8K HIGH RESOLUTION CAMERA SYSTEM
8K HIGH RESOLUTION CAMERA SYSTEM 20151. INTRODUCTION
The deployment of digital cinema stimulates many advanced applications that will use super high definition (SHD) imaging systems and high-speed optical fiber networks. Theater systems for digital cinema, projector , and playback video servers have been commercialized based on the standards issued by the Digital Cinema Initiative (DCI). 8K is the SHD video format defined in DCI specification. It has a resolution of 4096*2160 pixels, so its image quality is equivalent to that of 35-mm film. The total bit rate of raw 8K videos with the frame rate of 24 frames per second is about 7 gigabit per second. This necessitates the use of the JPEG 2000 algorithm to compress the bit rate to 250 megabit per second. To deliver the movie data to movie theatres, hard disk drivers and courier services appeared to be the easiest approach , but a business trial demonstrated that network-based delivery was more cost effective and secure against content piracy.
Fig(1). 8K video camera movies in theatres.
Furthermore, network transfer also supports a wider variety of contents, namely public viewing of live-streaming content. Four years before the digital cinema industry standardized the DCI specification, in 2001, the worlds first video JPEG decoder system was developed that could display SHD images (38402048 pixel spatial resolution) with 24-frames/s time resolution. This decoder was designed to realize IP transmission of extra-high-quality videos, while fully utilizing the full bandwidth of emerging commercial communication networks based on 1-Gb Ethernet. In 2002, the second prototype SHD image decoder was developed that exploits a highly parallel processing unit of JPEG2000 de-compressors. The decoder receives the IP streams of compressed video contents transmitted by a video server over GbE network, and decodes them using the standard JPEG2000 decoding algorithm in real time.
Fig(2). Ultra High Defination.
The decoder was combined with a special 3840*2048 pixel projector using a dedicated digital video interface for the decoder. This architecture allows the decoded videos to be transferred and shown in completely digital form. This system triggered detailed discussions on the digital cinema video format for DCI. The question was whether a higher image quality than HDTV was required to replace movie films. In order to solve the question, an experiment was conducted by the Entertainment Technology Center (ETC) of the University of Southern California (USC) involving 100 digital cinema engineers; it compared the image quality of conventional films, high definition resolution (HDTV), and SHD images with 8-million-pixel resolution. The results of this experiment yielded the consensus that the horizontal resolution of around 4000 pixels was required to replace films, and JPEG2000 was suitable for the compression of digital cinema data. Stimulated by the experiment, DCI accelerated the standardization of digital cinema, specified the movie format of 4096*2160 pixels, and simply called it 8K.
DCI finalized version 1.0 in 2005 and version 1.2 in 2008. Currently, further standardization activities are in progress at the Society of Motion Picture and Resolution Engineer (SMPTE). To explore the application range of 8K video beyond digital cinema, we developed a JPEG2000-based 8K real time streaming codec system. This codec can compress/ de com- press 8K videos: the total bit rate exceeds 12 gigabit per second (4 : 2 : 2, 60 frames/s), and the resulting 5001000-Megabit per second compressed streams are transferred as IP packets. While digital cinema employs the 24-frames/s movie format to replicate the cinema style, it is believed that at least 60 frames/s is needed for realistic video communication services such as teleconferencing. The following sections describe the features of the 8K imaging systems used in digital cinema and live streaming.
Astro Design 8K camera being displayed at the 2013 NAB ShowNHK and Hitachi demonstrating their 8K camera at the 2013 NAB ShowOn January 6, 2015, the MHL Consortium announced the release of the superMHL specification which will support 8K resolution at 120 fps, 48-bit video, the Rec. 2020 color space, high dynamic range support, a 32-pin reversible superMHL connector, and power charging of up to 40 watts.MHL Consortium Announces super MHL the First Audio/Video Specification With Support Up to 8KToday announced the super MHL specification, the next-generation of MHL technology for CE and mobile devices. Building on its market leadership, super MHL delivers significant mobile advancements such as higher resolution and frame rates along with 40W of power charging, while broadening MHLs reach in home theater connectivity by supporting 8K video resolution and expanded audio formats. With super MHL, consumers can link their mobile devices, set-top boxes (STBs), Blu-ray Disc players, AVRs, streaming media sticks and other source devices to TVs and displays. The release of a new reversible super MHL connector supports enhanced video formats to deliver lifelike, immersive content between home theater products and displays.
Features of super MHL Include1. Delivery of up to 8K 120fps video2. Deep Colour support up to 48-bit colour depths3. Wider colour gamut to view content the way filmmakers intended4. High-Dynamic Range (HDR) support to strike the perfect balance of bright spectral highlights along with shadow details5. Immersive surround sound with support for object audio such as Dolby Atmos, DTS-UHD, 3D audio, and an audio-only mode6. Advanced connectivity configurations to link multiple MHL devices together (TV, AVR, Blu-ray player) and control them via one remote7. Power charging up to 40W8. Content on multiple displays when connecting a single device9. New reversible super MHL connector
2.1 First camerasOn April 6, 2013, Astro Design announced the AH-4800, capable of recording 8K resolution.
Fig(3). Astro Design 8K camera being displayed at the 2013 NAB Show.2.2 Productions
Fig(4). NHK and Hitachi demonstrating their 8K camera at the 2013 NAB Show.An 8K scan/4K intermediate digital restoration of Lawrence of Arabia was made for Blu-ray and theatrical re-release during 2012 by Sony Pictures to celebrate the film's 50th anniversary. According to Grover Crisp, executive VP of restoration at Sony Pictures, the new 8K scan has such high resolution that when examined, showed a series of fine concentric lines in a pattern "reminiscent of a fingerprint" near the top of the frame. This was caused by the film emulsion melting and cracking in the desert heat during production. Sony had to hire a third party to minimise or eliminate the rippling artefacts in the new restored version.On May 17, 2013, the Franklin Institute premiered To Space And Back, an 8K8K, 60 fps, 3D video running approximately 25 minutes. During its first run at the Fels Planetarium it was played at 4K, 60 fps.2.3 BroadcastingJapanese public broadcaster NHK began research and development on 8K in 1995, having spent over $1B on the resolution since then. Code named Super Hi-Vision, NHK also was simultaneously working on the development of 22.2 channel surround sound audio, aiming for mainstream broadcasting by the year 2032.Experimental transmissions of the resolution were tested with the London 2012 Olympic Games, and at the Cannes Film Festival showcasing Beauties La Carte, a 27 minute short film showcased publicly on a 220 screen. The world's first 8K resolution was unveiled by Sharp at the Consumer Electronics Show(CES)in20132.4 8K full dome
Fig(5). shows the proportional scale differences from 1080p (19201080 pixels) to 8K8K fulldome video.8K fulldome is a resolution of 81928192 (67.1 megapixels) and is the resolution of top-end modern projection for hemispherical fulldome theatres often seen in planetaria. 8K fulldome projects over 4 times the width and over 7.5 times the height resolution of 1080p HDTV format, with 32 times as many pixels overall.
3. What is 8K8K resolution (7680 x 4320, 4320p), the successor of 4K resolution, is now the highest UHDTV (ultra high definition resolution) resolution in digital resolution and film restoration/mastering and is 16 times detailed than current 1080p resolution. 4K is speculated to become a mainstream standard in resolutions by 2017 and NHK plans to apply 8K to Japan TV broadcasting in 2020, especially in the 2020 Tokyo Olympics.
Fig(6). Delivering 8K VFX Shots for The Dark Knight.
8K resolution is the highest ultra high definition resolution (UHDTV) resolution to exist in digital resolution and digital cinematography. 8K refers to the horizontal resolution of these formats, which all are on the order of 8,000 pixels, forming the total image dimensions (76804320).8K is a display resolution that may eventually be the successor to 4K resolution. 1080p is the current mainstream HD standard, with TV manufacturers pushing for 4K to become a new standard by 2017,although the feasibility of such a fast transition as well as the practical necessity of a new standard is questionable.
4. 8K RESOLUTION SPECIFICATION
Resolution7680 x 4320 pixels (33.2 megapixels) Aspect Ratio16:9 Colour Bit Depth12-bit colourColour SpaceRec.2020 Frame Rate120 fps Scanningprogressive scanning only Audio22.2 multi-channel surround sound Audio Sampling Rate96 KHz BroadbandUHF - 8 MHz, 35~45Mbit/s Ku waveband2x36MHz transponders, 140~150Mbit/s (DVB-S2) Ka waveband600 MHz, 500~6600Mbit/s
Fig(7). Comparison chart
8K resolution is the highest ultra high definition resolution (UHDTV)