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2/6/20141 The Reformation. 2/6/20142 The Christian Church Itself Was Created by Reform.

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2/6/20141 The Reformation Slide 2 2/6/20142 The Christian Church Itself Was Created by Reform Slide 3 2/6/20143 St Pauls new covenant Slide 4 2/6/20144 St Augustines Neo- Platonism Slide 5 2/6/20145 St Aquinass Scholasticism Slide 6 2/6/20146 Marsiglio, Wyclif and Huss Slide 7 2/6/20147 Signs of Disorder At the local level- vulgarized and semi pagan, but still spiritual Reforms needed: Clerical immorality Clerical ignorance Pluralism Slide 8 2/6/20148 The Condition of the Church The Babylonian Captivity The Great Schism The Councilor Movement Slide 9 2/6/20149 Woolsey in England Slide 10 2/6/201410 Borgia Family in Rome Slide 11 2/6/201411 Signs of Vitality Brethren of the Common life Pilgrimages Ecumenical Councils Slide 12 2/6/201412 Pope needs money to complete a special project. Slide 13 2/6/201413 Martin Luther Slide 14 2/6/201414 Early Years Studied Law Masters Degree at 21 Thunderstorm Friar At 26 PHD in Theology Slide 15 2/6/201415 Luther and Paul Through Paul Luther determines Salvation cannot be earned Slide 16 2/6/201416 Luthers need to reform Through Paul Luther determines: Salvation cannot be earned Salvation is determined by faith ALONE! Salvation comes as a gift from the grace of God. Slide 17 2/6/201417 Indulgences John Tetzel is given permission to collect money to grant sinners forgiveness As soon as coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs Slide 18 2/6/201418 Ninety Five Thesis: Leo X allows pluralism in Mainz Albert borrowed a vast amount from the Fuggars Pope Allows him to collect indulgencies Pope gets half for St. Petes Slide 19 2/6/201419 Luther defends Hus Slide 20 2/6/201420 1517 Luther posts his theses Indulgencies have no Biblical basis. The debate turns on the legal authority of the Pope. If not the pope then who has legal authority Slide 21 2/6/201421 Luther receives a Papal Bull Slide 22 2/6/201422 The Diet of Worms (1521) Germans begin to call for a revolt Charles V summons Luther Luther refuses to recant Luther is declared an outlaw Slide 23 2/6/201423 Charles V The protector of the faith Slide 24 2/6/201424 Luther before the Diet I am bound by the scriptures Slide 25 2/6/201425 Frederick of Saxony Slide 26 2/6/201426 All vocations have equal merit 1. Abolition on monasticism 2. The Christian home 3. No confessionals 4. Protestant school Slide 27 2/6/201427 No one is as free as a Christian Stirs a series of peasant revolts Luther rejects and condemns revolts. ( God hates a rebel ) 100,000 peasants are killed Slide 28 Luther and the power of Language The Catechisms Sermons and Psalms Music- Excellent teaching device Appeals to most segments in society on an emotional level 2/6/201428 Slide 29 Luther :The greatest German ever to live perhaps the greatest of all Europeans. 2/6/201429 Slide 30 2/6/201430 Four theological issues 1. How is a person saved? 2. Where does religious authority reside? 3. What is the church? 4. What is the highest form of Christian life? Slide 31 2/6/201431 A person may be saved by faith alone Slide 32 2/6/201432 Authority rests in the word of God as revealed in the Bible Slide 33 2/6/201433 The Church is the entire Christian community Slide 34 The Sacraments Catholic Baptism Eucharist Communion Confirmation Penance- Confession Marriage Holy Orders Anointing the sick 2/6/201434 Slide 35 2/6/201435 Slide 36 2/6/201436 Transubstanation Wine and bread become the blood and body of Christ Slide 37 2/6/201437 Consubstianation The spirit is present but the wine and bread remain unchanged Slide 38 2/6/201438 All vocations have value as every person should serve God according to his or her calling. Link capitalism. Which makes the Reformation in the mind of many intellectuals the greatest event in modern history Slide 39 2/6/201439 Social Impact of the Reformation 1. Resentment of clerical privileges 2. Preacherships - Sermons over Eucharist 3. On Christian Liberty 4. Publishing in the vernacular Slide 40 2/6/201440 Social Impact of Luthers Beliefs 1. Reduce the privileges of the clergy 2. Preacherships became leaders sermons not the Eucharist. 3. Peasant unrest On Christian Liberty. Slide 41 2/6/201441 Protestantism and Women Slide 42 2/6/201442 The Christian Home 1 Abolition of monasticism 2 All vocations are worthy 3 abolition of private confession 4 Sexuality is as natural as eating or drinking Slide 43 2/6/201443 Germany and Protestantism 1 No central power 2 Loose confederation of states 3 The rise of the Habsburgs 4 Burgundy and Austria other nations wage war Habsburgs marry Slide 44 2/6/201444 Charles V (1500 58) 1 Duty to maintain political and religious unity of Western Christendom 2 German interests were subordinate to Habsburg interests Slide 45 2/6/201445 Political impact of Luthers beliefs 1 Different religions represented a political threat 2 Local Princess began legal confiscation of Roman Catholic property 3 Proved to be a political disaster for Germany Slide 46 2/6/201446 Germany Divided Turkish Threat Slide 47 Divided Germany 2/6/201447 American Territories Habsburg Valois Wars Peace of Augsburg 1555 left a fragmented Germany Slide 48 2/6/201448 The Growth of Protestantism Slide 49 2/6/201449 Calvin Theocracy in Geneva Switzerland The Church is the state Predestination Redemptive work of Jesus Hard work is its own reward The Consistory The Institutes of the Christian Religion Slide 50 2/6/201450 The Anabaptists Only adults could make a free choice Only a few received the inner light Religious toleration Women as ministers By their fruits you shall know them Pacifists Slide 51 2/6/201451 The English Reformation The Lollards Individual interpretation- they were few Sacraments were of no value Slide 52 2/6/201452 Henry VIII The Catholic Church was healthy in England The Kings emotional life brought about the English Reformation Divorced, beheaded, died, divorced, beheaded, survived Slide 53 2/6/201453 Henry removes the Catholic Church 1. The Act of Restraint of Appeals 1533 2. The Act of Submission of the Clergy 1534 3. The Supremacy Act The King is the head of the Church 4. By 1539 Henry with the help of Thomas Cromwell dissolves all the English monasteries Slide 54 2/6/201454 Opposition to the King Little evidence from the lay people because few knew what was happening The Pilgrimage of Grace 1536 Multi class rebellion in the north of England- all the leaders were executed by 1546 Slide 55 2/6/201455 Internal Reforms in England Cromwell centralized govt. New departments of state were created The Office of the Exchequer Surpluses were liquid and applied to deficits to balance the budget Growth of the modern bureaucratic state Slide 56 2/6/201456 The Church in Scotland Weak political authority James V (I) Mary Queen of Scots Catholics: Stuarts -France John Knox Reformer Studied Calvin Presbyterian becomes state religion Much like the Puritans: Book of Common Prayer Slide 57 2/6/201457 The protest becomes political Slide 58 2/6/201458 Protestanism in Ireland English wanted to exterminate the Irish but it cost too much The Church of Ireland was patterned after the The Church of England Many Irish remained Roman Catholic Slide 59 2/6/201459 Lutheranism in Scandinavia Denmark was ruling the area These areas become Lutheran 1520 Sweden breaks away Norway will not be independent until 1814 Slide 60 2/6/201460 The Catholic Reformation and the Counter Reformation 1517 Catholic Reformation Promote Catholicism 1540 Counter Reformation Coerce dissidents or heretics to return to the church They were not mutually exclusive Slide 61 2/6/201461 Slowness of institutional Reform The preoccupation of the Popes with Italian politics Popes fear of conciliar power More interested in obtaining and sponsoring art: Clement VII Hapsburg Valois conflicts 1527 The Protestant sack of Rome Slide 62 2/6/201462 The Council of Trent 1545 -63 Reconcile with Protestants The argument over the scripture made reconciliation impossible The Conciliar movement again Sacraments remain Educational requirements for priests Jurisdiction over marriage Slide 63 2/6/201463 Reaffirmed Catholic Doctrine Rejected Lutheran and Calvinist positions Laid the foundation for spiritual renewal Served as the foundation for Catholic doctrine for four centuries Slide 64 2/6/201464 Jesuits - Ignatius Loyola Set up Church schools Recruited from Schools Missionary Zeal The best of the church go on missions Converts millions to Christianity India Asia The Americas Slide 65 Teresa of Avila 2/6/201465 A reaction to raise the spiritual condition of the clergy and the laity The Ursuline Order Religious order for women Very popular Raised the intellectual and moral level or the clergy and the people Slide 66 I saw in his hand a long spear of gold, and at the iron's point there seemed to be a little fire. He appeared to me to be thrusting it at times into my heart, and to pierce my very entrails; when he drew it out, he seemed to draw them out also, and to leave me all on fire with a great love of God. The pain was so great, that it made me moan; and yet so surpassing was the sweetness of this excessive pain, that I could not wish to be rid of it... 2/6/201466 Slide 67 The Ecstasy of St Teresa - Bernini 2/6/201467 Slide 68 2/6/201468 The Congregation of the Holy office Find heretics The index of Prohibited Books Weak enforcement outside of Papal States Slide 69 2/6/201469 Introduction State the purpose of the discussion Identify yourself Slide 70 2/6/201470 Topics of Discussion State the main ideas youll be talking about Slide 71 2/6/201471 Topic One Details about this topic Supporting information and examples How it relates to your audience Slide 72 2/6/201472 Topic Two Details about this topic Supporting information and examples How it relates to your audience Slide 73 2/6/201473 Topic Three Details about this topic Supporting information and examples How it relates to your audience Slide 74 2/6/201474 Real Life Give an example or real life anecdote Sympathize with the audiences situation if appropriate Slide 75 2/6/201475 What This Means Add a strong statement that summarizes how you feel or think about this topic Summarize key points you want your audience to remember Slide 76 2/6/201476 Next Steps Summarize any actions required of your audience Summarize any follow up action items required of you

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