

    Chapter 8 Cost Estimation

    For rough planning: simplified estimation using diagram and table

    For detailed planning: estimation items; quantity surveying; unit price; others

    Chapter 9 Construction Management

    Key points for work management; schedule management; quality management

    Chapter 10 Operation and Maintenance

    Items to be included in the operation manual; maintenance guidelines

    Chapter 11 Management

    Composition and roles of the management body; tariff system; accounting system; others

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    12.6.1 Achievements of Technology Transfer

    (1) Overcoming Traditional Problems Relating to Micro-hydro power

    The traditional technical problems referred to in Chapter 12.2 were overcome through

    technology transfer and the following activities are now being conducted in Kabupaten

    Tana-Toraja and East Nusa Tenggara Province.

    1) Activities in Kabupaten Tana-Toraja

    Electrification cooperative (KLP-CELEBES) described later has been established and

    the work to refine potential sites is continuing as outlined below in Kabupaten

    Tana-Toraja and neighboring kabupatens (Kabupaten Luwu, Kabupaten Polewari and

    Kabupaten Mamasa). In addition, a database for the preparation of a master plan for

    Kabupaten Tana-Toraja is being developed.

    Number of refined sites : 100

    Number of sites surveyed : 50 of 100(see Appendix-5 for the survey list)

    Outline planning completed: 25 of 100

    Detailed design completed : 5 of 100(see Appendix-6 for the survey details)

    2) Activities in East Nusa Tenggara Province

    In East Nusa Tenggara Province, EDEN, a local NGO, is conducting the following

    study entrusted by the provincial government.

    Target areas : Flores Island and West Timor

    Number of extracted sites : 98 (see Appendix-7 for the survey list)

    Number of sites surveyed : 12 of 98

    Outline planning completed: 8 out of 98 (see Appendix-8 for the five (5) survey

    details without following three (3) sites)

    Detailed design completed : 3 out of 98 (see Appendix-9 for the survey details)

    During the eighth field survey, the JICA Study Team checked the results of the survey

    conducted by EDEN at the respective sites. It was confirmed that the accuracy of these

    surveys has reached an acceptable level even though the survey results had some minor


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    (2) Awareness of Importance of Maintenance and Organized Management of Power Plant

    The importance of the maintenance and organized management of a power plant was

    fully understood through the OJT and the positive effects of such awareness are visible

    with the management and maintenance of the pilot plant as described earlier.

    (3) Establishment of Kabupaten-Based Electrification Cooperative

    Through the process of technology transfer, the necessity for a cross-sectionalorganization has been recognized for the execution of all development processes from

    site extraction to power plant management and also for the preparation of akabupaten-based master plan for electrification. As a result, the KLP-CELEBES has

    been established. The main members of the KLP-CELEBES are officials of the

    Minerals and Energy Division and Cooperative Division of the Tana-Toraja governmentand representatives of Yayasan Turbine Desa, a NGO. The scope of its act ivities cover a

    whole range of work relating to the electrification of off-grid areas, including the

    extraction of potential sites, design, operation supervision, establishment of a power

    plant management body and creation of demand. (The Rules of Management of the

    KLP-CELEBES are included in this report in Appendix 4.)

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