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7. What was England like before the Empire? Roman · PDF file bangles (bracelets). The black...

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  • Key Term Definition Grave goods Items buried with a body.

    High status Rich, well educated and well connected. e.g. Lord Alan Sugar

    Q

    Name a Black Tudor that we studied.

    ___________________________________ Describe their story ___________________ ___________________________________

    ___________________________________

    Name a Black Georgian that we studied.

    ___________________________________ Describe their story ___________________ ___________________________________

    ___________________________________

    Put the time periods listed below in the

    correct order along the timeline: A. Roman Britain

    B. Anglo-Saxon England C. Medieval England D. Iron-Age Britain

    Put the events listed below in the correct

    order along the timeline: A. Columbus ‘discovers’ the Americas

    B. Francis Drake sails around the world C. Battle of Hastings D. Elizabeth I gives the East India

    Company a Royal Charter

    Enoch Powell – Claim Two

    ‘The English can revert [return] to being the people we were before

    the ships of Elizabethan and Stuart England set off to forge the first

    British Emprie in the Americas.’

    Circle the image which best shows what Enoch Powell believed pre-colonial (before the

    Empire) England was like.

    Last lesson we uncovered evidence that suggested Dark Ages England (England before

    the Empire), wasn’t quite what Enoch Powell thought it was like.

    This means we need to go further back in time to find out what Roman Britain was like. This

    will help us to keep testing Enoch Powell’s second claim.

    7. What was England like before the Empire? Roman Britain

    500 1 500 1000 1500 2000

    BC AD AD AD AD AD 1000 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600

    1000 AD AD AD AD

    AD

  • This is the Ivory Bangle Lady.

    Her skeleton was found by archaeologists in

    Sycamore Terrace in York in 1901. Testing

    proved that she lived in York in roughly 380

    AD (Roman Britain).

    Recently, a new scientific technique called radioisotope

    analysis (the bones are tested) has proved that either she, or her family

    were immigrants to Britain.

    Forensic science has also meant we’ve been able to reconstruct her face –

    we can stare into the eyes of the Ivory Bangle lady!

    However, historians and archaeologists have suspected since 1984 that the

    Ivory Bangle Lady was an immigrant. They worked this out by studying

    clues in her grave goods (items a skeleton is buried with).

    Analyse the grave goods over the next 2 pages. Can you work out:

    A. Whether the Ivory Bangle Lady was rich or poor?

    B. Where the Ivory Bangle Lady, or her family, might have come from originally (where

    they migrated from)?

    Clue 1: The

    Ivory Bangle

    Lady was buried

    inside a carved,

    stone

    sarcophagus

    (coffin) similar to

    the pictures.

    Clue 2: The Ivory Bangle Lady

    was buried with several items,

    including:

    - A blue glass jug

    - A glass mirror

    Glass was expensive in the Roman

    World so these are high status

    objects.

    A burial with

    grave goods.

    Blue glass jug Glass mirror

  • Clue 3: The Ivory Bangle

    lady was buried with lots

    of jewellery. She would

    have been wearing most

    of it when she was

    buried.

    Clue 4: The Ivory Bangle Lady was buried with two

    bangles (bracelets).

    The black bangle in the picture is made from a stone

    called Jet. Jet can be dug up from the ground not far

    from York. It was a fashionable (and expensive) stone

    that the Romans made jewellery from.

    The pale (white) bangle in the picture is made from

    ivory. Ivory is made from the tusks of elephants.

    It is not known whether the Ivory Bangle Lady was the first to own the

    ivory bangle, or whether it was a family heirloom, past down when family

    members died.

    Clue 5: Look again at

    the reconstruction of the

    Ivory Bangle Lady’s face.

    The radioisotope analysis

    suggested that she was

    mixed race.

    One of her parents was

    white.

    One of her parents was

    black.

    Silver locket (necklace)

    Glass beads

    Glass earrings

  • You were asked to work out:

    A. Whether the Ivory Bangle Lady was rich or poor?

    B. Where the Ivory Bangle Lady, or her family, might have come from originally (where

    they migrated from)?

    What are your conclusions about the Ivory Bangle Lady?

    You must use at least 2 pieces of evidence (facts) to back up each of your answers

    (from her grave goods on the last page).

    Use the map to help you with question B.

    A. I think the Ivory Bangle lady was _____________________________________________

    My evidence for this is ________________________________________________________

    __________________________________________________________________________

    __________________________________________________________________________

    __________________________________________________________________________

    __________________________________________________________________________

    __________________________________________________________________________

    B. ___________________________________

    _____________________________________

    _____________________________________

    _____________________________________

    _____________________________________

    _____________________________________

    __________________________________________________________________________

    __________________________________________________________________________

  • Archaeologists have discovered that the Ivory Bangle Lady, or her ancestors, were

    indeed from Africa.

    More specifically, it has been proved that the Ivory Bangle

    Lady, or her ancestors were from sub-Saharan Africa (from a

    country below the Sahara Desert).

    Along with the Ivory Bangle Lady, archaeologists

    found roughly 200 Roman skeletons buried near

    Sycamore Terrace in York. Radioisotope analysis has

    proved that 12% of the skeletons found were

    immigrants from Africa, mostly North Africa.

    More evidence of African migrants to Roman Britain was found in 1934, in a

    village called Beaumont in Cumbria (coloured red on the map). A stone was

    found underneath an old cottage that was being demolished (knocked down).

    There was an inscription (writing) on the stone in Latin (the language spoken

    by the Romans). It said that a unit (small army) ‘of Aurelian Moors’ had been

    based at the nearby Roman fortress of Aballava.

    The Aurelian Moors were a group of soldiers from

    North Africa, probably Libya, Tunisia or Algeria.

    Two Roman Emperors were named on the stone –

    Valerian and Gallienus. This evidence means we can

    work out the rough date the stone was made –

    somewhere between 253 and 258 AD. This means

    that Africans were definitely living in Britain at that

    time.

    The fortress at Aballava

    was part of Hadrian’s

    Wall, a 6 metre high wall

    that stretched 84 miles

    across the boarder

    between England and

    Scotland. There was a

    fortress every mile along

    the wall. Most historians believe that the soldiers who

    manned the fortresses were from North Africa, or the

    Middle East, countries such as Syria, Iraq or Iran.

    There is also evidence of immigrants from modern day

    France, Italy, Spain and other European nations living

    in Roman Britain – it was a very diverse place.

    This isn’t really a surprise. Rome (in modern Italy)

    controlled a huge Empire in Europe, Africa and Asia.

    North Africa

    Sub-Saharan

    Africa

  • Complete task A (this page) or task B (next page)

    1. What part of Africa was the Ivory Bangle Lady from?

    Circle the area on the map.

    2. What percentage of the 200 skeleton found in York were

    immigrants from Africa?

    _____________________________________________

    C How many of the 200 skeletons found in York were immigrants from Africa?

    Write the number, not a percentage. __________________

    _____________________________________________

    _____________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________

    3. What city in the north of England were the Ivory Bangle Lady, and the other 200

    skeletons found? Circle one.

    4. Where in the north of England was the stone with Latin inscribed (written on it) found?

    5. What was the unit of soldiers based at Roman fortress at Aballava called?

    6. Where were the soldiers from originally? Try to name 3 places. ___________________

    _____________________________________________________________________

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