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5.02UVegetarian Diets1 Vegetarian Diets. What is a vegetarian diet? “one that does not include...

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  • 5.02UVegetarian Diets*Vegetarian Diets

    5.02UVegetarian Diets

  • What is a vegetarian diet?one that does not include meat (including fowl) or seafood, or products containing those foodsThe American Dietetics Association

    Includes: fruits, vegetables, beans, legumes, cereal grains, nuts, and seeds, with or without dairy products and eggs

  • Brief HistoryPythagoras, father of vegetarianism, encouraged meatless eating in 6th century B.C.Vegetarian term coined in mid 1800sBible Christians in 1800, Seventh-day Adventist Church in 1840sDecline in mid 20th century due to vitamins, government promoting meat/ dairy1944 term vegan was coinedResurgence of vegetarianism in 1960s and 1970s


  • Demographics3% of U.S. adults indicated they never eat meat, poultry and fish/seafood. They were classified as vegetarian. Of this group, one percent also never eat dairy, eggs, and honey, and were classified as vegan. Estimate there are approximately 6-8 million adult vegetarians in the United States.By region:3% Northeast 1% Midwest 4% South 5% West


  • Why?A vegetarian diet may be chosen for:Ethical HealthEnvironmentalReligiousPoliticalCulturalAestheticEconomicor other reasons

  • 5.02UVegetarian Diets*Four Types of Vegetarian DietsVegan Lacto-VegetarianOvo-VegetarianLacto-ovo-Vegetarian

    5.02UVegetarian Diets

  • 5.02UVegetarian Diets*VeganVegan Characteristics Eat only food from plant sources

    5.02UVegetarian Diets

  • 5.02UVegetarian Diets*Lacto-Vegetarian

    CharacteristicsEat foods from plant sources and dairy products.

    5.02UVegetarian Diets

  • 5.02UVegetarian Diets*Ovo-Vegetarian

    CharacteristicsEat foods from plant sources and eggs.

    5.02UVegetarian Diets

  • 5.02UVegetarian Diets*Lacto-Ovo-Vegetarian

    CharacteristicsEat foods from plant sources, dairy products and eggs.

    5.02UVegetarian Diets

  • What chronic diseases can be treated by a vegetarian diet?Heart diseaseCancerObesityAll of the above*

  • Health Benefits of Vegetarian DietsCardiovascularHypertensionCancerDiabetesObesityKidney disease/ renal stonesGallstonesDiverticular disease


  • Health AdvantagesVegetarian diets have been associated with the following when compared to non-vegetarian diets:Lower LDL cholesterol levelslower risk of death from ischemic heart diseaselower blood pressurelower rates of hypertension type 2 diabetes lower body mass index lower overall cancer rates

  • Obesity:Health Benefits of Vegetarian DietsLower Body Mass Index (BMI)Mean BMI highest in meat eaters and lowest in vegansVegetarians consume lower animal fat, higher fiber, lower alcohol, greater amounts of vegetables*

  • The Power of Plant Foods

    Fruits and vegetables reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancers, and other chronic diseases (such as macular degeneration and cataracts). Legumes - sources of protein, fiber, and a variety of micronutrients and phytochemicals that may protect against disease.

  • The Power of Plant Foods

    Nuts - lower risk for heart disease and lower mortality rates. Whole-grains - reduced risk for heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and stomach and colon cancers.

  • Healthy Food ChoicesBy nature of the foods in the diet, most all choices are healthyfruits, vegetables, beans, legumes, cereal grains, nuts, and seeds, with or without dairy products and eggsRaw or cooked vegetables or fruitsBeans and legumesWhole grain cereals, breads, pastaNuts and seedsLow fat dairy productsEggs

  • What nutrients are especially important to consider when following a vegetarian diet?Fiber, vitamins C and EIron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B12Omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin DB & C


  • Key NutrientsProteinn-3 fatty acids (omega 3 fatty acids)IronZincIodineCalciumVitamins D Vitamin B-12Vitamin A/ Beta carotene

  • Meeting Protein NeedsBeansLegumesWhole GrainsVeggie BurgersNuts/ Nut ButtersSeedsDairy productsMilkYogurtCheese

  • Where Vegans Should Be CautiousEnsure an adequate intake of Vitamin B12 and Omega 3 fatty acidsOther nutrients that can be low: Vitamin D, some mineralsMake whole plant foods the staples of your dietNot french fries, fried foods, processed foods, sugary foodsDont smoke, get some exercise, keep healthy body weight

  • Vitamin B12What can vegans do since they dont eat animal products?Fortified soymilks and breakfast cereals.Multi-VitaminRecommended intake: 2 mcg/ day

  • So what should a vegan diet look like?Often, much like an omnivorous diet!

  • BREAKFAST #11 cup oatmeal with cinnamon and raisins and 1/2 cup fortified soymilk

    1 slice toast with 1 tablespoon almond butter and jam/jelly

    1/2 grapefruit

  • BREAKFAST #23 oatmeal pancakes with applesauce topping

    1 glass of calcium-fortified orange juice

    Fresh fruit

  • LUNCH #1Whole wheat pita stuffed with hummus, sliced tomatoes, and lettuce Carrot sticks Fresh FruitPretzels

  • LUNCH #2Bean burritos: black beans in corn tortillas, topped with chopped lettuce, tomatoes, and salsa Spinach salad with tahini-lemon dressing Fresh FruitFortified juice or soymilk

  • DINNER #1Chinese stir-fry over brown rice: tofu chunks, broccoli, pea pods, water chestnuts, and Chinese cabbage (bok choy) Cantaloupe chunks drizzled with fresh lime juice Fortified juice or rice milk

  • DINNER #2Veggie chili over Baked sweet potato Side salad cup sorbetFortified juice

  • HEALTHY SNACKSBanana soymilk shakeFresh or dried fruitPopcornGranola BarsNutsCarrots/ Celery and hummus

  • Making the switch!www.TryVeg.com is helpful

  • Stocking the Vegetarian PantryLook at the vegetarian foods you already have and the vegetarian meals you usually eat.You probably already eat many vegetarian or vegan meals, or meals that could easily be made vegetarian.

  • Stocking the Vegetarian PantryFood GroupBread, grains, cereals

    ProductWhole grain mixes: pancakes, baking mixesBulk grains: rice, barley, pasta, oatsWhole grain breakfast cerealsBreads, rolls, muffins, bagels, English muffins, tortillasFrozen waffles and low-fat muffins

  • Stocking the Vegetarian PantryFood GroupLegumes

    ProductBean or lentil soupBlack bean burritos or tacosCanned beans and Vegetarian baked beansTofu

  • Stocking the Vegetarian PantryFood GroupFruits and VegetablesMeat substitutes

    Dairy SubstitutesProductAll kinds and all varietiesVeggie burger pattiesVeggie sausageSoy milksSoy cheeses

  • Tips for VegetariansMany foods that typically contain meat or poultry can be made vegetarian. This can increase vegetable intake and cut saturated fat and cholesterol intake. Consider: pasta primavera or pasta with marinara or pesto sauce veggie pizza vegetable lasagna tofu-vegetable stir fry vegetable lo mein vegetable kabobs bean burritos or tacos


  • Tips for VegetariansFor barbecues, try veggie or garden burgers, soy hot dogs, marinated tofu or tempeh, and veggie kabobs. Make bean burgers, lentil burgers, or pita halves with falafel (spicy ground chick pea patties). Some restaurants offer soy options (texturized vegetable protein) as a substitute for meat, and soy cheese as a substitute for regular cheese.


  • For Additional Information - BooksBecoming Vegan: The Complete Guide to Adopting a Healthy Plant-based Diet Brenda Davis, RD and Vesanto Melina., MS, RD Summertown, TN: Book Publishing Company. 2000. 282 pp. ISBN: 1570671036 Being Vegetarian for Dummies Suzanne Havala, MS, RD. Cleveland, OH: IDG Books Worldwide. 2001. 336 pp. ISBN: 0764563351 The Complete Guide to Vegetarian Convenience Foods Gail Davis New Sage Press. 1999. 166 pp. ISBN: 0-939165-35 The Dietitians Guide to Vegetarian Diets: Issues and Applications, 2nd ed. Virginia Messina, Reed Mangels, and Mark Messina Boston, Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 2004. 587 pp. ISBN 0-7637-3241-9 The New Becoming Vegetarian: The Essential Guide to a Healthy Vegetarian Diet Vesanto Melina., MS, RD and Brenda Davis, RD Summertown, TN: Book Publishing Company. 2003. 373 pp. ISBN: 1570671443 Simply Vegan: Quick Vegetarian Meals, 4th ed. Debra Wasserman; Nutrition Section by Reed Mangels, PhD, RD Baltimore, MD: The Vegetarian Resource Group. 2006. 224 pp. ISBN: 0931411300 Vegan & Vegetarian FAQ: Answers to Your Frequently Asked Questions Davida Gypsy Breier; Nutrition Section by Reed Mangels, PhD, RD Baltimore, MD: The Vegetarian Resource Group. 2001. 272 pp. ISBN: 0931411246*

  • For Additional Information - CookbooksAlmost Vegetarian by Diana Shaw. 1994. ISBN 0-51788-20-6. The Occasional Vegetarian by Karen Lee. Warner Books Inc, 1995. ISBN 0-446- 51792-5. Meatless Meals for Working People: Quick and Easy Vegetarian Recipes, by D Wasserman and C Stahler. The Vegetarian Resource Group, 1998. ISBN 0- 931411-06-8. Lean and Luscious and Meatless, by B Hinman & M Snyder. Prima Publishing, 1991. ISBN 1-55958-110-7. Jane Brody's Good Food Book, by Jane E Brody. WW Norton & Company, 1995. ISBN 0-393-02210-2. Meatless Dishes in Twenty Minutes, by Karen A Levin. Contemporary Books Inc, 1993. ISBN 0-8092-3810-1. Moosewood Restaurant Cooks at Home, by the Moosewood Collective. Simon & Schuster/Fireside, 1994. ISBN 0- 671-81954-5. Simple, Lowfat & Vegetarian, by Suzanne Havala, Vegetarian Resource Group, 1994. ISBN 0-931411-09-2. New Laurel's Kitchen, by L Robertson, C Flinders, B Ruppenthal. Ten Speed Press, 1986. ISBN 0-89815-167-8. Full of Beans, by V Currie and K Spicer. Mighton House, 1993. ISBN 0-965688- 1-9. The Amazing Legume: Cooking with Lentils, Dry Beans and Dry Peas, by

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