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How to Get A PhD? Research Ethics Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011 [email protected] http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/ 1 HOW TO GET A PhD: METHODS AND PRACTICAL HINTS (2011-2012) University of Oulu, October 6 th , 2011 Research Ethics Prof. Riitta Keiski Department of Process and Environmental Engineering POB 4300, FI-90014 University of Oulu +358 40 726 3018, [email protected], http://www.oulu.fi/polam/ Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011 Contents - Definitions in Ethics - Research Ethics and Ethics - Research Ethics in Finland and The National Advisory Board of Research Ethics (TENK) - Guidelines for the Prevention, Handling and Investigation of Misconduct and Fraud in Scientific Research (2002) - Good Scientific Practice and Responsibilities -Violation of Good Scientific Practice Misconduct and Fraud - Procedures in Handling Ethical Violations - Ethical Principals that Various Codes Address - Research Ethics Four areas - Good Practices in Publishing - IEEE Code of Ethics - Copyright law, IEEE rules for self- plagiarism - Examples on violations - Programmes to detect plagiarism, UOulu - Summary - Materials What is Research Ethics? What is the role of Ethical Codes? How Ethical Problems can be solved? 2 Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011
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  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    1

    HOW TO GET A PhD: METHODS AND PRACTICAL HINTS

    (2011-2012)

    University of Oulu, October 6th, 2011

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta KeiskiDepartment of Process and Environmental Engineering

    POB 4300, FI-90014 University of Oulu

    +358 40 726 3018, [email protected], http://www.oulu.fi/polam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Contents- Definitions in Ethics - Research Ethics and Ethics

    - Research Ethics in Finland and The National

    Advisory Board of Research Ethics (TENK)

    - Guidelines for the Prevention, Handling and

    Investigation of Misconduct and Fraud in

    Scientific Research (2002)

    - Good Scientific Practice and Responsibilities

    -Violation of Good Scientific Practice

    Misconduct and Fraud

    - Procedures in Handling Ethical Violations

    - Ethical Principals that Various Codes Address

    - Research Ethics Four areas

    - Good Practices in Publishing

    - IEEE Code of Ethics

    - Copyright law, IEEE rules for self- plagiarism

    - Examples on violations

    - Programmes to detect plagiarism, UOulu

    - Summary

    - Materials

    What is Research Ethics?

    What is the role of Ethical Codes?

    How Ethical Problems can be solved?

    2

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Definitions in Ethics

    Also called moral philosophy, involves systematizing, defending, and

    recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior.

    Three general subject areas: metaethics, normative ethics, and applied

    ethics.

    Metaethics investigates where our ethical principles come from, and what

    they mean. Are they merely social inventions? Do they involve more than

    expressions of our individual emotions?

    Normative ethics takes on a more practical task, which involves moral

    standards that regulate right and wrong conduct.

    Applied ethics involves examining specific controversial issues, such as

    abortion, infanticide, animal rights, environmental concerns, capital

    punishment, or nuclear war.

    3

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Responsibilities of Human beings

    For us human beings it is natural to define/understand/realize what

    is e.g.

    good and bad; right and wrong

    For us human beings it is natural to seek

    Love, joy, peace, patience, friendliness, goodness, faithfullness, tenderness, self-

    control

    We live, however, in pluralistic world

    Moral in us human beings is, however, developing based on different experiences

    that we have in our life

    Thus, there is a great variation in the opinion about good and right

    We all need to take into account those who share the life with us at home, in

    working places, in different contexts moral

    Confidence is created via our moral

    Terho Pursiainen, 4.4.2001

    4

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Declaration of Human Responsibilities

    Basis for a new global ethics: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the

    General Assembly of the United Nations on December 10, l948.

    "Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development

    of his (her) personality is possible." Article 29 (1)

    "Education shall be directed to the full development of the human person-ality and to

    the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms." Article

    26 (2), Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

    The Principles of a Global Ethics" (Parliament of the World's Religions in Chicago

    in 1993).

    Every human being must be treated humanely

    Commitment to a culture of non-violence and respect for life

    Commitment to a culture of solidarity and a just economic order

    Commitment to a culture of tolerance and a life of truthfulness

    Commitment to a culture of equal rights and partnership between men and women

    The time has now come for the ethical principles to be translated into

    RESPONSIBILITIES and for all people, as "citizens of the world," to aim toward

    these goals.

    5

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Research Ethics and Ethics Why should we teach

    and discuss this matter?

    Definition of ethics and its philosophical background?

    Why ethics is globally important global changes and threats?

    What is ment my research and engineering ethics?

    What is ment by environmental ethics, sustainable development?

    Internal values of ethics and technology (dynamicity and efficiency) are

    they contradictonary?

    How ethical problems can be solved?

    What is the role of ethical codes?

    The honorary rules of TEK (TEK 1996), The ethical codes for professors

    (Professoriliitto 2001)

    Declaration of human genome and human rights (UNESCO 1997), International

    declaration on human genetic data (UNESCO 2003), Universal declaration on

    bioethics and human rights (UNESCO 2005)

    UNESCO ja COMEST: Ethical codes for water use, energy use, ICT and outer

    space; bioethics, ethics of science and technology, ethics education programme

    National Advisory Board on Research Ethics (Finland; Ministry of Education)

    6

    Even...

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Research Ethics and Responsibilities

    A researchers is responsible to other researchers, to all those

    participating in the joint research, to the whole scientific

    society and above all to him/herself (most important)

    Ethical questions: What are ethically acceptable research areas and methods?

    Should the researcher take responsibility of the consequences of the research

    now and also in the future after tousands of years?

    Does the researcher need ethical codes and rules?

    Who makes the ethical desicions: researcher, research advisor, university?

    What you should do if you know about misconduct of scientific/ethical rules?

    What is your responsibility in this case?

    Quality/quantity in publications, publicity, celebrity?

    7

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    For Students

    Ethical Code - As a student

    I) My main objective is to learn. II) I am aware of my role as a responsible agent in the science community. I am,

    in it, an example for others.

    III) I will take care of myself and my abilities to study, and will advance the well-

    being of my university community and the communal spirit.

    IV) I, with my actions, will advance my learning and the learning of my fellow

    students. I will not merely aim to complete my courses quickly.

    V) I recognize the value of the work made by others and will always act honestly. I

    will, in my studies, advance the critical approach of the science community,

    truthfulness, communality, and impartiality. So I will not cheat or otherwise operate dishonestly in an exam or teaching situation,

    My course and seminar work, and other theses are of my own making, unless I am engaged in

    pair or group work when the collaboration, is made visible in the credits or in some other

    appropriate way,

    I will appropriately mark down the references I have used and will not claim information

    obtainable through e.g. Internet as my own,

    I will accept the fact that I am, as a student, a part of the science community, and understand

    that my individual claims cannot always be fulfilled, and thus will not pressure other students or

    the staff to follow them.

    VI) I will not, by my behaviour, disturb others learning and working in a teaching

    or exam situation.

    VII) I will respect the teachers teaching and research work. So I participate in teaching situations and I will act actively and responsibly in them,

    I will give relevant feedback of the teaching,

    I will, in my work, follow the instructions given by the teachers, and will promote positive

    atmosphere in the teaching situations.

    http://www.oulu.fi/oky/english/ethics.pdf

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    8

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    For Teachers

    http://www.oulu.fi/oky/english/ethics.pdf

    Ethical Code - As a teacher

    I) As a teacher in the university, my main objective is to advance

    the learning of the students. I will promote it i.e. by Developing myself as a researcher and a teacher,

    Treating the students equally and assessing their learning and achievements

    appropriately,

    Giving credit to students when their working promotes their own or others

    learning,

    Advising students to alter their working methods if they distract the learning

    of others,

    Intervening appropriately in dishonest activities e.g. plagiarism or cheating.

    II) I recognize my role as a responsible agent in the science community. I will be a positive role model for the students and my colleagues, and an

    example how to operate within a science community.

    III) I will take care of myself and my ability to work, and will promote the

    well-being and communal spirit within the university community. I will

    work in collaboration with my colleagues. I will not present information or

    research results produced by others in my own name.

    IV) I appreciate and develop my work as a teacher and will advance the

    esteem of teaching work in my unit and university.

    V) I am interested in the learning of my students and respect their views

    and the appropriate feedback given by them.

    VI) I will not try, without a credit, to benefit from my students and their

    input.

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    9

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Professional Ethics

    Ethics in Engineering, 4th edition, McGraw Hill 2005, 339 p.Martin, M.W. & Schinzinger, R.

    Ethics and Professionalism

    Moral Reasoning and Codes of Ethics

    Moral Framework

    Engineering as Social Experimentation

    Commitment to Safety

    Workplace Resonabilities and Rights

    Honesty

    Environmental Ethics

    Global Issues

    Engineering and Technological Progress

    Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health and walfare of the public in the performance of

    their professional duties.

    The first principle is that you must not fool yourself and you are the easiest person to fool.

    By honest it is not only ment to tell what is true. But you also make clear the entire situation. You

    make clear all the information that is required for somebody else who is intelligent to make up

    their minds.

    10

    Study of practical

    cases, including

    some which has no

    converging

    solution, no

    solution which

    most people would

    find acceptable.

    Some general

    observations

    about the relation

    between ethics and

    living the "good

    life".

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    11

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    http://www.singaporestatement.org/

    NEW!!

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    1. Modes of action: integrity, meticulousness and accuracy in

    conducting research, in recording and presenting results, and in

    judging research and its results

    2. Ethically sustainable data-collection, research and evaluation

    methods (variation by research discipline) and openness in

    publishing

    3. Taking due account of other researchers work and achievements

    4. Planning, conducting and reporting according to standards set for

    scientific knowledge

    Good Scientific Practice (1/2) (www.tenk.fi)

    12

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    https://www3.ntu.edu.sg/wcri2010/

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Good Scientific Practice (2/2) (www.tenk.fi)

    5. Status, rights, co-authorship, liabilities and

    obligations of the research team are determined

    Ownership of data

    Storage of material

    Recording matters agreed

    Before starting research/recruiting reasercher

    6. Sources of funding and other associations are made

    known to those participating in research and to public

    7. Good administrative practice and personnel and

    financial management

    13

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    First and foremost it is the responsibility of the

    researcher him/herself but also: Research team collectively

    Supervisor as a research director

    Head of research unit/organisation as a developer of the

    working environment

    Learned societies and journalists as mediators of research

    data and as promoters of science

    Funding organisations as research policy makers

    Responsibility of Maintaining Good

    Scientific Practice (www.tenk.fi/)

    14

    Responsibility for preventing misconduct and fraud in science: Scientific community, researchers, directors of the research group.

    Strengthening of good scientific practice

    Quality assessment systems.

    Teaching of good scientific practice and of research ethics

    Maintaining and furthering good scientific practice.

    The system of peer review applied in scientific publishing prevent scientific

    misconduct and fraud.

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    1. Misconduct in science

    Gross negligence

    2. Fraud in science

    Fabrication

    Misrepresentation (falsification)

    Plagiarism

    Misappropriation

    Violation of Good Scientific Practice(http://www.tenk.fi)

    15

    Violations of good scientific

    practice:

    Underestimation of the

    contribution of other

    scientists

    Insufficient reference

    Sloppy and misleading

    reporting of methods or

    results

    Inadequate documentation

    Covert duplicate publication

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Examples:

    Understatement of other researchers contribution

    to a publication

    Negligence in referring to earlier findings

    Careless and misleading reporting of research

    findings and the methods used

    Negligence in recording and preserving results

    Publication of the same results several times as

    new

    Misleading the research community about ones

    own research

    Misconduct in Science (http://www.tenk.fi)

    16

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Presentation of fabricated data or results to the research

    community

    Fabricated data have not been obtained in the manner or by

    the methods described in the report

    Presenting fabricated results in a research report

    Fabrication (vrentminen, keksiminen)(http://www.tenk.fi)

    Misrepresentation (Falsification) (vristminen) (http://www.tenk.fi/)

    Intentional alteration or presentation of original findings in

    a way which distorts the result

    Scientifically unjustified alteration or selection of data or

    results

    Misrepresentation to omit results or data pertinent to

    conclusions

    17

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Presenting someone elses research plan, manuscript, article or text, or parts thereof, as ones own.

    Plagiarism (plagiointi)(http://www.tenk.fi)

    Misappropriation (anastaminen)(http://www.tenk.fi)

    A researcher illicitly presents or uses in his/her own name an original research idea, plan or finding disclosed to him/her in confidence.

    E.g. manuscript in peer review or research plan in evaluation for funding

    18

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Research Ethics problems Reasons?(http://www.tenk.fi/)

    Financial problems competition between researchers

    Co-work with commercial sector rules of the came blend

    Insufficient leadership training

    Alienation from basic rules: do not lie, do not steal

    19

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Allegation of a violation of good scientific practice is handled at the organization in which the suspect research has primarily been conducted

    Most relevant to legal protection in the process are:

    Fairness and impartiality

    The hearing of all parties concerned

    A speedy process

    The procedures proposed by TENK have three stages:

    1. Written notification

    2. Inquiry

    3. Investigation

    A suspect or a complainant dissatisfied with the procedures used, the inquiry, the investigation or the final report can request the National Advisory Board on Research Ethics to give its opinion

    Procedures (http://www.tenk.fi/)

    20

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    TENK - The National Advisory Board of Research

    Ethics (http://www.tenk.fi/) Established in 1991; Makes proposals concerning

    research ethics, gives its opinion on questions and legislation pertaining to research ethics and disseminates information about research ethics.

    In 1994 the National Research Ethics Council of Finland issued guidelines for the prevention and handling of the cases of misconduct and fraud in scientific research.

    On March 7, 1994 the Finnish Council of University Rectors, the Academy of Finland and national research institutes signed a recommendation, calling upon the scientific community to follow these guidelines

    The guidelines aimed at stimulating discussion and raising public awareness of research ethics

    In January 20, 1998 the Council adopted the new guidelines Guidelines for the Prevention, Handling and Investigation of Misconduct and Fraud in Scientific Research

    In 2002 the Council adopted the Good scientific practice and procedures for handling misconduct and fraud in science

    21

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Misconduct in Research and pocedures for handling (1994) The reliability and dignity of scientific research: researchers have good

    scientific practices.

    Good scientific practice: procedures accepted by the scientific community,

    general conscientiousness and accuracy in the performance of research and

    presentation of results, appropriate acknowledgement of the work and

    achievements of others, honest presentation of the researcher's own results

    and respect for the principles of openness and controlled procedures

    Guidelines for the Prevention, Handling and Investigation of

    Misconduct and Fraud in Scientific Research (1998) It is in the best interests of society and of the scientific community that all

    suspected deviations from good scientific practice are thoroughly

    examined.

    The scientific community should take into account that these guidelines are

    subject to legislative measures such as legislation on intellectual property,

    criminal liability, procedures in administrational affairs, public records

    and all human rights conventions.

    Guidelines (http://www.tenk.fi/)

    22

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Guidelines (http://www.tenk.fi/)

    Good scientific practice and procedures

    for handling misconduct and fraud in

    science (2002)

    Three principles: impartiality, the hearing

    of all parties and the promptness of the

    process.

    The rector of the university or the director

    of the research institution makes all

    decisions as to commencement of the inquiry

    and the investigation, and is responsible for

    decision-making throughout the process.

    In performing these activities, he or she is to

    take into account the provisions of the Act on

    Procedures concerning Administrative Affairs.

    23

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    PROBLEMS IN HANDLING RESEARCH

    ETHICAL ALLEGATIONS (www.tenk.fi)

    1. Nature of the problem: ethical, academic, administrative or

    personal?

    2. Written communication vs. conversation

    3. How to find the right handling instance/authority

    4. Ignorance shifts bigger problems for later

    5. One-sided hearing before decision-making

    6. Finding a right balance between expertise and impartiality

    (puolueettomuus) small research community

    7. Awareness of standards for good scientific practice

    8. Slow process

    9. Legal protection of the whistleblower (pelin keskeyttj)

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    The number of allegations, inquiries, investigations

    and found violations of good scientific practice

    annually (www.tenk.fi)

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

    nu

    mb

    er

    allegations inquiries investigations found

    Questionnaire 1 Questionnaire 2

    Questionnaries:

    January 2003 and May 2006

    questionnaire to all

    organizations committed to

    good scientific practice

    guidelines 2002:

    prevalence of allegations

    and consequences

    procedures for handling

    In 2006: 52 responses from 78

    (67 %)

    universities 81 %

    research institutes 73 %

    polytechnics 53 %

    other organizations 50 %

    Questionnaire was sent to the

    rector/director, and it was

    filled in without exception by a

    person from the central

    administration

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Number of allegations, inquiries, investigations and

    found violations of good scientific practice in years

    1998-2005 according to the nature of violation (www.tenk.fi)

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    Plag. Misappr. Fabr. Falsif. Miscond. Other

    nu

    mb

    er

    allegations inquiries investigations found

    Questionnaire 1: 1998-2002

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    Plag. Misappr. Fabr. Falsif. Miscond. Other

    allegations inquiries investigations found

    Questionnaire 2: 2003-2005

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Research Ethics (http://www2.uiah.fi/projects/metodi/051.htm)

    1. Ethics of Targeting the Project

    2. Ethics of Collecting Data

    3. Ethics of Publishing

    4. Ethics of Application

    27

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Research Results and Responsibilities (1/2)http://www2.uiah.fi/projects/metodi/051.htm

    Responsibilities of researchers:

    Research tasks are designed and run so that new scientific

    information will be gained

    Research results must have high quality and they must be true

    Research results must be published and set open so that other

    researchers can utilize them in the future: to design and perform their

    own research, to evaluate the results and to confirm their findings

    Responsibility to develop the professional skills

    Responsibility towards human beings, environment and the future

    Problems:

    Conflicts between publishing the results and filing patents/applications

    Publishing the results should not harm your own, your partners or

    the funding organizations interests (e.g. commercialisation)

    28

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Research Results and

    Responsibilities (2/2)

    The findings of earlier scientists may be freely used by

    later researchers. The correct procedure is to include the

    original inventor being duly acknowledged in the final

    report. Failing this, the writer gives the impression of

    being himself the originator of the ideas. This kind of

    misbehaviour is called plagiarism.

    Citations are part of the reward system of science. They

    are connected to funding decisions and to the future

    careers of researchers. More generally, the misallocation

    of credit undermines the incentive system for publication.

    http://www2.uiah.fi/projects/metodi/051.htm

    29

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Exercise: What are ethical implications of the following scenarios, advantages and disadvantages (the career of an

    individual researcher, the research community, funding agencies

    and the general public)?

    1) Not publishing the findings of a major research project?

    2) Accepting sponsorship from a multinational company?

    3) Agreeing to add your name (as a co-author) to a paper that you

    have not seen?

    4) Loosing research data because there was no back-up data?

    If ethical issues are raising, please, concult always your supervisor!

    30

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Finn, J.A. Getting a PhD, An avtion plan to help manage your research, your supervisor and your

    Project.Routledge , USA and Canada, 2005. 191 p.

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    IEEE Code of Ethics (1/2)http://www.ieee.org/portal/cms_docs/about/CoE_poster.pdf

    The IEEE members have committed themselves to the highest

    ethical and professional conduct and agree: to accept responsibility in making decisions consistent with the safety, health and

    welfare of the public, and to disclose promptly factors that might endanger the

    public or the environment;

    to avoid real or perceived conflicts of interest whenever possible, and to disclose

    them to affected parties when they do exist;

    to be honest and realistic in stating claims based on available data;

    to reject bribery in all its forms;

    to improve the understanding of technology, applications, consequences;

    to maintain and improve our technical competence

    31

    IEEE is the worlds largest professional association advancing innovation and

    technological excellence for the benefit of humanity. IEEE and its members

    inspire a global community to innovate for a better tomorrow through its highly

    cited publications, conferences, technology standards, and professional and

    educational activities. IEEE = Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    IEEE Code of Ethics (2/2)http://www.ieee.org/portal/cms_docs/about/CoE_poster.pdf

    The IEEE members have committed themselves to

    the highest ethical and professional conduct and

    agree: to seek, accept, and offer honest criticism of technical work, to acknowledge

    and correct errors, and to credit properly the contributions of others;

    to treat fairly all persons regardless of such factors as race, religion, gender,

    disability, age, or national origin;

    to avoid injuring others, their property, reputation, or employment by false or

    malicious action;

    to assist colleagues and co-workers in their professional development and to

    support them in following this code of ethics.

    Approved by the IEEE Board of Directors, February

    2006

    32

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Guidelines and policies on all aspects of IEEE intellectual property

    rights for authors, readers, researchers, and volunteers(http://www.ieee.org/web/publications/rights#pg)

    Copyright Information

    IEEE Copyright Policies

    IEEE Copyright Form (Introduction to the Copyright Form; Links to the official form, &

    information about the electronic IEEE Copyright Form); Policy on Electronic

    Dissemination; General Info and FAQs

    Plagiarism Guidelines

    Introduction to Plagiarism Guidelines

    Policies on Allegations of Misconduct; Plagiarism FAQ; Identifying Plagiarism and

    investigating possible misconduct

    Multiple Submission, Prior Publication Guidelines

    Introduction to the Guidelines (From the PSPB Operations Manual)

    Request Permission to Reuse Copyrighted Material

    How to Obtain Permission to Reuse Copyrighted Material (How to Access Rightslink - the

    electronic permissions service)

    Trademark Policies

    Using the the IEEE Logo and IEEE (Using the IEEE Trademark; Registered Marks of the IEEE;

    How to Register a New Logo or Title)

    33

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    34

    Copyright law and IEEE rules for self-plagiarism

    Collected by Aarne Mmmel, VTT

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    http://www.ieee.org/portal/pages/iportals/publications/rights/copyrightpolicy.htmlhttp://www.ieee.org/portal/pages/iportals/publications/rights/copyrightpolicy.htmlhttp://www.ieee.org/portal/pages/iportals/publications/rights/cfrmlink.htmlhttp://www.ieee.org/portal/pages/iportals/publications/rights/copyrightmain.htmlhttp://www.ieee.org/portal/pages/iportals/publications/rights/policies.htmlhttp://www.ieee.org/portal/pages/iportals/publications/rights/policies.htmlhttp://www.ieee.org/portal/pages/iportals/publications/rights/geninfo.htmlhttp://www.ieee.org/portal/pages/iportals/publications/rights/Plagiarism_Guidelines_Intro.htmlhttp://www.ieee.org/portal/pages/iportals/publications/rights/Investigating_misconduct.htmlhttp://www.ieee.org/portal/pages/iportals/publications/rights/plagiarism_FAQ.htmlhttp://www.ieee.org/portal/pages/iportals/publications/rights/ID_Plagiarism.htmlhttp://www.ieee.org/portal/pages/iportals/publications/rights/Multi_Sub_Guidelines_Intro.htmlhttp://www.ieee.org/portal/pages/iportals/publications/rights/Section_822F.htmlhttp://www.ieee.org/portal/pages/iportals/publications/rights/reqperm.htmlhttp://www.ieee.org/portal/pages/iportals/publications/rights/Rightslink.htmlhttp://www.ieee.org/portal/pages/iportals/publications/rights/logopnp.htmlhttp://www.ieee.org/portal/pages/iportals/publications/rights/Section_121_TRADEMARK.htmlhttp://www.ieee.org/portal/pages/iportals/publications/rights/marks.htmlhttp://www.ieee.org/portal/pages/iportals/publications/rights/logoreg.html

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    35

    Copyright (1)/Collected by Aarne Mmmel

    Copyright (tekijnoikeus) is the exclusive ownership of and the right to make use of a literary or artistic work, protected by law for a specified period of time [Skillin74].

    For original work of authorship (teos) copyright continues 70 yearsafter the authors decease [Tekijnoikeuslaki, 43 ].

    If the work cannot be interpreted as original work of authorship, it may still have a related right (lhioikeus), which continues in the case of catalogs, tables, databases, and programs 15 years from the completion or publication of the work and in the case of photographs 50 years after the preparation of the photograph [Tekijnoikeuslaki, 49 , 49 a ].

    Copyright is owned by the author. When the work is published, the publisher usually owns the copyright [IEEE-Copyright], [IEEE-FAQ]. A copyright form is signed by the author. The author needs a permission from the publisher to reuse the material [IEEE-Permission], [IEEE-Rights]. The permission is usually granted if the author refers to the earlier publication.

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    36

    Copyright (2)/Collected by Aarne Mmmel

    Copyright protects the form of expression rather than the subject matter of the writing [US-PTM]. If you give the reference, you can quote about 250 words in quotation marks without permission [Higham98]. Otherwise you must paraphrase the text and give the reference. Figures and tables must be substantially altered, otherwise they cannot be used without permission [Higham98].

    After the specified period has expired, the work enters into the public domain as a work free for all to use, but you must still paraphrase the text or use quotation marks and give the reference.

    Copyright law mainly restricts the use of the work as a commodity. After the specified period is expired, anybody can use the material as a commodity, but you cannot change the name of the author.

    Copyright protection does not include titles, which are legally protected by trademarks, or ideas, which are legally protected by patents [Skillin74].

    Plagiarism is an ethical question that is only partially covered by copyrights, trademarks, and patents.

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    37

    Plagiarism and self-plagiarism/Collected by Aarne Mmmel

    Plagiarism in taking ideas, writings, etc. from another and passing them off as ones own [Webster00]. Self-plagiarism is verbatim copying or reuse of ones own research [IEEE-Policy], [IEEE-PSPB].

    Manuscripts that contain crossover of more than 25 % with another manuscript by the same authors may incur sanctions [IEEE-SP].

    A conference paper can be published as a journal paper, but it must usually be substantially revised to meet the technical standards maintained by the journal [IEEE-Guidelines]. If the publisher of the journal paper is different, you must obtain permission for the reuse.

    Some journals request at least 30 % of new material compared to a conference paper [IEEE-PDS], but in some other journals a journal paper manuscript can be even identical to a conference paper manuscript [IEEE-COM].

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    38

    Avoid Self-Plagiarism SummaryCollected by Aarne Mmmel

    Two journal or two conference papers cannot be identical. Even 25 % overlap may cause sanctions [IEEE-SP]. It is possible to write a journal paper based on a conference paper, but

    1) the earlier paper must be clearly mentioned in the new paper

    2) if the publisher is different, the first publisher has the copyright and you must follow the copyright law to solve the possible copyright conflict (paraphrase the text, substantially alter the figures and tables, or ask for permission)

    3) in most cases conference paper must be substantially revised to meet the technical standards maintained by the journal (usually no new results are requested, but up to 30 % of new material may be needed, including expansions of key ideas, examples, elaborations, etc., depending on the journal [IEEE-COM], [IEEE-PDS]), and

    4) the paper must pass again the anonymous review process, which is stricter in journals than in conferences.

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Conference paper

    Journal paper

    Conference paper 1

    Conference paper 2

    Journal paper

    Revision and review process

    Revision and review process

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Examples: Plagiarism and punishment

    Plagiarism and punishment by Fiona Godlee in BMJ 2007, 335: 0 (Nov. 10).

    University drops case against Croatian academic accused of plagiarism by Zosia

    Kmietowicz in BMJ 2007, 335: 1014.

    Policing plagiarism by Michael Cross in BMJ 2007, 335: 963-964.

    Role of systematic reviews in detecting plagiarism: case of Asim Kurjak by Iain

    Chalmers in BMJ 2006, 333: 594-596.

    UiT-ansatt tatt for juks (Plagiointitapaus Tromsn yliopistossa) Merete Korsberg-

    Dalsb, Troms, Nov. 6, 2007

    Programmes to detect plagiarism (plagiaatintunnistin)

    Urkund.se (used in Sweden (University of Uppsala) and in Oulu (University of

    Oulu))

    http://www.oulu.fi/urkund/index_english.html

    Turnitin.com (commercial for English text)

    Docolc (German, demo is free of charge)

    Nalkki (developed at Tampere University of Technology, for texts taken from the web)

    (see http://www.studiamedia.com/Tiede-%20ja%20tekniikka.178.0.html,

    http://www.nalkki.cs.tut.fi)

    39

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Urkund-system

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Why Did We Get the Urkund System at the University of Oulu?

    Good scientific practice requires a proper way of marking references.

    Checking the papers, documents and theses is a part of the Universitys quality assurance.

    In order to be considered as a high quality scientific university, we have to have tools to check the references of our documents and measures prevent plagiarism.

    Guidelines for the Management of Theses and Course-Completion

    Related Plagiarism at the University of Oulu

    The Guideline was signed by Rector Lajunen at September 2009.

    The guideline was included in the Register of Standards in October 2009 and at the same time delivered by email to universitys teachers and other important directions, among others to Students Union in Oulu University.

    This guideline concerns both the theses and course completions. It also gives advice how students should be informed about the ethical issues:

    It is important that students are provided adequate instruction

    from the beginning of the studies in correct referencing techniques

    and in the recognition of the ethical aspects of scientific writing.

    Translated in English: www.oulu.fi/urkund/index_english.html

    40

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011By Katja Pura, 2009

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    41

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Urkund-system

    Developed in Sweden (2000) and it is used in many countries in universities and polytechnics for example in Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, Belgium, and

    the Netherlands.

    Urkund uses three main sources:

    Materials on the Internet,

    Published materials and

    Students materials.

    Works on a web browser and doesnt need to be installed or has not any specific demands of facility.

    Does not eliminate the work done by teachers but makes it mush easier: Still the Teacher always decides either plagiarism occurs or not.

    Instructions and other important information is available here:

    http://www.oulu.fi/urkund/index_english.html

    Students guidance is very important. Teachers have to tell students

    what plagiarism is and how students should make the references in

    their documents!

    Students must be told when Urkund is going to be used at the

    courses

    -> preventative effect.

    By Katja Pura, 2009

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    42

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011By Katja Pura, 2009

    Urkund-system

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    43

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    The Teacher makes the interpretation about plagiarism, what is plagiarism and what

    is not.

    Urkund-system does not tell how the references should have been made!

    The Teacher advises the students how they should make the references or tells

    where these kind of instructions can be found.

    Urkund finds only those documents that are available on the internet.

    Urkund does not eliminate teachers work, but makes it much easier, no need to go to

    Google so much.

    It is very important that rules of making the references of plagiarism are clear to

    every student - What you can do and what is forbidden.

    Teachers must always tell students beforehand that Urkund is used in the course.

    Student is the one who sends the document to Urkund and teacher gets the analysis.

    http://www.oulu.fi/urkund Guidelines for students and teachers Links to other sites concerning this matter

    Guidelines for the Management of Theses and Course-Completion Related Plagiarism at the University of Oulu

    Accept the students contract and send your document to Urkund (students).

    Apply username to Urkund and sing in the system (teachers).

    By Katja Pura, 2009

    Urkund-system

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Research Ethics Summary

    Ethics is an essential part of good research

    Researchers should always have strong ethical thoughts, principles

    and actions

    Illegal and unethical procedures in research are not good science

    Researchers are responsible for their work, actions and research results

    Researcher must know beforehand that the actions and results do not

    harm human beings, animals or nature (proper planning) good research

    is systematic and planned

    Researchers must always keep in mind the possible ethical problems

    that may rise during the research and when the results are utilized

    44

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Research Ethics Summary

    The reliability and dignity of scientific research:

    researchers have good scientific practices

    Good scientific practice:

    Procedures accepted by the scientific community

    General conscientiousness and accuracy in the

    performance of research and presentation of results

    Appropriate acknowledgement of the work and

    achievements of others

    Honest presentation of the researcher's own results

    Respect for the principles of openness and controlled

    procedures

    45

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Research Ethics SummaryRough and general summary of some ethical principals that

    various codes address http://dir.niehs.nih.gov/ethics/whatisethics.htm

    Honesty

    Strive for honesty in all scientific communications. Honestly report data, results,

    methods and procedures, and publication status. Do not fabricate, falsify, or

    misrepresent data. Do not deceive colleagues, granting agencies, or the public.

    Objectivity

    Strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation, peer

    review, personnel decisions, grant writing, expert testimony, and other aspects of

    research where objectivity is expected or required. Avoid or minimize bias or self-

    deception. Disclose personal or financial interests that may affect research.

    Integrity

    Keep your promises and agreements; act with sincerity; strive for consistency of

    thought and action.

    Carefulness

    Avoid careless errors and negligence; carefully and critically examine your own work

    and the work of your peers. Keep good records of research activities, such as data

    collection, research design, and correspondence with agencies or journals.

    46

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Openness

    Share data, results, ideas, tools, resources. Be open to criticism and new ideas.

    Respect for Intellectual PropertyHonor patents, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property. Do not use

    unpublished data, methods, or results without permission. Give credit where credit is

    due. Give proper acknowledgement or credit for all contributions to research. Never

    plagiarize.

    Confidentiality Protect confidential communications, such as papers or grants submitted for publication,

    personnel records, trade or military secrets, and patient records.

    Responsible Publication

    Publish in order to advance research and scholarship, not to advance just your own

    career. Avoid wasteful and duplicative publication.

    Responsible MentoringHelp to educate, mentor, and advise students. Promote their welfare and allow them to

    make their own decisions.

    Respect for colleagues

    Respect your colleagues and treat them fairly.

    http://dir.niehs.nih.gov/ethics/whatisethics.htm

    47

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Social Responsibility

    Strive to promote social good and prevent or mitigate social harms through research,

    public education, and advocacy.

    Non-Discrimination Avoid discrimination against colleagues or students on the basis of sex, race, ethnicity, or

    other factors that are not related to their scientific competence and integrity.

    CompetenceMaintain and improve your own professional competence and expertise through lifelong

    education and learning; take steps to promote competence in science as a whole.

    Legality

    Know and obey relevant laws and institutional and governmental policies.

    Animal Care

    Show proper respect and care for animals when using them in research. Do not conduct

    unnecessary or poorly designed animal experiments.

    Human Subjects ProtectionWhen conducting research on human subjects, minimize harms and risks and maximize

    benefits; respect human dignity, privacy, and autonomy; take special precautions with

    vulnerable populations; and strive to distribute the benefits and burdens of research

    fairly. http://dir.niehs.nih.gov/ethics/whatisethics.htm

    48

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Research Ethics Summary

    Proposals and Guidelines

    Good scientific practice and procedures for handling misconduct and fraud in

    science. (2002) Second edition National Advisory Board on Research

    Ethics 2002

    Guidelines for the Prevention, Handling and Investigation of Misconduct and

    Fraud in Scientific Research (1998) National Research Ethics Council 1998

    Journals

    Science and Engineering Ethics

    Business and Professional Ethics Journal

    Professional Ethics

    Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics

    49

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    Web-sites:http://www2.uiah.fi/projects/metodi/151.htm

    http://www.professoriliitto.fi/ (Professoriliitto, 2001)

    http://www.tek.fi/ (Tekniikan Akateemisten liitto)

    http://pro.tsv.fi/tenk/htkfi.pdf (Hyv tieteellinen kytnt ja sen loukkausten

    ksitteleminen. Helsinki 2002, Tutkimuseettinen neuvottelukunta)

    http://www2.uiah.fi/projects/metodi/051.htm

    http:www.niee.org (National Institute of Engineering Ethics)

    http://www.nspe.org (National Society of Professional Engineers)

    http://www.onlineethics.org (The Online Ethics Center of Engineering and Science)

    http://blogs.nature.com/nautilus/2007/10/accountability_of_co-authors.html

    (Accountability of Authors, Nature 450, 1; 2007)

    50

    Research Ethics Summary

    Good research is systematic and planned!

    Good scientific practice is of vital importance!

    Research ethics covers the responsible conduct of research

    (consideration of intellectual property and fabrication, falsification, and

    suppression of data..)!

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    http://www.nspe.org/http://www.onlineethics.org/http://blogs.nature.com/nautilus/2007/10/accountability_of_co-authors.htmlhttp://blogs.nature.com/nautilus/2007/10/accountability_of_co-authors.htmlhttp://blogs.nature.com/nautilus/2007/10/accountability_of_co-authors.htmlhttp://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7166/full/450001a.htmlhttp://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7166/full/450001a.htmlhttp://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7166/full/450001a.html

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    51

    References (1) collected by Aarne Mmmel[Chicago93] The Chicago Manual of Style. 14th ed. University of Chicago Press, London, 1993.

    [Higham98] N. J. Higham, Handbook of Writing for the Mathematical Sciences. Society for

    Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2nd ed., 1998.

    [IEEE-FAQ] Frequently Asked Questions, http://www.ieee.org/web/publications/rights/faqs.html.

    [IEEE-COM] Information for authors, IEEE Transactions on Communications,

    http://www.comsoc.org/dl/jrnal/transcom/authorinfo.html.

    [IEEE-Copyright] IEEE Copyright Form, www.ieee.org/web/publications/rights/copyrightmain.html.

    [IEEE-Ethics] IEEE Code of Ethics,

    http://www.ieee.org/portal/pages/iportals/aboutus/ethics/code.html

    [IEEE Guidelines] Introduction to Guidelines on Multiple Submission and Prior Publication,

    http://www.ieee.org/web/publications/rights/Multi_Sub_Guidelines_Intro.html.

    [IEEE-IPR] IEEE Intellectual Property Rights, http://www.ieee.org/web/publications/rights.

    [IEEE-Policy] IEEE Policy on Self-Plagiarism,

    http://www.comsoc.org/dl/jrnal/transcom/Self_Plagiarism.pdf

    [IEEE-PSPB] IEEE Publication Services and Products Board Operations Manual,

    http://www.ieee.org/portal/cms_docs_iportals/iportals/publications/PSPB/opsmanual.pdf.

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008

    52

    References (2) collected by Aarne Mmmel[IEEE-SP] Information for authors, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing,

    http://ewh.ieee.org/soc/sps/tsp/guidetoreauthors.php.

    [IEEE-WC] Information for authors, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications,

    http://www.ee.ust.hk/%7ETwireless/instruction.html.

    [IEEE-PDS] Information for authors, IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems,

    http://www.computer.org > Publications > Journals > IEEE Transactions on Parallel and

    Distributed Systems > IEEE TPDS Guidelines > For Reviewers > Preliminary/Conference

    Version(s).

    [IEEE-Permission] How to Obtain Permission to Reuse IEEE-Copyrighted Material,

    http://www.ieee.org/web/publications/rights/reqperm.html.

    [IEEE-Rights] Arranging for Rights and Permissions, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xplorehelp/

    Help_Arranging_for_Rights_and_Permissions.html

    [Skillin74] M. E. Skillin and R. M. Gay, Words into Type, 3rd ed. Prentice Hall, 1974.

    [Tekijnoikeuslaki] Tekijnoikeuslaki 8.7.1961/404, http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/1961/

    19610404.

    [US-PTM] What Are Patents, Trademarks, Servicemarks, and Copyrights? United States

    Patent and Trademark Office, www.uspto.gov/web/offices/pac/doc/general/whatis.htm.

    Finn, J.A. Getting a PhD, An avtion plan to help manage your research, your supervisor and

    your Project. Routledge , USA and Canada, 2005. 191 p.

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    http://www.ieee.org/web/publications/rights/faqs.htmlhttp://www.comsoc.org/dl/jrnal/transcom/authorinfo.htmlhttp://www.ieee.org/web/publications/rights/Multi_Sub_Guidelines_Intro.htmlhttp://www.comsoc.org/dl/jrnal/transcom/Self_Plagiarism.pdfhttp://ewh.ieee.org/soc/sps/tsp/guidetoreauthors.phphttp://www.ieee.org/web/publications/rights/reqperm.htmlhttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xplorehelp/http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/1961/http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/pac/doc/general/whatis.htm

  • How to Get A PhD?

    Research Ethics

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    [email protected]

    http://www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, January 8th, 2008Prof. Riitta Keiski, 06.10.2009

    Contact Information

    Thanks to Aarne Mmmel, Katja Pura, Salla Ltjnen, TENK and others for providing me material for this presentation!

    Contact Information:

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, D.Sc.(Tech.), Docent

    Head of the Laboratory

    Vice-head of the Department

    Laboratory of Mass and Heat Transfer Process Engineering

    Department of Process and Environmental Engineering

    Center of Expertise in University Education in 2004-2006, 2007-2009, 2010-2012

    FI-90014 University of Oulu, POB 4300

    Phone: +358-8-553 2348, +358-40-726 3018; Fax: +358-8-553 2304

    E-mail: [email protected], [email protected]; http.//www.oulu.fi/pyolam/

    Prof. Riitta Keiski, October 6th, 2011

    mailto:[email protected]:[email protected]

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