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22 May 2014 CDE competition: Defence against airborne threats presentation

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  • 1.UK Missile Defence Centre Defence against airborne threats Centre for Defence Enterprise (CDE) themed competition OFFICIAL OFFICIAL

2. Page - 2 UK Missile Defence Centre Overview The UK Missile Defence Centre (UK MDC) is seeking innovative solutions to defending against attacks from: ballistic missiles; cruise missiles; hypersonic munitions 3 challenges: 1. defence without interceptor missiles 2. kill assessment for non-destructive defences 3. improve the efficiency or cost-effectiveness of existing defences Consider innovation across the whole system and its elements Closing date for proof-of-concept submissions 3 July 2014 at 5pm up to 420k to support these Possible wider exposure to UK MDC or Ministry of Defence (MOD) funding OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 3. UK Missile Defence Centre Content What is the UK Missile Defence Centre? Defeating the threat Defensive terminology Military perspective CDE competition challenges The small print Summary Questions OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 4. Page - 4 UK Missile Defence Centre The UK Missile Defence Centre Ballistic missile threat reduction lethality Scenario simulation & wargaming Maritime theatre ballistic missile defence studies Systems engineering Threat characterisation Novel technologies UK Missile Defence Centre Support to policy (MOD, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, and Cabinet Office) Science and technology support to future capability development International collaboration and support to NATO Industrial opportunities Support to WMD disablement OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 5. Page - 5 UK Missile Defence Centre UK MDC established July 2003 Joint MOD/industry construct Provides timely scientific and technical advice on ballistic missile defence to Ministers and MOD Head Office Supports UK industry in sustaining strategic capabilities UK MDC: understanding missile defence & sustaining strategic capabilities OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 6. Page - 6 UK Missile Defence Centre Defeating the threat OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 7. Page - 7 UK Missile Defence Centre Ballistic missiles Similar to a space launch vehicle, but designed to re-enter the atmosphere immediately and at extreme speed. the fastest means of hitting any point more than 300km away Powered and guided for first few minutes; generally purely ballistic thereafter OFFICIAL OFFICIAL SS-20 intermediate range ballistic missile Short-range ballistic missile launch 8. Page - 8 UK Missile Defence Centre Ballistic missiles Shorter range ballistic missiles (600km only the re-entry vehicle that delivers payload onto target Recent uses in Libya and Syria OFFICIAL OFFICIAL SCUD missile on launcher Various intermediate- and medium-range ballistic missiles 9. Page - 9 UK Missile Defence Centre The US perception of the ballistic missile threat OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 10. Page - 10 UK Missile Defence Centre Ballistic missile times-of-flight challenge defences 5500km ground range 3500km 2000km `1000km 300km `600km Further reading: NASIC 2013 ballistic missile and cruise missile threat AFD-130710-054.pdf from http://www.mda.mil OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 11. Page - 11 UK Missile Defence Centre Cruise missiles Essentially expendable unmanned aircraft Cost-effective deep target attack vastly reduced risk versus aircraft carrying direct attack munitions Can achieve Mach 5 and within the (upper) atmosphere Not currently deployed Technology being examined by US, Russia, China, France and India Very high speeds & significant manoeuvre potential likely to defeat conventional defensive solutions Target size likely to be bigger than ballistic missile re-entry vehicle Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) concepts OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 13. Page - 13 UK Missile Defence Centre Integrated air and missile defence In reality, current defensive systems can engage some, but not all of the threats Systems Ops Center Intelligence Means Command Authority Integrating Networks Battle Management Surveillance Weapon Delivery W arning Systems Ops Center Intelligence Means Command Authority Integrating Networks Battle Management Surveillance Weapon Delivery W arning Systems Ops Center Intelligence Means Command Authority Integrating Networks Battle Management Surveillance Weapon Delivery W arning W arning OFFICIAL OFFICIAL They are layered to provide: efficiency redundancy shared understanding 14. Page - 14 UK Missile Defence Centre Military considerations OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 15. Page - 15 UK Missile Defence Centre Theatre ballistic missiles (TBM) and anti-ship ballistic missiles (ASBM) TBM pose a significant threat to deployed operations TBM are a threat to static formations, ports, airfields, bases and key infrastructure ASBM able to strike maritime platforms at any point within effective area (Anti Access Area Denial A2AD) OFFICIAL OFFICIAL Limited engagement windows for defensive systems Ability of UK forces to defeat this threat? surveillance systems some capability effectors little capability Duncan passing Clydebank leaving for first sea trials by Mark Harkin is licensed under CC Attribution 2.0 Generic license. Source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/markyharky/7899777334/ 16. Page - 16 UK Missile Defence Centre Subsonic and supersonic land attack cruise missiles Threat missiles avoid detection using terrain masking and route to avoid defensive systems Key infrastructure would be defended by ground-based air defence systems surface-to-air missiles anti-aircraft guns UK has point defence and local area defence systems How are defensive systems cued? early warning available from airborne sensors ground-based sensors will provide short reaction time OFFICIAL OFFICIAL BrahMos missile. MAKS-2009 by Allocer is licensed under CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:BrahMos_MAKS2009.jpg 17. Page - 17 UK Missile Defence Centre Subsonic and supersonic anti-ship cruise missiles Cat and mouse - advancement in offensive missile development requires improvement of defensive systems Iran/China introducing new/novel capabilities and technologies almost annually responsive insertion of technology difficult to achieve Increased situational awareness (SA) important to maintain reaction time against difficult air targets for maritime platforms challenging flight profiles height / speed / low observability Desire for integrated hard/soft kill capability of defending against current and emerging difficult air targets looking for increased probability of escaping hit OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 18. Page - 18 UK Missile Defence Centre Hypersonic May not be tracked by current surveillance systems Reduced reaction time Challenging target for an interceptor missile Need improvements in: cueing decoys amount of decision time available human factors? automation OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 19. Page - 19 UK Missile Defence Centre Defensive terminology OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 20. Page - 20 UK Missile Defence Centre Defensive measures of interest in CDE submissions Active defence - soft kill interaction, including physical contact, but without an immediate response from the threat system being observable. Includes techniques covering deception, spoofing, masking, jamming etc but excludes classic passive defence solutions such as hardening and camouflage Active defence - hard kill interaction with the threat system and, in particular, payload delivery mechanism following which a catastrophic observable event takes place OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 21. Page - 21 UK Missile Defence Centre Defensive measures of interest in CDE submissions Counterforce pre-emptive attack of the origin of the threat weapon against persons and/or equipment essential for the initiation of the threats mission Defence also encompasses other measures (not considered here) deterrence diplomacy passive defence etc OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 22. Page - 22 UK Missile Defence Centre CDE competition challenges OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 23. Page - 23 UK Missile Defence Centre The US missile defence solution to countering ballistic missiles OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 24. Page - 24 UK Missile Defence Centre CDE competition challenges 1. Defence without interceptor missiles 2. Kill assessment for non-destructive defences 3. Improving the efficiency or cost-effectiveness of existing defences OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 25. Page - 25 UK Missile Defence Centre Competition guidelines Proposals should address at least 1 of the challenges, could address more than 1 challenge, but do not have to address all challenges We will favour solutions capable of dealing with the most challenging threats ie ballistic and hypersonic missiles The proposed solutions do not necessarily need to be mounted on or controlled by the defended asset many current air and missile defence solutions are entirely separate military units to the assets they defend OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 26. Page - 26 UK Missile Defence Centre Challenge 1: defence without interceptor missiles Consider entirely new methods for providing defence at range How can we effectively defend against complex weapon threats without using interceptor missiles, such that the threat does not successfully damage its target? ideally at ranges greater than circa 10km Examples hard-kill techniques such as lasers and other directed energy systems soft-kill applications such as sensor burnout due to energy concentration novel methods of employing counterforce techniques OFFICIAL OFFICIAL YAL-1A airborne laser 27. Page - 27 UK Missile Defence Centre Challenge 2: kill assessment for non-destructive defences Soft-kill defences generally interfere with the internal electronics of the complex weapon, so the external appearance of the weapon might remain largely unchanged This is a particular issue for ballistic missile defence, since these threats will continue to follow a ballistic trajectory even if completely electronically disabled How do we assess whether or not a damaged threat weapon still poses a threat to us given that its trajectory is largely unchanged? Solutions should be usable from a stand-off range, in a timely manner and produce information high in confidence OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 28. Page - 28 UK Missile Defence Centre Challenge 3: improving the efficiency and/or cost effectiveness of existing defences Apply innovation to existing methods for hard-kill active defence (eg interceptor missiles and guns) such that the efficiency is increased Consider innovation at the whole-system level, as well as the sub- system level. Consider intra-system interactions Proposals will be expected to explain how the concept might improve a performance metric such as cost effectiveness, volume, probability of hit or fly-out time an order of magnitude in improvement is required to be considered effective OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 29. Page - 29 UK Missile Defence Centre The small print OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 30. Page - 30 UK Missile Defence Centre What we want Proof-of-concept research proposals not previously used: novel technologies (up to the concept-definition stage) developed technologies elsewhere Proposals applicable to a wider range of threats are more likely to be funded Solutions to defence against ballistic and hypersonic missiles, or an order of magnitude improvement against less-stretching threats Identify the consequences of intercepting (or failing to intercept) the threat OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 31. Page - 31 UK Missile Defence Centre What we want Solutions are not limited to a particular theatre of operation, threat nation or level of conflict intensity Priority will be given to proposals demonstrating or de-risking a concept Clarify the possible limitations of the proposed solution eg: environmental issues physical characteristics target characteristics operational considerations economic considerations OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 32. Page - 32 UK Missile Defence Centre What we dont want Proposals that pose an excessive risk of friendly fire or collateral damage (eg interceptors with nuclear warheads) The same proposal that is already being funded as part of another MOD research programme Solutions with political sensitivities are highly unlikely to be considered We will not fund any proposals that: fall outside the remit given here provide only marginal improvements to current solutions require significant government-provided equipment or infrastructure but you should identify alternative, non-government-provided sources OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 33. Page - 33 UK Missile Defence Centre Exploitation Phase 1 is this CDE themed competition MOD/Dstl will assess proposals MOD will ensure bidders intellectual property is protected On successful completion of phase 1, up to 500k is available from UK MDC for phase 2 Subsequent phases are likely to be the subject of long-term exploitation in partnership with If a successful bid does not fit comfortably within our strategy, with bidders permission UK MDC will expose the project to other funding sources within MOD via an appropriate contracting route OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 34. Page - 34 UK Missile Defence Centre Summary OFFICIAL OFFICIAL 35. Page - 35 UK Missile Defence Centre Summary Proposals must be submitted to the CDE portal by 5pm on 3 July 2014 Challenges: 1. defence without interceptor missiles 2. kill assessment for non-destructive defences 3. improving the efficiency or cost-effectiveness of existing defences Innovation is vital as defence against airborne threats has been studied from many perspectives over the years There are opportunities for further exploitation of successful proposals For challenge/technical queries contact: [email protected] For submission/process queries contact: [email protected] OFFICIAL OFFICIAL

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