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4-1 The Fields of Insurance 1.Private insurance voluntary programs designed to protect individual...

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  • Slide 1
  • 4-1 The Fields of Insurance 1.Private insurance voluntary programs designed to protect individual against financial loss 2.Social Insurance compulsory insurance programs generally operated by government 3.Public Benefit Guarantee Programs quasi-social coverages usually associated with regulation
  • Slide 2
  • 4-2 Private (Voluntary) Insurance 1.Usually (but not always) voluntary. 2.Usually (but not always) offered by private insurers.
  • Slide 3
  • 4-3 History of Private Insurance - Insurance in Antiquity 1.3000 B.C. Chinese risk-sharing practices 2.500 B.C. Code of Hammurabi 3.bottomry and respondentia contracts 4.2500 B.C. benevolent societies in Egypt 5.Roman Collegia
  • Slide 4
  • 4-4 History of Private Insurance - Marine and Fire Insurance 13th Centurymarine insurance originates in Italy 15th Centurymarine insurance to England by Lombard merchants Year 1666Fire of London (Dr. Nicholas Barbon) Year 1688Lloyds coffeehouse in operation Year 1752Ben Franklins Philadelphia Contributionship Year 1792First U.S. capital stock company, Insurance Company of North America
  • Slide 5
  • 4-5 History of Private Insurance Casualty Insurance 1848Accident insurance for railroad travelers 1859Travelers Insurance Company in U.S. sells accident insurance for travelers 1866Steam boiler Insurance 1876Fidelity bonds 1886Employers liability insurance 1889Elevators and public liability 1898Automobile liability insurance
  • Slide 6
  • 4-6 History of Private Insurance - Life Insurance 1536 400 policy on William Gybbons by marine underwriters 1693 mortality table created by Edmund Halley 1699Society for Assurance of Widows and Orphans charges same rate for all ages. 1759First U.S. life insurer, Presbyterian Ministers Fund 1762Equitable Society for Assurance of Life and Survivorship varied premiums with age
  • Slide 7
  • 4-7 History of Private Insurance - Health Insurance Pre-commercial insurance approaches Greek and Roman benevolent societies Guilds Mutual benefit and friendly societies Employees establishment funds 1910Montgomery Ward - first group health plan 1930sModern health insurance begins with Blue Cross-Blue Shield organizations
  • Slide 8
  • 4-8 Monoline Organization in the U.S. State laws restricted the lines of insurance an insurer could write, compartmentalizing underwriting power. Three distinct classes of insurance developed: 1.Life insurance 2.Fire and marine insurance 3.Casualty insurance
  • Slide 9
  • 4-9 Reasons for Monoline Organization 1.It was supposed that specialization would promote proficiency. 2.Segregation of insurance by class would simplify financial regulation. 3.Fear of danger in combining fire insurance (which seemed subject to catastrophes) with life insurance. 4.New Yorks Appleton Rule required insurers to follow New York law in other states.
  • Slide 10
  • 4-10 Multiple-Line Transition 1.States began to change laws in the 1940s to permit multiple-line underwriting (writing of property and casualty by a single company). 2.New York permitted multiple-line underwriting in 1949. 3.Greatest benefit of multiple-line underwriting has been the package policy. 4.Compartmentalization still exists between life insurers and property and casualty insurers.
  • Slide 11
  • 4-11 Modern Classification of Insurance Coverages 1.Life insurance 2.Accident and health insurance 3.Property and Liability insurance
  • Slide 12
  • 4-12 Private (Voluntary) Insurance 1.Life insurance 2.Accident and health insurance 3.Property and liability fire marine casualty fidelity and surety bonds
  • Slide 13
  • 4-13 Casualty Insurance accident and health insurance automobile liability workers compensation boiler and machinery plate glass burglary, robbery, theft credit insurance title insurance
  • Slide 14
  • 4-14 Social Insurance Based on the notion that there are some people in society who face fundamental risks that they cannot deal with themselves. Social insurance programs rest on the premise that if an individual cannot provide for a reasonable standard of living through personal efforts, society should assist.
  • Slide 15
  • 4-15 Social Insurance Definition 1.Coverage is compulsory 2.Eligibility derived from contributions: no requirement to demonstrate need 3.Method of determining benefits prescribed by law 4.Benefits not directly related to contributions
  • Slide 16
  • 4-16 Social Insurance Definition 5.Definite long-range plan for financing 6.Cost borne primarily by contributions 7.Plan administered or supervised by government 8.Plan not established solely for government employees
  • Slide 17
  • 4-17 History of Social Insurance 1.Originated in Germany in 1880s by Otto von Bismarck in an effort to outbid socialists at their own game. 2.Other European nations followed during the period from 1911 through 1933. 3.First social insurance program in U.S. was workers compensation in the early 1900s. 4.OASDI program enacted in 1935. 5.Medicare program enacted in 1965.
  • Slide 18
  • 4-18 Social Insurance Programs in the U.S. 1.Old-Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance 2.Railroad Retirement, Disability and Unemployment Insurance 3.Unemployment Insurance 4.Medicare 5.State Compulsory Temporary Disability
  • Slide 19
  • 4-19 Public Guarantee Insurance Programs 1.Quasi social insurance programs, mainly in connection with financial institutions 2.Public Guarantee Insurance Programs are usually allied with the function of regulation 3.Insurance principle is used to protect lenders, depositors, or investors against loss resulting from failure of a financial institution
  • Slide 20
  • 4-20 Federal Public Guarantee Programs 1.Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation 2.National Credit Union Administration 3.Securities Investor Protection Corporation 4.Pension Benefit Guarantee Corporation
  • Slide 21
  • 4-21 State Public Guarantee Programs 1.State insurer insolvency funds 2.Unsatisfied judgment funds Maryland Michigan New Jersey New York North Carolina
  • Slide 22
  • 4-22 Similarities in Various Fields of Insurance 1.Although details of operation may vary, the programs discussed all use some form of pooling of exposure units. 2.The possibility of loss is transferred from the individual to the group where losses are shared on some prescribed basis. 3.Basic concepts of pooling and sharing of losses and individuals substitution of small, certain cost for large uncertain loss are fundamental to all the programs.
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