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CDMA Technology Overview CBB_T01_E3 Trainning Material ZTE CORPORATION ZTE Plaza, Keji Road South, Hi-Tech Industrial Park, Nanshan District, Shenzhen, P. R. China 518057 Tel: (86) 755 26771900 800-9830-9830 Fax: (86) 755 26772236 URL: http://support.zte.com.cn E-mail: [email protected]
  • CDMA Technology OverviewCBB_T01_E3

    Trainning Material

    ZTE CORPORATIONZTE Plaza, Keji Road South,Hi-Tech Industrial Park,Nanshan District, Shenzhen,P. R. China518057Tel: (86) 755 26771900 800-9830-9830Fax: (86) 755 26772236URL: http://support.zte.com.cnE-mail: [email protected]


    Copyright 2006 ZTE CORPORATION.

    The contents of this document are protected by copyright laws and international treaties. Any reproduction or distributionof this document or any portion of this document, in any form by any means, without the prior written consent of ZTECORPORATION is prohibited. Additionally, the contents of this document are protected by contractual confidentialityobligations.

    All company, brand and product names are trade or service marks, or registered trade or service marks, of ZTE CORPORATIONor of their respective owners.

    This document is provided as is, and all express, implied, or statutory warranties, representations or conditions aredisclaimed, including without limitation any implied warranty of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title ornon-infringement. ZTE CORPORATION and its licensors shall not be liable for damages resulting from the use of or relianceon the information contained herein.

    ZTE CORPORATION or its licensors may have current or pending intellectual property rights or applications covering thesubject matter of this document. Except as expressly provided in any written license between ZTE CORPORATION and itslicensee, the user of this document shall not acquire any license to the subject matter herein.

    ZTE CORPORATION reserves the right to upgrade or make technical change to this product without further notice.

    Users may visit ZTE technical support website http://ensupport.zte.com.cn to inquire related information.

    The ultimate right to interpret this product resides in ZTE CORPORATION.

    Revision History

    Revision No. Revision Date Revision Reason

    R1.0 11/06/2007 First Draft

    Serial Number: PXJCCB200711A001E

  • Contents

    Mobile Communication System and

    Standards ...................................................1Mobile Communication System Evolution ........................... 1

    Mobile Communication Standards ..................................... 7

    WCDMA .................................................................... 7

    TD-SCDMA ................................................................ 9

    cdma2000 ................................................................11

    cdma2000 Technology Evolution ......................................19

    cdma2000 Advantages ...................................................21

    cdma2000 Frequency Spectrum Usage............31800 MHz Frequency Channel Assignment ..........................31

    450 MHz Frequency Channel Assignment ..........................32

    1900 MHz Frequency Channel Assignment ........................34

    GoTa Frequency Channel Assignment ...............................34

    ZTE and cdma2000..........................................37ZTEs Activities in cdma2000...........................................37

    ZTE cdma2000 Products List ...........................................38

    Figures ............................................................39

    Tables .............................................................41

  • C h a p t e r 1

    Mobile CommunicationSystem and Standards

    Table of Contents:Mobile Communication System Evolution ............................... 1Mobile Communication Standards ......................................... 7cdma2000 Technology Evolution ..........................................19cdma2000 Advantages .......................................................21

    Mobile CommunicationSystem Evolution

    Introduction From the early analog mobile generation (1G) to the last deployedThird Generation (3G), the paradigm has changed. The newmobile generation not only tries to improve the quality of voicecommunications, but also tries to give the user access to a newglobal communication reality. The aim is to reach communicationubiquity (anytime, anywhere) and to provide users with a newset of services.

    The growth in the number of mobile subscribers over the lastyears led to a huge utilization of voiceoriented wireless telephony.From a number of 214 million subscribers in 1997 to 1.162 millionin 2002 [1], it is predicted that by 2010 there will be more than1.700 million subscribers worldwide [2]. At same time, mobilemultimedia is also growing at a fast rate, as new terminals, withcolor screens and digital cameras, gain popularity. It is now timeto explore new demands and to find new ways to extend themobile concept. The first steps have already been taken by the2.5G, which gave users access to a data network, e.g., Internetaccess, and Multimedia Message Service (MMS ). However, usersand applications are constantly demanding more communicationpower. As a response to this demand a new generation withnew standards has been developed - 3G, based on new mobiletechnologies like the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System(UMTS ). In spite of the big initial euphoria that evolved thistechnology, commercial use of 3G networks is still very limitedto date. The first deployment was called Freedom of MobileMultimedia Access (FOMA ) and was released by NTT DoCoMoin Japan in 2001, using international standard IMT-2000, withgreat success. Nowadays some other providers are starting tomake 3G services available, namely Hutchinson in Austria and

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    Italy, Vodafone in Portugal, Germany, Spain and Italy, and TMNin Portugal.

    In the last years, benefiting from 3G constant deployment delays,many new mobile technologies gained popularity. Now, all thisnew technologies (e.g. UMTS, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth) claim for aconvergence that can only be achieved by a new mobile generation- beyond 3rd generation (B3G ). This new mobile generation mustallow the coexistence of different mobile technologies and providea differentiate set of services to the end user, which should bekept agnostic of all the network diversity. However, the provisionof differentiated services over heterogeneous mobile networksencompasses several challenges. One of these challenges is thedeployment of multimedia group communications in a mobileenvironment with different access technologies.

    The First MobileGenerations

    from 1G to 2.5G

    The first operational cellular communication system was deployedin the Norway in 1981 and was followed by similar systems inthe US and UK. These first generation systems provided voicetransmissions by using frequencies around 900 MHz and analogmodulation.

    The second generation (2G) of the wireless mobile network wasbased on low-band digital data signaling. The most popular2G wireless technology is known as Global Systems for MobileCommunications (GSM ). The first GSM systems used a 25MHzfrequency spectrum in the 900MHz band. The Frequency DivisionMultiple Access (FDMA ), which is a standard that lets multipleusers access a group of radio frequency bands and eliminatesinterference of message traffic, is used to split the available25MHz of bandwidth into 124 carrier frequencies of 200 kHz each.Each frequency is then divided using a Time Division MultipleAccess (TDMA ) scheme into eight timeslots and allows eightsimultaneous calls on the same frequency. This protocol allowslarge numbers of users to access one radio frequency by allocatingtime slots to multiple voice or data calls. TDMA breaks downdata transmission, such as a phone conversation, into fragmentsand transmits each fragment in a short burst, assigning eachfragment a time slot. With a cell phone, the caller does not detectthis fragmentation. Today, GSM systems operate in the 900MHzand 1.8 GHz bands throughout the world with the exception ofthe America Continent where they operate in the 1.9 GHz band.Within Europe, the GSM technology made possible the seamlessroaming across all countries.

    While GSM technology was developed in Europe, Code DivisionMultiple Access (CDMA) technology was developed in NorthAmerica. CDMA uses spread spectrum technology to breakup speech into small, digitized segments and encodes themto identify each call. CDMA distinguishes between multipletransmissions carried simultaneously on a single wireless signal.It carries the transmissions on that signal, freeing network roomfor the wireless carrier and providing interference-free callsfor the user. Several versions of the standard are still underdevelopment. CDMA promises to open up network capacity forwireless carriers and improve the quality of wireless messagesand users access to the wireless airwaves. Whereas CDMA breaksdown calls on a signal by codes, TDMA breaks them down by time.The result in both cases is an increased network capacity for thewireless carrier and a lack of interference for the caller. WhileGSM and other TDMA-based systems have become the dominant2G wirelesses technologies, CDMA technology is recognized as

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  • Chapter 1 Mobile Communication System and Standards

    providing clearer voice quality with less background noise, fewerdropped calls, enhanced security, greater reliability and greaternetwork capacity.

    The 2G wireless networks mentioned above are also mostly basedon circuit-switched technology, are digital and expand the rangeof applications to more advanced voice services. 2G wirelesstechnologies can handle some data capabilities such as fax andshort message service at the data rate of up to 9.6 kb/s, but it isnot suitable for web browsing and multimedia applications.

    So-called 2.5G systems enhance the data capacity of GSM andmitigate some of its limitations. These systems add packet datacapability to GSM networks, and the most important technologiesare General Packet Radio Service (GPRS ) and Wireless ApplicationProtocol (WAP ). WAP defines how Web pages and similar data canbe passed over limited bandwidth wireless channels to the smallscreens being built into new mobile telephones. At the next lowerlayer, GPRS defines how to add IP support to the existing GSMinfrastructure. GPRS provides both the means to aggregate radiochannels for higher data bandwidth and the additional serversrequired to off-load packet traffic from existing GSM circuits. Itsupplements todays circuit switched data and short messageservice. Theoretical maximum speeds of up to 171.2 kb/s areachievable with GPRS using all eight timeslots at the same time,about ten times as fast as current circuit switched data serviceson GSM networks. However, it should be noted that it is unlikelythat a network operator will allow all timeslots to be used by asingle GPRS user. Additionally, the initial GPRS terminals (phonesor modems) are supporting only one to four timeslots. Thebandwidth available to a GPRS user will therefore be limited.

    Meanwhile, developers are focusing on the much-hyped thirdgeneration (3G) of wireless systems, where beyond increaseddata rates a complete new set of services will be available. Allthese wireless technologies are summarized in Table 1





    Typical Use /Data Transmission Speed



    Time Division Multiple Access

    Voice and data up to9.6 kb/s.

    +Low batteryconsumption-One-way transmission;slow speed


    GlobalSystemfor MobileCommunications

    Voice and data.This Europeansystem uses the900 MHz and 1.8GHz frequencies. Inthe United States itoperates in the 1.9GHz PCS band up to9.6 kb/s.

    + Popularity; roamingin about 180 countries GSMs shortmessaging service onlytransmits one-way,with maximum 160 2Gcharacters long


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    Typical Use /Data Transmission Speed



    CodeDivisionMultipleAccessis a 2Gtechnologydevelopedby Quicklime that istransitioning to 3G

    TIA/EIA IS-95(Telecommunications IndustryAssociation / Electronic IndustriesAssociation InterimStandard - 95)defines the firstCDMA. Supportsvoice and data upto 14.4 Kb/s.

    + More capacity thanTDMA Fewer subscribersthan TDMA

    2.5G GPRS

    GeneralPacketRadioService -supportsdata packets

    Data Up to 115kb/s; the AT&TWireless GPRSnetwork willtransmit data at40 kb/s to 60 kb/s.

    + Messages not limitedto 160 characters


    EnhancedData Ratesfor GlobalEvolution

    Data Up to 384kb/s.

    + Temporary solutionfor operators unable toget W-CDMA licenses;offers higher-speedmobile-data access,serve more mobile-datacustomers, and free upGSM network capacityto accommodateadditional voice traffic

    + Likely to be dominantoutside the UnitedStates, and thereforegood for roamingglobally Commitments fromU.S. operators arecurrently lacking


    WidebandCDMA(alsoknown asUniversalMobileTelecommunicationsSystem-UMTS).

    Voice and data.UMTS is beingdesigned to offerspeeds from 144kb/s (for usersin fast-movingvehicles) to 2Mb/s, initially.Up to 10 Mb/s by2005, according todesigners.


    1xRTT isthe firstphase ofCDMA2000

    Voice and data Upto 144 kb/s.

    + Proponents saymigration from TDMAto CDMA2000 is simplerthan to W-CDMA, andthat spectrum use ismore efficient W-CDMA will likelybe more common inEurope


    Deliversdata on aseparatechannel

    Data up to 2.4Mb/s.

    (see CDMA2000 1xRTTabove)



    Integratesvoice anddata onthe samechannel

    Voice and data upto 2.4 Mb/s.

    (see CDMA2000 1xRTTabove)

    The Third MobileGeneration - 3G

    All 2G wireless systems are voice-centric. GSM includes ShortMessage Service (SMS ), enabling text messages of up to 160

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    characters to be sent, received and viewed on the handset. Most2G systems also support some data over their voice paths, butat painfully slow speeds usually 9.6 kb/s or 14.4 kb/s (CDMA).So in the world of 2G, voice remains king while data is alreadydominant in wired communications. However, both wired andwireless communications, are affected by the rapid growth of theInternet.

    Planning for 3G started in the 1980s. Initial plans focused onmultimedia applications such as video-conferencing for mobilephones. When it became clear that the real killer application wasthe Internet, 3G thinking had to evolve. As personal wirelesshandsets become more common than fixed telephones, it is clearthat personal wireless Internet access will follow and users willwant broadband Internet access wherever they go.

    Todays 3G specifications call for 144 kb/s while the user ismoving quickly, 384 kb/s for pedestrians, and up to 2 Mb/sfor stationary users. This is a big step up from 2G bandwidthusing 8 to 13 kb/s per channel to transport speech signals. Thesecond key issue for 3G wireless is that users will want to roamworldwide and stay connected. Today, GSM leads with almostglobal roaming. Because of the pervasiveness of GSM, users canget comprehensive coverage in Europe, parts of Asia and someU.S. coverage. A key goal of 3G is to make this roaming capacityuniversal. A third issue for 3G systems is capacity. As wirelessusage continues to expand, existing systems are reaching limits.Cells can be made smaller, permitting frequency reuse, but onlyto a point. The next step requires new technology and newbandwidth.

    The International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) isthe official International Telecommunication Union (ITU ) namefor 3G and it is an initiative intended to provide wireless accessto global telecommunication infrastructure through both satelliteand terrestrial systems, serving fixed and mobile phone users viaboth public and private telephone networks. GSM proponents putforward UMTS, an evolution of GSM, as the road to IMT-2000.Alternate schemes have come from the US, Japan and Korea. Eachscheme typically involves multiple radio transmission techniquesin order to handle evolution from 2G. Agreeing on frequency bandsfor IMT-2000 has been more difficult and the consensus includedfive different radio standards and three widely different frequencybands. They are now all part of IMT-2000. To roam anywhere inthis unified 3G system, users will likely need a quintuple-modephone able to operate in an 800/900 MHz band, a 1.7 to 1.9 GHzband and a 2.5 to 2.69 GHz band.

    Third-generation wireless also requires new infrastructure. Thereare two mobility infrastructures in wide use. While GSM hasthe mobile access protocol, GSM-MAP, the North Americaninfrastructure uses the IS-41 mobility protocol. These protocolsets define the messages passed between home location registersand visitor location registers when locating a subscriber, and themessages needed to deal with hand-offs as a subscriber movesfrom cell to cell. 3G proponents have agreed on an evolutionpath so that existing operators, running on either a GSM-MAP oran IS-41 infrastructure, can interoperate. But, the rest of thelandline infrastructure to support IMT-2000 is ready, and maybe used in the near future. The IMT-2000 family is illustrated inFigure 1

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    UMTS uses the radio technology called Wideband Code DivisionMultiple Access (W-CDMA ). WCDMA is characterized by the useof a wider band than CDMA. W-CDMA has additional advantagesof high transfer rate, and increased system capacity andcommunication quality by statistical multiplexing. WCDMA utilizesefficiently the radio spectrum to provide a maximum data rate of2 Mb/s.

    With the advent of mobile Internet access, suddenly thecircuit-based backhaul network from the base station and backhas to significantly change. 3G systems are IP-centric and willjustify an all-IP infrastructure. There will be no flip to 3G, butrather an evolution and, because of the practical need to re-usethe existing infrastructure and to take advantage of new frequencybands as they become available, that evolution will look a bitdifferent depending on where you are.

    The very definition of 3G is now an umbrella, not a single standard.However, the industry is moving in the right direction towardsa worldwide, converged, network. Meanwhile, ever-improvingDigital Signal Processing (DSP ) will allow multi-mode, multi-bandtelephones that solve the problem of diverse radio interfaces andnumerous frequency bands. When one handset provides voiceand data anywhere in the world that will be 3G no matter what isrunning behind the scenes, although it is expectable that anotherair interface, more powerful than 3G, will arise.

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  • Chapter 1 Mobile Communication System and Standards

    Mobile CommunicationStandards


    Definition Wideband Code-Division Multiple Access (WCDMA ), an ITUstandard derived from Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA ),is officially known as IMT-2000 direct spread. W-CDMA is athird-generation (3G ) mobile wireless technology that promisesmuch higher data speeds to mobile and portable wireless devicesthan commonly offered in todays market.

    WCDMA is the leading 3G wireless standard in the world today.It was adopted as a standard by the ITU under the name"IMT-2000 direct spread." WCDMA is the technology used inthe Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS ),and with data rates up to 2Mbits it has the capacity to easilyhandle bandwidth-intensive applications such as video, data,and image transmission necessary for mobile internet services.Operators such as Vodafone, Singtel, AT&T and TIM have chosenWCDMA/UMTS as their 3G solution.

    Overview Wideband Code-Division Multiple-Access (W-CDMA) is one of themain technologies for the implementation of third-generation(3G) cellular systems. It is based on radio access techniqueproposed by European Telecommunication Standard Institute(ETSI) Alpha group and the specifications was finalized 1999. Theimplementation of W-CDMA will be a technical challenge becauseof its complexity and versatility. The complexity of W-CDMAsystems can be viewed from different angles: the complexity ofeach single algorithm, the complexity of the overall system andthe computational complexity of a receiver. W-CDMA link-levelsimulations are over 10 times more compute-intensive thancurrent second-generation simulations. In W-CDMA interfacedifferent users can simultaneously transmit at different data ratesand data rates can even vary in time. UMTS networks need tosupport all current second generation services and numerous newapplications and services.

    In WCDMA, there are two different modes of operation possible:

    TDD: In this duplex method, uplink and downlinktransmissions are carried over the same frequency bandby using synchronized time intervals. Thus time slots in aphysical channel are divided into transmission and receptionpart.

    FDD: The uplink and downlink transmissions employ twoseparated frequency bands for this duplex method. A pair offrequency bands with specified separation is assigned for aconnection. Since different regions have different frequencyallocation schemes, the capability to operate in either FDDor TDD mode allows for efficient utilization of the availablespectrum

    Key Features ofWCDMA

    The key operational features of the WCDMA radio interface arelisted below:

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    Support of high data rate transmission: 384 Kbps with widearea coverage, 2 Mbps with local coverage.

    High service flexibility: support of multiple parallel variablerate services on each connection.

    Both Frequency Division Duplex (FDD ) and Time DivisionDuplex (TDD).

    Built in support for future capacity and coverage enhancingtechnologies like adaptive antennas, advanced receiverstructures and transmitter diversity.

    Support of inter frequency hand over and hand over to othersystems, including hand over to GSM.

    Efficient packet access.



    Table 2 illustrates the WCDMA technical specifications.


    Item Description

    Frequency band1920 MHz -1980 MHz and 2110 MHz - 2170MHz (Frequency Division Duplex) UL and DL

    Minimum frequencyband required ~ 2x5MHz

    Frequency re-use 1

    Carrier Spacing 4.4MHz - 5.2 MHz

    Maximum number of(voice) channels on2x5MHz

    ~196 (spreading factor 256 UL, AMR7.95kbps) / ~98 (spreading factor 128 UL,AMR 12.2kbps)

    Voice codingAMR codecs (4.75 kHz - 12.2 kHz, GSMEFR=12.2 kHz) and SID (1.8 kHz)

    Channel coding:

    Convolutional coding, Turbo code forhigh rate data Duplexer needed (190MHzseparation), Asymmetric connectionsupported

    Tx/Rx isolation MS: 55dB, BS: 80dB

    Receiver Rake

    Receiver sensitivityNode B: -121dBm, Mobile -117dBm at BERof 10-3

    Data type Packet and circuit switch

    Modulation QPSK

    Pulse shaping Root raised cosine, roll-off = 0.22

    Chip rate 3.84 Mcps

    Channel raster 200 kHz

    Maximum user data rate(Physical channel)

    ~ 2.3Mbps (spreading factor 4, parallelcodes (3 DL / 6 UL), 1/2 rate coding), butinterference limited.

    Maximum user data rate(Offered)

    384 kbps (year 2002), higher rates ( ~ 2Mbps) in the near future. HSPDA will offerdata speeds up to 8-10 Mbps (and 20 Mbpsfor MIMO systems)

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    Item Description

    Channel bit rate 5.76Mbps

    Frame length 10ms (38400 chips)

    Number of slots / frame 15

    Number of chips / slot 2560 chips

    Handovers Soft, Softer, (inter frequency: Hard)

    Power control period Time slot = 1500 Hz rate

    Power control step size 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 dB (Variable)

    Power control range UL 80dB, DL 30dB

    Mobile peak power

    Power class 1: +33 dBm (+1dB/-3dB) =2W; class 2 +27 dBm, class 3 +24 dBm,class 4 +21 dBm

    Number of unique basestation identificationcodes 512 / frequency

    Physical layer spreadingfactors 4 ... 256 UL, 4 ... 512 DL


    Introduction Time Division Synchronous CDMA (TD-SCDMA ) was proposedby China Wireless Telecommunication Standards group (CWTS )and approved by the ITU in 1999 and this technology is beingdeveloped by the Chinese Academy of TelecommunicationsTechnology and Siemens. TD-SCDMA uses the Time DivisionDuplex (TDD ) mode, which transmits uplink traffic (traffic fromthe mobile terminal to the base station) and downlink traffic(traffic from the base station to the terminal) in the sameframe in different time slots. That means that the uplink anddownlink spectrum is assigned flexibly, dependent on the typeof information being transmitted. When asymmetrical data likee-mail and internet are transmitted from the base station, moretime slots are used for downlink than for uplink. A symmetricalsplit in the uplink and downlink takes place with symmetricalservices like telephony.


    Following are the technical Specifications of TD-SCDMA:

    Frequency band: 2010 MHz - 2025 MHz in China (WLL 1900MHz - 1920 MHz)

    Minimum frequency band required: 1.6MHz

    Frequency re-use: 1 (or 3)

    Chip rate: 1.28 Mcps

    Frame length: 10ms

    Number of slots: 7

    Modulation: QPSK or 8-PSK

    Voice data rate: 8kbit/s

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    Circuit switched services: 12.2 kbits/s, 64 kbits/s, 144kbits/s, 384 kbits/s, 2048 kbits/s

    Packet data: 9.6kbits/s, 64kbits/s, 144kbits/s, 384kbits/s,2048kbits/s

    Receiver: Joint Detection, (mobile: Rake)

    Power control period: 200 Hz

    Number of slots / frame: 7

    Frame length:5ms

    Multi carrier option


    Smart antennas

    Baton handover

    Uplink synchronisation

    Hard Physical layer spreading factors: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16


    ITU-R RA-2000 approved the recommendations on 3G mobilecommunication technology specifications including those ofTD-SCDMA in May 2000. In March 2001, 3GPP fulfilledTD-SCADMA Low Chip Rate (LCR ) standardization in Release4. The improved R4 and R5 specifications have newly addedfunction points including HSDPA, air interface base stationsynchronization, terminal location (AOA-aided location), etc.CCSA is to promote the integration of R4 and R5, including HSDPAextension on multi-carrier. In March 2005, R6 containing uplinkenhanced technology (still in study) and MBMS (multimediabroadcasting/multicast) was frozen. However, proposals can stillbe made due to the instability of R6. In the future, TD LTE shouldstudy more the MC-TD-SCDMA and OFDM-based TDD technology.

    Figure 2 shows the TD-SCDMA technology evolution.


    CCSA has developed industry standards of technical requirementsfor TD-SCDMA equipments and test methods, completedresearch reports on IP-based RAN, multi-antenna, and HSDPA, and conducted pre-research on standards for test methodsof TD-SCDMA Enhanced, TD-SCDMA P2P, TD-SCDMA HSDPA

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    Multi-carriers, and TD-SCDMA Iur. In terms of TD-SCDMAnetworks, 8 standards of technical requirements and test methodshave been studied, of which 5 are for equipment, i.e., 2GHzTD-SCDMA wireless access equipments and terminals (Volumes Iand II), and 3 for interfaces including Iub and Uu interfaces.


    Introduction Third Generation (3G ) is the term used to describe the latestgeneration of mobile services which provide advanced voicecommunications and high-speed data connectivity, includingaccess to the Internet, mobile data applications and multimediacontent. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU ),working with industry standards bodies from around the world,has defined the technical requirements and standards as wellas the use of spectrum for 3G systems under the InternationalMobile Telecommunications -2000 (IMT-2000 ) program.

    The ITU requires that IMT-2000 (3G) networks, among othercapabilities, deliver improved system capacity and spectrumefficiency over 2G systems and that they support data services atminimum transmission rates of 144 kbps in mobile (outdoor) and2 Mbps in fixed (indoor) environments.

    Based on these requirements, in 1999 the ITU approved five radiointerface modes for IMT-2000 standards (Recommendation 1457).Three of the five approved standards (CDMA2000 , TD-SCDMA,WCDMA) are based on CDMA. CDMA2000 is also known by its ITUname, IMT-2000 CDMA Multi-Carrier (MC ).

    Figure 3 shows the IMT_2000 terrestrial radio interfaces.


    The worlds first 3G commercial system was launched by SKTelecom (South Korea) in October 2000 using CDMA2000 1X. Bythe end of 2006 there will be more than 430 million 3G usersacross all six continents, In Korea, Japan and North America thereare already more 3G users than 2G subscribers, and globally thenumber of 3G subscribers is expected to surpass 2G in 2011, tenyears since 3Gs inception and 5 years less than it took 2G tosurpass 1G.


    CDMA2000 represents a family of standards and includes:

    CDMA2000 1X

    CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Technologies

    CDMA2000 1xEV-DO (Evolution-Data Optimized) introducesnew high-speed packet-switched transmission techniques that

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    are specifically designed and optimized for a data-centricbroadband network that can deliver peak data rates beyond2 Mbps in a mobile environment. CDMA2000 1xEV-DO wasapproved as an IMT-2000 standard (cdma2000 High Ratepacket Data Air Interface, IS-856) at the ITU StockholmConference in 2001.

    CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rel 0

    CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rev A

    CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rev B

    Ultra Mobile Broadband - UMB

    CDMA2000 1X

    CDMA2000 1X (IS-2000) was recognized by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) as an IMT-2000 standard in November 1999. It was the first IMT-2000 technologydeployed worldwide, in October 2000.

    1X is the most spectrally efficient wide area network technology for circuit-switched voice communications and it supports packet data speeds of up to 307 kbps in a single 1.25MHz channel.

    Key features of CDMA2000 1X include:

    Voice Capacity: Supports 33-35 up to 40 simultaneousvoice calls per single 1.25 MHz FDD channel. A newcodec, 4GV, for CDMA2000 1X will increase voice capacity by 40%.

    High-Speed Data: Release 0 supports bi-directionalpeak data rates of up to 153 kbps and an average of60-100 kbps in commercial networks in a 1.25 MHzchannel. Release 1 can deliver peak data rates of up to307 kbps.

    Applications: Supports circuit-switched voice, ShortMessaging Service (SMS ), Multimedia Messaging Service(MMS ), games, GPS-based location services, music andvideo downloads

    CDMA2000 1X handsets are backwards compatible withcdmaOne systems. Figure 4 shows the cdmaOne networkdiagram.

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    The following fundamental CDMA air interface techniques areincorporated into CDMA2000 1X and backward compatiblewith cdmaOne:

    Direct Sequence Spread SpectrumMultiple Accessto improve spectral efficiency (system capacity)

    Orthogonal Code Channelization for user separationon the downlink (mitigates interference)

    Random Access to efficiently share radio access resources among all users

    Fast Uplink Power Control to resolve the near-farfield effect (reduce interference)

    Rake Receivers to resolve and benefit from multipathinterference and support soft handoffs

    Soft Handoff to handoff users between base stations

    Softer Handoff to handoff users between base stationsectors

    Soft Handoff (SHO) Active Set to provide seamlessservice with increased spectral efficiency

    Single Frequency Re-use to increase overall networkcapacity

    Downlink Slotted Paging to extend the battery lifeof mobile devices

    Blind Rate Detection to enable variable rate decodingwithout additional overhead

    Downlink Reference Channel to share a commonpilot to increase capacity

    Downlink Channel Structure to simplify system implementation and efficiency by separating channels withWalsh codes

    Scrambling to provide communications privacy

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    Speech Regulated Vocoders to reduce interferenceand increase system capacity

    In addition to the above techniques shared with cdmaOne,CDMA2000 1X incorporates the following new evolutionaryair interface techniques that are crucial to enhancing the performance of the standard:

    Variable Length Orthogonal Codes to support variable data rates

    Uplink Complex Spreading to increase data ratesand network capacity

    Fast Downlink Power Control to reduce transmitpower usage and increase capacity

    Data Rate Configurable Channels to support applications that use a variety of data rates

    Dual-Event Downlink Paging to further extend thebattery life of mobile devices

    Uplink Channel Structure to multiplex control anddata channels

    Reserve Mode Random Access to access the network more efficiently

    Parallel Turbo Codes to improve capacity throughmore efficient forward error correction

    Coherent Uplink Detection to improve data ratesand coverage

    Continuous Uplink Operation to increase transmission range and capacity, while reducing interference tohearing aids and other devices

    CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rel 0

    CDMA200 1xEV-DO Release 0 (Rel 0) offers high-speed dataaccess of up to 2.4 Mbps and it was the first mobile broadband technology deployed worldwide, in 2002 in South Korea.

    Key features of Rel 0 include:

    Broadband data: Provides a peak data rate of 2.4 Mbpsin the forward link and 153 kbps in the reverse link in asingle 1.25 MHz FDD carrier. In commercial networks,Rel 0 delivers average throughput of 300-700 kbps inthe forward link and 70-90 kbps in the reverse link

    Offers an "always on" user experience

    Leverages the existing suite of Internet Protocols (IP ),and hence supports IP-based network connectivityand software applications

    Applications: Supports broadband data applications,such as broadband Internet or VPN access, MP3 musicdownloads, 3D gaming, TV broadcasts, video and audiodownloads. In many countries, it has been deployed asa DSL substitute.

    In most all cases, CDMA2000 1xEV-DO devices include aCDMA2000 1X modem to be compatible with CDMA2000 1Xand cdmaOne systems. Figure 5 shows the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rel 0 network diagram.

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    In addition to the air interface techniques described in theprevious section on CDMA2000 1X, the following new high-speed packet data transmission enhancements are incorporated into CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rel 0:

    High-Speed Packet-Switched Downlink Channelization Structure bundling downlink resources into apacket data channel to enable high-speed data rate transmissions by combining all of the available Walsh codesand power

    Fast and Adaptive Modulation and Coding Schemes to optimize the delivery of packets based on changesin the radio environment

    Fast and Adaptive Packet Data Scheduling to rapidly adapt to changes in the radio link

    Fast Hybrid ARQ to acknowledge correct receipt ofdata and retransmit erroneous data

    Incremental Redundancy Feedback in the Downlink to increase the effective data rate in the uplinkby terminating the transmission of a packet early if it isdecoded earlier than expected

    Fast Downlink Rate Control to rapidly adjust to changes in the radio environment

    Uplink Rate Control to efficiently control the transmission of mobile devices

    Downlink Multiple User Separation to efficientlyassign the downlink channel to users

    Downlink Transmission Signaling to indicate thedownlink modulation and coding

    Closed Loop Downlink Power Control to reducepower used by the base station

    Uplink Rate Detection to enable correct decoding ofuplink data traffic

    Short Transmission Time Intervals (TTI) to accelerate the transmission of packets

    CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Revision A (Rev A)

    Rev A is an evolution of CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rel 0 that increases peak rates on reverse and forward links to support a

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    wide-variety of symmetric, delay-sensitive, real-time, andconcurrent voice and broadband data applications. It alsoincorporates OFDM technology to enable multicasting (one-to-many) multimedia content delivery.

    Rev. As more symmetric uplink speeds enable users to sendlarge files, email with attachments, high resolution photographs and personal videos from their mobile devices. With itslow network latency, service tiering with Quality of Service(QoS ) and IP-based broadband architecture, Rev A is ableto support time-sensitive applications, such as Voice over IP(VoIP ), Push-to-Talk (PTT ) and video telephony. Rev A waslaunched in October 2006, and it is the only All-IP, advancedbroadband technology commercially deployed today.

    Key features of Rev A include:

    Improved broadband speeds : Provides a peak datarate of 3.1 Mbps in the forward link and 1.8 Mbps in thereverse link in a 1.25 MHz FDD carrier. In commercialnetworks, Rev A achieves average throughput of 450-800 kbps in the forward link and 300-400 kbps in thereverse link

    Higher spectral efficiency : Supports1.2 times Rel 0forward link sector capacity and3.4 times reverse linksector capacity. Increased rate quantization on both forward and reverse link enables more efficient use air linkresources, better network utilization and lower cost ofdelivery

    Increased Capacity On both the forward and reverselink, Rev A allows operators to support more users andit improves the cost of delivering voice, data and multimedia services.

    Symmetry By increasing uplink speeds, Rev A is thefirst commercially available wireless technology to deliver a true synchronic broadband experience. Symmetryis important for applications where users send packetsof data as often as they receive them, such as receivingand sending email with attachments.

    Low latency : The average latency of Rev A is below 50milliseconds, making it ideal for delay-sensitive applications.

    Advanced Quality of Service (QoS) mechanismsthat support the prioritization and delivery of individualpackets based on the type of application or user profile.These mechanisms ensure a consistent, high-qualityuser experience.

    All-IP: Internet Protocol (IP) is the foundation for CDMA2000 radio access networks. Like 1xEV-DO Rel 0, All-IPRev A networks provide operators service flexibility andhigher bandwidth efficiencies, which translate into greater control and significant cost savings.

    Advanced services : Enables the enhanced performance of real-time broadband, symmetric data link, anddelay sensitive services such as VoIP, push-to-talk (PTT),push-to-media (PTM ), video conferencing, multicasting,and rich 3D gaming with multiple players.

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    Backward compatibility: Rev A networks support existing Rel 0 applications and devices. This backward compatibility preserves an operators previous network investments. Rev A it is backwards compatible with 1X andcdmaOne systems through multi-mode devices .

    In addition to the air interface techniques used in CDMA20001X and 1xEV-DO Rel 0, the following new high-speed packet-switched uplink techniques are incorporated into CDMA20001xEV-DO Rev A:

    Fast Uplink Rate Control to efficiently control thetransmission of mobile devices

    Fast Hybrid ARQ in Uplink to acknowledge correctreceipt of data and retransmit erroneous data

    Incremental Redundancy Feedback in Uplink toincrease the effective data rate in the downlink by terminating the transmission of a packet early if it is decodedearlier than expected

    Uplink Channelization to enable better control of theuplink data flows

    Short Transmission Time Interval (TTI) to accelerate the transmission of packets

    CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Revision B

    The Revision B (Rev B) is an evolutionary step of Rev A thatconsists of aggregating multiple EV-DO Rev A channels toprovide higher performance for multimedia delivery, bi-directional data transmissions and VoIP-based concurrent services. The Rev B standard was published by the Third Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) under document number3GPP2 C.S0024-B and by the Telecommunications IndustryAssociation (TIA ) and Electronics Industry Association asTIA/EIA/IS-856-B. Rev B will be commercially available in2008.

    Rev B builds on the efficiencies of Rev A by introducing theconcept of dynamically scalable bandwidth. Through aggregation of multiple 1.25 MHz Rev A channels, Rev B enablesdata traffic to flow over more than one carrier and henceimprove user data rates, latencies on both forward and reverse link. Peak data rates are proportional to the number ofcarriers aggregated. When 15 channels are combined withina 20 MHz bandwidth, Rev B delivers peak rates of 46.5 Mbpsin forward link and 27 Mbps in the reverse link. With the64-QAM scheme, the peak data rate in the forward link increase in a single 1.25 MHz carrier to 4.9 Mbps, an aggregated5 MHz will deliver up to 14.7 Mbps and within 20 MHz ofbandwidth up to 73.5 Mbps. By increasing the bandwidth,an operator can support more users per sector or lower theircost per megabyte to encourage longer usage. To achievethis performance, the 1.25 MHz carriers do not have to beadjacent to one another, thus giving operators the flexibilityto combine blocks of spectrum from different bands. This isunique benefit of Rev B that is not available to WCDMA/HSDPA.

    In addition to supporting mobile broadband data andOFDM-based multicasting, the lower latency characteristicsof Rev B improve the performance of delay-sensitive

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    applications such as VoIP, push-to-talk, video telephony,concurrent voice and multimedia and multiplayer onlinegaming. Rev. B also allows operators to consider thedeployment of hot zones where the demand for data ishigh.

    CDMA2000 builds on the inherent advantages of CDMAtechnologies and introduces other enhancements, suchas Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM andOFDMA), advanced control and signaling mechanisms, improvedinterference management techniques, end-to-end Quality ofService (QoS), and new antenna techniques such as MultipleInputs Multiple Outputs (MIMO) and Space Division MultipleAccess (SDMA) to increase data throughput rates and qualityof service, while significantly improving network capacity andreducing delivery cost.

    Key features ofCDMA2000

    Key features of CDMA2000 are:

    Leading performance: CDMA2000 performance in termsof data-speeds, voice capacity and latencies continue tooutperform in commercial deployments other comparabletechnologies

    Efficient use of spectrum: CDMA2000 technologies offer thehighest voice capacity and data throughput using the leastamount of spectrum, lowering the cost of delivery for operatorsand delivering superior customer experience for the end users

    Support for advanced mobile services: CDMA20001xEV-DO enables the delivery of a broad range of advancedservices, such as high-performance VoIP, push-to-talk,video telephony, multimedia messaging, multicasting andmulti-playing online gaming with richly rendered 3D graphics

    All-IP CDMA2000 technologies are compatible with IP andready to support network convergence. Today, CDMA2000operators that have deployed IP-based services enjoy moreflexibility and higher bandwidth efficiencies, which translateinto greater control and significant cost savings

    Devices selection: CDMA2000 offers the broadest selectionof devices and has a significant cost advantage comparedto other 3G technologies to meet the diverse market needsaround the world

    Seamless evolution path : CDMA2000 has a solid andlong-term evolution path which is built on the principle ofbackward and forward compatibility, in-band migration, andsupport of hybrid network configurations

    Flexibility: CDMA2000 systems have been designed for urbanas well as remote rural areas for fixed wireless, wireless localloop (WLL), limited mobility and full mobilility applications inmultiple spectrum bands, including 450 MHz, 800 MHz, 1700MHz, 1900MHz and 2100 MHz

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    cdma2000 TechnologyEvolution

    Overview cdmaOne describes a complete wireless system based on theTIA/EIA IS-95 CDMA standard, including IS-95A and IS-95Brevisions. It represents the end-to-end wireless system andall the necessary specifications that govern its operation.cdmaOne provides a family of related services including cellular,PCS and fixed wireless (wireless local loop). TIA/EIA IS-95(Telecommunications Industry Association / Electronic IndustriesAssociation Interim Standard - 95) was first published in July1993. The IS-95A revision was published in May 1995 and isthe basis for many of the commercial 2G CDMA systems aroundthe world. IS-95A describes the structure of the wideband 1.25MHz CDMA channels, power control, call processing, hand-offs,and registration techniques for system operation. In addition tovoice services, many IS-95A operators provide circuit-switcheddata connections at 14.4 kbps. IS-95A was first deployed inSeptember 1995 by Hutchison (HK). The term cdmaOne intendedto represent the end-to-end wireless system and all of thenecessary specifications that govern its operation. cdmaOnetechnology provides a family of related services including cellular,PCS, and fixed wireless (wireless local loop).

    The IS-95B revision, also termed TIA/EIA-95, combines IS-95A,ANSI-J-STD-008 and TSB-74 into a single document. TheANSI-J-STD-008 specification, published in 1995, defines acompatibility standard for 1.8 to 2.0 GHz CDMA PCS systems.TSB-74 describes interaction between IS-95A and CDMA PCSsystems that conform to ANSI-J-STD-008. Many operatorsthat have commercialized IS-95B systems offer 64 kbpspacket-switched data, in addition to voice services. Due to thedata speeds IS-95B is capable of reaching, it is categorizedas a 2.5G technology. cdmaOne IS-95B was first deployedin September 1999 in Korea and has since been adopted byoperators in Japan and Peru.

    CDMA2000 is an improvement on TIA/EIA-95. It provides asignificant improvement in voice capacity and expanded datacapability, and is backward-compatible with IS-95 handsets.CDMA2000 has a robust, long-term evolution path that providesoperators with significant technology performance, total costof ownership and time-to-market leadership in the delivery ofadvanced mobile voice and data services.

    1 year lead in the introduction of 3G, with CDMA2000 1X.

    4 year lead in broadband wireless services, with CDMA20001xEV-DO Rel. 0.

    2-3 year lead in the commercialization of all-IP 3G mobilenetworks supporting VoIP, multimedia and advancedbroadband services, with CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rev. A.

    1-2 year lead in delivering next-generation advancedmobile broadband services and the convergence oftelecommunications, information technology, consumerelectronics, and high-performance multimedia services, withUltra Mobile Broadband.

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  • CDMA Technology Overview Trainning Material

    Figure 6 shows the CDMA2000 evolution path.



    Time line depicts initial commercial availability of each technology.Those introduced beyond 2008 are under standardization and aresubject to variability.


    CDMA2000 represents a family of standards and includes:

    CDMA2000 1X

    CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Technologies

    CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rel 0

    CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rev A

    CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rev B

    Ultra Mobile Broadband - UMB (CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rev C)

    CDMA2000 builds on the inherent advantages of CDMAtechnologies and introduces other enhancements, suchas Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM andOFDMA), advanced control and signaling mechanisms, improvedinterference management techniques, end-to-end Quality ofService (QoS), and new antenna techniques such as MultipleInputs Multiple Outputs (MIMO) and Space Division MultipleAccess (SDMA) to increase data throughput rates and qualityof service, while significantly improving network capacity andreducing delivery cost.

    CDMA2000 KeyFeatures

    Following are the key features of CDMA2000:

    Leading performance: CDMA2000 performance in termsof data-speeds, voice capacity and latencies continue tooutperform in commercial deployments other comparabletechnologies

    Efficient use of spectrum: CDMA2000 technologies offer thehighest voice capacity and data throughput using the leastamount of spectrum, lowering the cost of delivery for operatorsand delivering superior customer experience for the end users

    Support for advanced mobile services: CDMA20001xEV-DO enables the delivery of a broad range of advancedservices, such as high-performance VoIP, push-to-talk,

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    video telephony, multimedia messaging, multicasting andmulti-playing online gaming with richly rendered 3D graphics

    All-IP CDMA2000 technologies are compatible with IP andready to support network convergence. Today, CDMA2000operators that have deployed IP-based services enjoy moreflexibility and higher bandwidth efficiencies, which translateinto greater control and significant cost savings

    Devices selection: CDMA2000 offers the broadest selectionof devices and has a significant cost advantage comparedto other 3G technologies to meet the diverse market needsaround the world

    Seamless evolution path: CDMA2000 has a solid andlong-term evolution path which is built on the principle ofbackward and forward compatibility, in-band migration, andsupport of hybrid network configurations

    Flexibility: CDMA2000 systems have been designed for urbanas well as remote rural areas for fixed wireless, wireless localloop (WLL), limited mobility and full mobilility applications inmultiple spectrum bands, including 450 MHz, 800 MHz, 1700MHz, 1900Mhz and 2100 MHz

    cdma2000 AdvantagesOverview CDMA2000 benefited from the extensive experience acquired

    through several years of operation of cdmaOne systems. As aresult, CDMA2000 is a very efficient and robust technology. Itdelivers the highest voice capacity and data throughput usingthe least amount of spectrum, and it can be used to provideservices in urban as well as remote areas cost effectively. Theunique features, benefits, and performance of CDMA2000 makeit an excellent technology for high-voice capacity and high-speedpacket data. Since CDMA2000 1X supports both voice and dataservices on the same carrier, it allows operators to provide bothservices cost efficiently. CDMA2000 1xEV-DO is optimized fordata and is capable to support large volumes of data traffic atbroadband speeds. 1xEV-DO is well suited to provide high-speeddata services to its mobile subscribers and/or broadband accessto the Internet.

    Due to its optimized radio technology, CDMA2000 enablesoperators to invest in fewer cell sites and deploy them faster,ultimately allowing the service providers to increase their revenueswith faster Return On Investment (ROI ).

    The CDMA2000 evolutionary path was designed to minimizeinvestment and the impact to an operators network withoutservice interruption for the end-user. This has been achievedthrough backward and forward compatibility, hardware reuse,in-band migration and hybrid network configuration. This uniquefeature of CDMA2000 technologies has provided operators asignificant time-to-market advantage over other 3G technologies.

    Advantages Compared with FDMA and TDMA, the CDMA system has manyunique advantages. Some of them are inherent in the spreadspectrum communication system, and the others are results

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  • CDMA Technology Overview Trainning Material

    of such techniques as soft handoff and power control. TheCDMA mobile communication network integrates several kindsof techniques, including spread spectrum, multi-address access,cellular networking and frequency reuse, with the coordinationof 3-D (frequency domain, time domain and code domain) signalprocessing. Therefore, it provides excellent resistance againstinterference and multipath fading, high privacy, frequency reusein many cells, requiring small Carrier-to-Interference ratio (C/I),and convenient tradeoff between capacity and quality. Thesefeatures enable CDMA to have much more advantages than othersystems. They are specifically shown in the aspects describedbelow.

    Frequency Reuse

    In the CDMA systems, as the frequencies for all cells are thesame, the reuse factor is 1. But in the GSM and AMPS/D-AMPS/N-AMPS systems, due to the frequency interference inthe cells, the frequencies for the adjacent cells are different,and the frequency reuse factor is 1/4 and 1/7 respectively.

    Figure 7 shows the frequency reuse comparison amongCDMA, GSM and AMPS/D-AMPS/N-AMPS systems.


    Table 3 illustrates the detailed comparison of the frequencyreuse between GSM and CDMA.

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    Parameter CDMA GSM

    Carrier bandwidth 1.25MHz 0.20MHz

    Carrier number 3 25*

    Frequency reuse 1-Jan 9-Mar

    Effective carrier 3/1=3 25/3=8.3

    Voice call/carrier 25 to 40+ 7.25**

    Voice call/cell 75 to 120+ 7.258.3=60.2

    Sector/cell 3 3

    Voice call/sector 75 to 120+ 60.2/3=20.0

    Erlang/sector*** 64 to 107E 13.2

    * In the best case, the GSM and AMPS have no protectedband.

    ** The remaining 0.75 of 8 voice call/carrier is used for overhead (e.g. control/frequency pilot).

    *** Based on 2% blocking

    It can be analyzed from the table that the capacity of CDMAis 5.5 times that of GSM for the same frequency spectrum.

    Wide Coverage

    The coverage radius of the CDMA systems is twice as muchas that of a standard GSM system. As the code division technique is adopted in the CDMA systems, the fading resistancecapability is stronger than that of the GSM systems, henceincreasing the coverage radius. For example, if the coveragearea is 1,000 km, 200 base stations are needed by a GSMsystem, but only 50 by a CDMA system. For the same coverage area, the number of base stations in a CDMA system isgreatly decreased, and the investment cost is obviously cutdown.

    Increased Voice Capacity

    The spectral efficiency of CDMA2000 1X permits high trafficdeployments in a small amount (1.25 MHz channel) of spectrum. CDMA2000 1X can provide voice capacity of nearly threetimes that of cdmaOne systems with Selectable Mode Vocoders (SMV ) and antenna diversity techniques. CDMA2000delivers 4-8 times higher voice capacity than TDMA-basedtechnologies. CDMA2000 1X supports 35 traffic channels persector per RF (26 Erlangs/sector/RF) using the EVRC vocoder. Voice capacity improvement in the forward link is attributed to faster power control, lower code rates (1/4 rate),and transmit diversity (for single path Rayleigh fading). Inthe reverse link, capacity improvement is primarily due tocoherent reverse link.

    In terms of voice capacity, the key findings are:

    CDMA technologies deliver a higher Erlang capacity thanGSM for any given time interval

    CDMA2000 delivers 3-times as much voice capacityas GSM

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    WCDMA offers 2-times as much voice capacity asGSM

    CDMA2000 1X voice capacity will nearly double by 2006

    4G Vocoder will boost 1X & DOrA VoIP network voicecapacity by up to 40 and 14 percent respectively

    Receive Diversity and/or Intelligent Antenna techniques will further improve CDMA2000 1X and CDMA20001xEV-DO (VoIP) voice capacity

    High Data Throughput

    Todays commercial CDMA2000 1X networks support a peakdata rate of 153 kbps (Rel. 0) or 307 kbps (Rel. 1). CDMA2000 1xEV-DO enables peak rates of up to 2.4 Mbps (Rev.0) or 3.1 Mbps on the downlink, and 1.8 Mbps on the uplink(Rev A). 1xEV-DO networks deliver the highest data speedscommercially available today. Average data throughput for:

    CDMA2000 1X is 60-100 kbps.

    CDMA2000 1xEV-DO is 400-800 kbps.

    Multicast Services

    With the introduction of EV-DO Release 0 and followed byEV-DO Revisions A and B, operators have the ability to offermulticast services, one to many delivery, which allows transmitting the same information to an unlimited number ofusers without the need to rebroadcast the information multiple times. Multicast functionality offers significant advantages to operators and users. For operators, it allows a vastrange of high-revenue generating services with minimumnetwork resources at low cost. For the end-user, multicastservices provide access to multimedia content, such as TVbroadcasts, MP3 audio files, movies, etc., and a higher quality of services. For 1xEV-DO Rel 0, the multicast functionalityis referred to as Gold Multicast and for 1xEV-DO Rev A it iscalled Platinum Multicast.

    Frequency Band Flexibility

    CDMA2000 can be deployed in most cellular and PCS spectrum. CDMA2000 networks have already been deployed inthe 450, 800, 1700, 1900 and 2100 MHz bands.

    Migration Path

    CDMA 2000 provides a direct migration path to 3G for firstgeneration (1G) and second generation (2G) systems. CDMA2000 systems have been deployed by Greenfield, cdmaOne,TDMA and analog operators.

    CDMA2000 3G offers a viable solution for any existing cellular and PCS as well as new 3G licensed operator. CDMA2000was designed so that any wireless carrier, regardless of existing air interface, frequency or core network standards canbenefit from its spectrum efficiencies and data capabilities.

    Figure 8 shows the CDMA2000 migration path to 3G for firstgeneration (1G) and second generation (2G) systems.

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    cdmaOne to CDMA2000 Migration

    CDMA2000 is the natural 3G evolution for cdmaOne operators, requiring only minor upgrades to the network andsmall capital investment. CDMA2000 handsets are backward compatible with the legacy cdmaOne infrastructure.Because of this, the transition from cdmaOne to CDMA2000 1X is relatively easy for operators and transparentfor consumers.

    This inherent advantage of cdmaOne gives operators significant market advantage. cdmaOne operators lead deployment of 3G across markets in Asia, the Americas andEurope.

    The transition from cdmaOne to CDMA2000 requireschannel card and software upgrades to cdmaOne basestations (older base stations may require some hardwareupgrades) and introduction of new handsets.

    TDMA to CDMA2000 Migration

    Lacking a technological migration path to enable highervoice capacity and bandwidth-intense mobile data services, TDMA has reached its limit. Thus, TDMA operatorsare faced with a difficult decision to choose a technology that will assure their future in the wireless market.CDMA2000 is an extremely attractive solution for TDMAoperators. It offers them a direct path to 3G, preservestheir investment in the existing core network, and allowsthem flexibility to migrate to 3G over time, as the marketfor advanced service evolves.

    Serves Multiple Markets

    CDMA2000 technologies support both fixed (Wireless LocalLoop WLL ) and mobile services and can be used by operators to provide affordable voice services and broadband dataaccess in urban, as well as remote areas, cost-effectively.While CDMA2000 technologies are mostly deployed by operators to offer mobile services, in many developing regions,i.e., Africa and South East Asia, CDMA2000 WLL technologyis used to provide voice and data services to communities.

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    Supports Multiple Service Platforms

    CDMA2000 can be used with various operating systems(Palm and PocketPC), application platforms (JAVA andBREW), WAP, and emerging wireless technologies (WiFi andPush-to-Talk).

    Full Backward Compatibility

    CDMA2000 is backward compatible with cdmaOne, and 1xEV-DO is backward compatible with both CDMA2000 1X andcdmaOne through multi-mode devices. Backward compatibility assures service transparency for the end user and smoothintegration of 2G and 3G networks for the operator.

    Increased Battery Life

    CDMA2000 significantly enhances battery performance.Benefits include:

    Quick paging channel operation

    Improved reverse link performance

    New common channel structure and operation

    Reverse link gated transmission

    New MAC states for efficient and ubiquitous idle time operation


    CDMA2000 is synchronized with the Universal CoordinatedTime (UCT ). The forward link transmission timing ofall CDMA2000 base stations worldwide is synchronizedwithin a few microseconds. Base station synchronizationcan be achieved through several techniques includingself-synchronization, radio beep, or through satellite-basedsystems such as GPS, Galileo, or GLONASS. Reverse linktiming is based on the received timing derived from the firstmultipath component used by the terminal.

    There are several benefits to having all base stations in anetwork synchronized:

    The common time reference improves acquisition of channels and hand-off procedures since there is no time ambiguity when looking for and adding a new cell in the activeset.

    It also enables the system to operate some of thecommon channels in soft hand-off, which improves theefficiency of the common channel operation.

    Common network time reference allows implementationof very efficient "position location" techniques.

    Power Control

    The basic frame length is 20 ms divided into 16 equal powercontrol groups. In addition, CDMA2000 defines a 5 ms framestructure, essentially to support signaling bursts, as well as40 and 80 ms frames, which offer additional interleavingdepth and diversity gains for data services. Unlike IS-95where Fast Closed Loop Power Control was applied only tothe reverse link, CDMA2000 channels can be power controlled at up to 800 Hz in both the reverse and forward links.

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    The reverse link power control command bits are puncturedinto the F-FCH or the F-DCCH (explained in later sections)depending on the service configuration. The forward linkpower control command bits are punctured in the last quarterof the R-PICH power control slot.

    In the reverse link, during gated transmission, the powercontrol rate is reduced to 400 or 200 Hz on both links. Thereverse link power control sub-channel may also be dividedinto two independent power control streams, either both at400 bps, or one at 200 bps and the other at 600 bps. Thisallows for independent power control of forward link channels.

    In addition to the closed loop power control, the power on thereverse link of CDMA2000 is also controlled through an OpenLoop Power Control mechanism. This mechanism inversesthe slow fading effect due to path loss and shadowing. Italso acts as a safety fuse when the fast power control fails.When the forward link is lost, the closed loop reverse linkpower control is "freewheeling" and the terminal disruptivelyinterferes with neighboring. In such a case, the open loopreduces the terminal output power and limits the impact tothe system. Finally the Outer Loop Power drives the closedloop power control to the desired set point based on errorstatistics that it collects from the forward link or reverse link.Due to the expanded data rate range and various QoS requirements, different users will have different outer loop thresholds; thus, different users will receive different power levelsat the base station. In the reverse link, CDMA2000 definessome nominal gain offsets based on various channel frameformat and coding schemes. The remaining differences willbe corrected by the outer loop itself.

    Soft Hand-off

    Even with dedicated channel operation, the terminal keepssearching for new cells as it moves across the network. Inaddition to the active set, neighbor set, and remaining set,the terminal also maintains a candidate set.

    When a terminal is traveling in a network, the pilot froma new BTS (P2) strength exceeds the minimum thresholdTADD for addition in the active set. However, initially itsrelative contribution to the total received signal strength isnot sufficient and the terminal moves P2 to the candidateset. The decision threshold for adding a new pilot to theactive set is defined by a linear function of signal strengthof the total active set. The network defines the slope andcross point of the function. When strength of P2 is detectedto be above the dynamic threshold, the terminal signals thisevent to the network. The terminal then receives a hand-offdirection message from the network requesting the additionof P2 in the active set. The terminal now operates in softhand-off.

    The strength of serving BTS (P1) drops below the activeset threshold, meaning P1 contribution to the total receivedsignal strength does not justify the cost of transmitting P1.The terminal starts a hand-off drop timer. The timer expiresand the terminal notifies the network that P1 dropped belowthe threshold. The terminal receives a hand-off messagefrom the network moving P1 from the active set to the cand

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    idate set. Then P1 strength drops below TDROP and theterminal starts a hand-off drop timer, which expires after aset time. P1 is then moved from candidate set to neighborset. This step-by-step procedure with multiple thresholdsand timers ensures that the resource is only used when beneficial to the link and pilots are not constantly added and removed from the various lists, therefore limiting the associatedsignaling.

    In addition to intrasystem, intrafrequency monitoring, thenetwork may direct the terminal to look for base stations ona different frequency or a different system. CDMA2000 provides a framework to the terminal in support of the inter- frequency handover measurements consisting of identity andsystem parameters to be measured. The terminal performsrequired measurements as allowed by its hardware capability.

    In case of a terminal with dual receiver structure, the measurement can be done in parallel. When a terminal has a singlereceiver, the channel reception will be interrupted when performing the measurement. In this instance, during the measurement, a certain portion of a frame will be lost. To improvethe chance of successful decoding, the terminal is allowed tobias the FL power control loop and boost the RL transmitpower before performing the measurement. This methodincreases the energy per information bit and reduces the riskof losing the link in the interval. Based on measurementreports provided by the terminal, the network then decideswhether or not to hand-off a given terminal to a differentfrequency system. It does not release the resource untilit receives confirmation that hand-off was successful or thetimer expires. This enables the terminal to come back in caseit could not acquire the new frequency or the new system.

    Transmit Diversity

    Transmit diversity consists of de-multiplexing and modulating data into two orthogonal signals, each of them transmitted from a different antenna at the same frequency. Thetwo orthogonal signals are generated using either Orthogonal Transmit Diversity (OTD) or Space-Time Spreading (STS). The receiver reconstructs the original signal using the diversity signals, thus taking advantage of the additional spaceand/or frequency diversity.

    Another transmission option is directive transmission. Thebase station directs a beam towards a single user or a groupof users in a specific location, thus providing space separation in addition to code separation. Depending on the radioenvironment, transmit diversity techniques may improve thelink performance by up to 5 dB.

    Voice and Data Channels

    The CDMA2000 forward traffic channel structure may includeseveral physical channels:

    The Fundamental Channel (F-FCH) is equivalent to functionality Traffic Channel (TCH ) for IS-95. It can supportdata, voice, or signaling multiplexed with one another atany rate from 750 bps to 14.4 kbps.

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  • Chapter 1 Mobile Communication System and Standards

    The Supplemental Channel (F-SCH) supports high ratedata services. The network may schedule transmissionon the F-SCH on a frame-by- frame basis, if desired.

    The Dedicated Control Channel (F-DCCH) is used for signaling or bursty data sessions. This channel allows forsending the signaling information without any impact onthe parallel data stream.

    The reverse traffic channel structure is similar to the forwardtraffic channel. It may include R-PICH, a Fundamental Channel (R-FCH), and/or a Dedicated Control Channel (R-DCCH),and one or several Supplemental Channels (R-SCH). Theirfunctionality and encoding structure is the same as for theforward link with data rates ranging from 1 kbps to 1 Mbps(It is important to note that while the standard supports amaximum data rate of 1 Mbps, existing products are supporting a peak data rate of 307 kbps).

    Traffic Channel

    The traffic channel structure and frame format is very flexible. In order to limit the signaling load that would be associated with a full frame format parameter negotiation, CDMA2000 specifies a set of channel configurations. It definesa spreading rate and an associated set of frames for eachconfiguration.

    The forward traffic channel always includes either a fundamental channel or a dedicated control channel. The mainbenefit of this multichannel forward traffic structure is theflexibility to independently set up and tear down new services without any complicated multiplexing reconfiguration orcode channel juggling. The structure also allows differenthand-off configurations for different channels. For example,the F-DCCH, which carries critical signaling information, maybe in soft hand-off, while the associated F-SCH operationcould be based on a best cell strategy.

    Supplemental Channels

    One key CDMA2000 1X feature is the ability to support bothvoice and data services on the same carrier. CDMA2000operates at up to 16 or 32 times the FCH rate-also referred to as 16x or 32x in Release 0 and A, respectively. Incontrast to voice calls, the traffic generated by packet datacalls is bursty, with small durations of high traffic separated by larger durations of no traffic. It is very inefficient todedicate a permanent traffic channel to a packet data call.This burstiness impacts the amount of available power to thevoice calls, possibly degrading their quality if the system isnot engineered correctly. Hence, a key CDMA2000 designissue is assuring that a CDMA channel carrying voice anddata calls simultaneously do so with negligible impact to theQoS of both.

    Supplemental Channels (SCHs) can be assigned and deassigned at any time by the base station. The SCH has the additional benefit of improved modulation, coding, and power control schemes. This allows a single SCH to provide a data rateof up to 16 FCH in CDMA2000 Release 0 (or 153.6 kbps forRate Set 1 rates), and up to 32 FCH in CDMA2000 Release A(or 307.2 kbps for Rate Set 1 rates). Note that each sector ofa base station may transmit multiple SCHs simultaneously if

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  • CDMA Technology Overview Trainning Material

    it has sufficient transmit power and Walsh codes. The CDMA2000 standard limits the number of SCHs a mobile stationcan support simultaneously to two. This is in addition to theFCH or DCCH, which are set up for the entire duration of thecall since they are used to carry signaling and control framesas well as data. Two approaches are possible: individuallyassigned SCHs, with either finite or infinite assignments, orshared SCHs with infinite assignments.

    For bursty and delay-tolerant traffic, assigning a few scheduled fat pipes is preferable to dedicating many thin or slowpipes. The fat-pipe approach exploits variations in the channel conditions of different users to maximize sector throughput. The more sensitive the traffic becomes to delay, suchas voice, the more appropriate the dedicated traffic channelapproach becomes.

    Turbo Coding

    CDMA2000 provides the option of using either turbo codingor convolutional coding on the forward and reverse SCHs.Both coding schemes are optional for the base station andthe mobile station, and the capability of each is communicated through signaling messages prior to the set up of thecall. In addition to peak rate increase and improved rategranularity, the major improvement to the traffic channelcoding in CDMA2000 is the support of turbo coding at rate1/2, 1/3, or 1/4. The turbo code is based on 1/8 state parallel structure and can only be used for supplemental channelsand frames with more than 360 bits. Turbo coding providesa very efficient scheme for data transmission and leads tobetter link performance and system capacity improvements. In general, turbo coding provides a performance gain interms of power savings over convolutional coding. This gainis a function of the data rate, with higher data rates generallyproviding more turbo coding gain.

    30 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION

  • C h a p t e r 2

    cdma2000 FrequencySpectrum Usage

    Table of Contents:800 MHz Frequency Channel Assignment ..............................31450 MHz Frequency Channel Assignment ..............................321900 MHz Frequency Channel Assignment ............................34GoTa Frequency Channel Assignment ...................................34

    800 MHz FrequencyChannel AssignmentThe 800M Hz system designators for the mobile station and basestation shall be as specified below.

    Table 4 illustrates the band class 0 system frequencycorrespondence.


    Transmit Frequency Band (MHz)SystemDesignator

    Mobile Station Base Station

    824.025-838.005 869.025-880.005A

    844.995-846.495 889.995-891.495

    835.005-844.995 880.005-889.995B

    846.495-848.985 891.495-893.985

    Table 5 illustrates the CDMA channel numbers and correspondingfrequencies for band class 0 and spreading rate 1.

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  • CDMA Technology Overview Trainning Material


    Transmit Frequency Band (MHz)SystemDesignator



    Mobile Station Base Station

    Not Valid 991-1012 824.040-824.670 869.040-869.670A

    Valid 1013-1023

    824.700-825.000 869.700-870.000

    Valid 1-311 825.030-834.330 870.030-879.330A

    Not Valid 312-333 834.360-834.990 879.360-879.990

    Not Valid 334-355 835.020-835.650 880.020-880.650

    Valid 356-644 835.680-844.320 880.680-889.320


    Not Valid 645-666 844.350-846.480 889.350-889.980

    Not Valid 667-688 845.010-845.640 890.010-890.640

    Valid 689-694 845.670-845.820 890.670-890.820


    Not Valid 695-716 845.850-846.480 890.850-891.480

    Not Valid 717-738 846.510-847.140 891.510-892.140

    Valid 739-777 847.170-848.310 892.170-893.310


    Not Valid 778-799 848.350-848.970 893.340-893.970

    450 MHz FrequencyChannel AssignmentThe 450MHz system designators for the mobile station and basestation shall be as specified below.

    Table 6 illustrates the band class 5 frequency correspondence andband subclasses.

    32 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION

  • Chapter 2 cdma2000 Frequency Spectrum Usage


    Transmit Frequency Band (MHz)Block Designator


    Mobile Station Base Station

    A 0 452.500-457.475 452.500-457.475

    B 1 452.000-456.475 462.000-466.475

    C 2 452.500-457.475 460.000-464.800

    D 3 411.675-415.850 421.675-425.850

    E 4 415.500-415.850 425.500-429.975

    F 5 479.000-483.480 489.000-493.480

    G 6 455.230-459.990 465.230-469.990

    H 7 451.310-455.730 461.310-465.730

    Table 7 illustrates the CDMA channel number to CDMA frequencyassignment correspondence for band class 5.



    CDMA ChannelNumber

    Center Frequency for CDMAChannel (MHz)

    1.N.300 0.025 (N-1) + 450.000

    539.N.871 0.025 (N-512) + 411.000

    1039.N.1473 0.020 (N-1024) + 451.010

    Mobile Station

    1792.N.2016 0.020 (N-1792) + 479.000

    1.N.300 0.025 (N-1) + 460.000

    539.N.871 0.025 (N-512) + 421.000

    1039.N.1473 0.020 (N-1024) + 461.010

    Base Station

    1792.N.2016 0.020 (N-1792) + 489.000

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  • CDMA Technology Overview Trainning Material

    1900 MHz FrequencyChannel AssignmentThe 1900MHz system designators for the mobile station and basestation shall be as specified below.

    Table 8 illustrates the band class 1 frequency correspondence.


    Transmit Frequency Band (MHz)Block Designator

    Mobile Station Base Station

    A 1850-1865 1930-1945

    D 1865-1870 1945-1950

    B 1870-1885 1950-1965

    E 1885-1890 1965-1970

    F 1890-1895 1970-1970

    C 1895-1910 1975-1990

    Table 9 illustrates the CDMA channel number to CDMA frequencyassignment correspondence for band class 1.



    CDMA ChannelNumber

    Center Frequency for CDMAChannel (MHz)

    Mobile Station

    0N1199 1850.000+0.050N

    Base Station

    0N1199 1930.000+0.050N

    GoTa Frequency ChannelAssignment

    GoTa WorkingFrequency

    GoTa system working frequency bands are:

    uplink: 806~821MHz

    34 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION

  • Chapter 2 cdma2000 Frequency Spectrum Usage

    downlink: 851~866MHz

    The total bandwidth is 2*15MHz. In actual application, this bandis divided to three 5MHz bands and they are used by differentoperators.

    In the international standard protocol, this frequency band classis defined as 10; so in GoTa system, 10 is used to stand for thisfrequency band.

    GoTa FrequencyBand

    One GoTa channel occupies 1.25MHz bandwidth. For the total of10MHz trunking frequency band, GoTa will use according to thefollowing method shown in Figure 9.


    In order to increase the frequency usage efficiency, if one operatorhas two adjacent 5MHz bands, they are permitted to be usedcontinuously in GoTa system. The broken line means that, if two5MHz bands can be used together, then the bandwidth of thebroken line between two bands can be used as one GoTa channel.

    Table 10 illustrates the band class 10 system frequencycorrespondence.


    Transmission frequency (MHZ)Systemmark


    MS BTS

    A 0 806~810.975 851~855.975

    B 1 811~815.975 856~860.975

    C 2 816~820.975 861~865.975

    Table 11 illustrates the relationship between channel number andfrequency in GoTa system.


    Transmission frequency(MHZ)




    numberMS BTS

    Ineffective 0~49 806.000~807.225


    Effective 50~150 807.250~809.750



    Effectivewith cond


    151~199 809.775~810.975


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  • CDMA Technology Overview Trainning Material

    Transmission frequency(MHZ)




    numberMS BTS

    Effectivewith cond


    200~249 811.000~812.225


    Effective 250~350 812.250~814.750



    Effectivewith cond


    351~399 814.775~815.975


    Effectivewith cond


    400~449 816.000~817.225


    Effective 450~550 817.250~819.750



    Ineffective 551~599 819.775~820.975


    BTS Rx frequency: 0.0250*N+806

    BTS Tx frequency: 0.0250*N+851, 1 N 599

    Table 12 illustrates the GoTa priority channel number


    System mark Channel number

    A 50, 100, 150

    B 250, 300, 350

    C 450, 500, 550

    36 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION

  • C h a p t e r 3

    ZTE and cdma2000

    Table of Contents:ZTEs Activities in cdma2000...............................................37ZTE cdma2000 Products List ...............................................38

    ZTEs Activities in cdma2000Overview As information is highly demanded, data service has been

    developing towards diversity, large capacity, and asymmetric.In order to satisfy data service market and keep pace with theworld telecommunication, ZTE commissioned the first cdma20001x mobile communication system and successfully developed thefirst cdma2000 1x EV-DO mobile communication system in China.

    The evolution path of ZTE products is IS-95Acdma20001xcdma2000 1x EV-DO.

    History of ZTEIn cdma2000Research &


    ZTEs contribution in cdma2000 research and development isdescribed below.

    In 1995, launched CDMA mobile communication project.

    In March 1998, this project was approved by the State PlanningCommittee.

    At the end of 1998, launched large-scale research anddevelopment in CDMA base station system.

    In November 1999, ZTE took the lead in signing CDMAResearch and Development Agreement with QualcommCompany.

    In March 2000, used the BSS to dial through a call to IS-95.

    In April 2001, put BSS into large-scale commercial operationat China Unioncom, making an epoch of national mobilecommunications.

    In April 2000, launched large-scale research and developmentin cdma2000 1x system.

    In October 2001, put cdma2000 1x into commercial operation.

    In November 2001, launched large-scale research anddevelopment in cdma2000 1xEV-DO products.

    In February 2002, launched research and development incdma2000 base station system based on all-IP technology.

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  • CDMA Technology Overview Trainning Material

    In June 2002, ZTE, for the first time, exhibited completecdma2000 1x EV-Do equipment on Hong Kong 3G annual fair.

    In October 2003, commissioned a field trial cdma2000 1xEV-DO.

    In June 2004, acquired the capability to supply cdma2000 1xEV-DO products in batch.

    In July 2004, commissioned a field trial cdma2000 1x ReleaseA.

    In November 2004, put cdma2000 1x Release A and cdma20001x EV-DO products into commercial operation.

    In 2004, launched research and development in cdma2000 1xEV-DV products.

    In April 2005, introduced cdma2000 1x EV-DO enhancedversion and LMSD network elements for ALL-IP core networks.

    ZTE cdma2000 ProductsListCurrently, ZTE is capable to provide the completed cdma2000 1xand cdma2000 1x EV-DO solutions.

    Table 13 shows the ZTE cdma2000 product series list.


    Specification Product Introduction Band

    ZXC10-BSS 1x

    This system is based on the IS-95A/B and cdma20001x. Inside the system, theres a high speed packetbased network platform to perform the basebandmodulation/demodulation, radio resources assignment,call processing, power control, soft handoff as well asthe system operation and maintenance.

    450M, 800Mand 1.9 G


    ZXC10-BSS 1xGoTa

    Global Open Trunking Architecture (GoTa ) is theglobal first cdma2000 1x based trunked communicationsystem. It integrates the interconnected clusteringsystem and the trunked radio system. With GoTa,operators can provide the customers with bothinterconnected clustering communication services andtrunked radio services.

    450M and800M



    This system is Real IP based. It provides high speedpacket switch and be compatible with HIRS system.It can be upgraded seamlessly. The system hassignificant capacity, integration ability and extensibility.

    450M, 800Mand 1.9 G

    38 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION

  • Figures

    Figure 1 IMT 2000 Family .................................................... 6

    Figure 2 TD-SCDMA Technology Evolution .............................10

    Figure 3 IMT-2000 Terrestrial Radio Interfaces.......................11

    Figure 4 cdmaOne Network Diagram ....................................13

    Figure 5 CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rel 0 Network Diagram.............15

    Figure 6 CDMA2000 Evolution Path ......................................20

    Figure 7 Frequency Reuse Comparison Among CDMA, GSM

    and AMPS/D-AMPS/N-AMPS Systems....................22

    Figure 8 CDMA2000 Migration Path ......................................25

    Figure 9 GoTa Frequency Channel Assignment .......................35

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  • CDMA Technology Overview Trainning Material

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    40 Confidential and Proprietary Information of ZTE CORPORATION

  • Tables

    Table 1 Transport Technologies ............................................. 3

    Table 2 WCDMA Technical Specifications ................................ 8

    Table 3 Frequency Reuse Comparison between GSM and

    CDMA ..............................................................23

    Table 4 Band