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A Continuation

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    The DialogueThe DialogueBetween theBetween the

    Bible and MoralBible and MoralTheologyTheology

    A ContinuationA Continuation

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    3. JAMES M. GUSTAFSON3. JAMES M. GUSTAFSON

    *sees the Bible as being usedby the Christian ethicist in

    two different ways:

    c. Revealed Moralityd. Revealed Reality

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    Revealed MoralityRevealed Morality

    Evangelical Protestants

    considers the Sacred Scripturesas revealed will of God forhumanity (deontological model)

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    Revealed RealityRevealed Reality

    Liberal Protestants

    Considers some Biblical notions(e.g. The Kingdom of God) asideal or the goal for the social

    life of humanity (teleologicalmodel)

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    J. GustafsonJ. Gustafson has also pointedhas also pointedout a revolution in Biblicalout a revolution in Biblical

    Theology. Inspired by the ideaTheology. Inspired by the ideaofofKarl BarthKarl Barth,, he considers thehe considers theBible not as the revelation of aBible not as the revelation of a

    morality but the revelation ofmorality but the revelation ofthe living God and His activitythe living God and His activity..

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    3. Relationality and3. Relationality andResponsibility ModelResponsibility Model

    Relationality = God and ManRelationship

    Responsibility = Man constantlyresponds in his freedom to theconcrete action of God working inthis world. (J. Gustafson)

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    ExamplesExamples

    Shifts towards the RRShifts towards the RR

    Model approachModel approach

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    From Revealed Morality toFrom Revealed Morality toResponsibility-Relational EthicsResponsibility-Relational Ethics

    1. The Decalogue not as laws but asexpressions of personal commitmentand relationship with God.

    2. Jesus Ethical Teachings not aslaws but in terms of conversion,agape or the following of Jesus.

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    From Revealed Reality toFrom Revealed Reality toResponsibility and RelationalResponsibility and RelationalEthicsEthics

    The Bible, as the witness of God andof His saving deeds, does not pictureGod as the Ultimate End but as a

    Person who invites man to share inthe fullness of his life and throughthe Paschal Mystery.

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    LIMITATIONS INLIMITATIONS INTHE USE OF THETHE USE OF THE

    BIBLE IN MORALBIBLE IN MORALTHEOLOGYTHEOLOGY

    According to Charles CurranAccording to Charles Curran

    in his work, Dialogue within his work, Dialogue with

    Sacred Scriptures, pp. 37-47Sacred Scriptures, pp. 37-47

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    1. Biblical Ethics is not the1. Biblical Ethics is not thesame as Christian Ethicssame as Christian Ethics Why?2. Historical and cultural limitations of the

    Sacred Scriptures3. The SS is not really confronted with

    many of the moral problems that we facetoday

    Examples:5. Eph. 5: 22-32

    6. Eph. 6: 1-47. Eph. 6: 5-98. 1Pt. 2: 18-25

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    2. The Teaching of the SS is often2. The Teaching of the SS is oftencolored by Eschatologicalcolored by Eschatological

    ConsiderationsConsiderations

    Examples:

    The Sermon on the Mount

    Marriage and Divorce

    Celibacy

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    1. Sermon on the Mount1. Sermon on the Mount

    For the Liberal Protestant Theology,the Beatitudes are the blueprintabout the presence of Gods Kingdom

    here on earth.

    For Albert Schweitzer, the Beatitudesare proposals for an interim ethic for

    a short time before the coming of theend of the world(parousia).

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    2. Marriage and Divorce2. Marriage and Divorce

    For the CatholicTeaching=INDISSOLUBILITY (ratum etconsummatum)

    For Charles Curran . Indissolubility of marriage is proposedas an ideal, but that in the world betweenthe two comings of Jesus, it is not always

    possible to achieve the fullness of thatideal.

    Paul allowed divorce in 1 Cor 7: 12-16

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    4. Subjective use of a4. Subjective use of aparticular Biblical verseparticular Biblical verse

    Examples:

    2. Social Gospel Approach

    3. Liberation Theologians Use of the SS

    4. Focus:

    e. OT (Teachings of the Prophets)

    f. NT (Teachings of Jesus)

    = common source for Social GospelApproach

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    A Proposed MethodologyA Proposed Methodology

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    Gaudium et Spes 4Gaudium et Spes 4

    At all times the Churchcarries the responsibility of

    reading the signs of the timesand of interpreting them inthe light of the Gospel, if it is

    to carry out its task.

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    Gaudium et Spes 58Gaudium et Spes 58

    There are many links betweenthe message of salvation and

    culture. In His self-revelation toHis people culminating in thefullness of manifestation in His

    Incarnate Son, God speaksaccording to the culture properto each age.

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    Method of Gaudium et SpesMethod of Gaudium et SpesViewing reality in terms ofthe Gospel and ofHumanExperience

    R f th Ad t i iR f th Ad t i i

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    Reasons of the Advantages in usingReasons of the Advantages in usingthe said GS Approach according tothe said GS Approach according to

    Charles CurranCharles Curran

    SS allows us to reflect on who a Christianis and what his attitudes, dispositions,goals, values and decisions are.

    SS can never be used as a book ofrevealed morality because of hermeneuticproblem.

    SS furnishes us with information about

    self-understanding of the people who livedin covenant relationship with God and hosthis helped shape their lives and actions.

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    The DialogueThe DialogueBetween theBetween the

    Magisterium andMagisterium andMoral TheologyMoral Theology

    An Essential ComponentAn Essential Component

    in Moral Theologyin Moral Theology

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    MAGISTERIUMMAGISTERIUM

    Latin magiste whichrefers to authority

    Teaching authority of the

    Church

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    To what group is thisTo what group is thisauthority placed on to?authority placed on to?

    1. All Baptized Christians have a propheticresponsibility.

    2. Those who have the authority to

    proclaim and teach officially share in theChurchs magisterium.

    3. For the Catholics, this authority is placedunto the COLLEGE OF BISHOPS and theINDIVIDUAL BISHOPS who are unitedwith the Bishop of Rome.

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    TASK OF THETASK OF THEMAGISTERIUMMAGISTERIUM

    The task of the magisterium is toauthentically interpret the Word ofGod, may it be written or handed on.

    This authority is exercised in thename of Jesus Christ. Thus,magisterium is not above the Wordof God, but serves it, teaching only

    what has been handed on.Dei Verbum 10

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    The Roman Catholic ChurchThe Roman Catholic Church

    claims her competence toclaims her competence toguide conscience withguide conscience withauthority regardingauthority regarding

    morality.morality.

    A Cla ification of the ole of theA Clarification of the role of the

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    A Clarification of the role of theA Clarification of the role of themagisterium as authentic interpretermagisterium as authentic interpreter

    of Word of Godof Word of God

    According to Vincent Genovesi, SJ

    authentic is not synonymous with

    being true or accurate . The word authentic originally means authoritative .

    Church Magisterium is authentic in so faras this refer to the hierarchy who receivedthe authority.

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    Thus, the magisteriumsThus, the magisteriumstask totask to authenticallyauthentically

    interpret the Word of God isinterpret the Word of God isalso equivalent to beingalso equivalent to being

    authoritative.authoritative.

    TWO BASIC WAYS IN WHICH THETWO BASIC WAYS IN WHICH THE

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    TWO BASIC WAYS IN WHICH THETWO BASIC WAYS IN WHICH THEMAGISTERIUM PERFORMS ITSMAGISTERIUM PERFORMS ITS

    TASK:TASK:

    1. SOLEMN/EXTRAORDINARY MAGISTERIUM =Ecumenical Council and by a Pope speaking excathedra

    2. ORDINARY UNIVERSAL MAGISTERIUMa. Popes letters, speeches, encyclicals and

    declarations from the Vatican Congregationsb. Teachings presented by bishops in their own

    dioceses, regional synods and in nationalconferences

    c. When bishops around the world (not inecumenical council) are in conscious anddeliberate agreement with one another and withthe Pope about a particular teaching.

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    concernconcern

    The MAGISTERIUM,

    in exercising herteaching authority,

    claims to beINFALLIBLE.

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    INFALLIBILITYINFALLIBILITY

    The freedom from the possibility oferror in matters of faith and morals

    This understanding goes back to the

    13th century 1870=Vatican Council I solemnly

    defined this teaching as a dogma of

    faith Concentrated in the Office of thePapacy

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    When can the Pope exerciseWhen can the Pope exercisehis teaching authority in anhis teaching authority in aninfallible manner?infallible manner?

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    Four ConditionsFour ConditionsAccording to Avery Card. Dulles, SJAccording to Avery Card. Dulles, SJ

    1. The Pope must be speaking as a public person; as a supreme pastorand teacher of all Christians.

    2. The Pope must appeal to his Supreme

    Apostolic authority as Successor of Peter.3. The Pope must be teaching within the

    sphere of faith and morals.4. The Pope must propose a doctrine as

    something having a universal obligatoryforce.

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    QUESTIONQUESTION

    How can themagisteriums ability to

    teach infallibly bepossible?

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    HOLY SPIRITHOLY SPIRIT

    Magisterium as a CHARISM

    Magisterium is being assisted by theHoly Spirit whenever it exercises itsteaching authority

    Magisterium in its very essence is aGIFT

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    Another DimensionAnother Dimension

    For Daniel Maguire, theMagisterium is not only

    a GIFT but it is also aTASK.

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    Mysterium Ecclesiae 3Mysterium Ecclesiae 3

    strive painstakinglyand by appropriate means

    to inquire properly intothat revelation and to give

    apt expression to itscontents.

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    Reactions byReactions by

    most moralmost moraltheologianstheologiansConcerning the Infallibility ofConcerning the Infallibility of

    the Magisterium in terms ofthe Magisterium in terms ofFaith and MoralsFaith and Morals

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    Vincent Genovesi, SJVincent Genovesi, SJ agreesagreeswithwith Richard McCormick, SJRichard McCormick, SJ

    that even in the sphere ofthat even in the sphere ofordinary universalordinary universalmagisterium,magisterium, the Churchthe Church

    has never taught infallibly inhas never taught infallibly inmoral concernsmoral concerns..

    V. Genovesi, In Pursuit of Love, p. 72V. Genovesi, In Pursuit of Love, p. 72

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    Karl RahnerKarl Rahner(Theological Investigations Vol. 14)(Theological Investigations Vol. 14)

    . apart from wholly universal moralnorms of an abstract kind there arehardly any particular or individual norms

    of Christian morality which could beproclaimed by the ordinary orextraordinary authority of the Church insuch a way that they could be

    unequivocally and certainly declared tohave the force of dogmas.

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    Charles CurranCharles Curran

    There has never been an infalliblepronouncement or teaching on aspecific moral matters; the very

    nature of specific moral actionsmakes it impossible, in myjudgment, to have any infallible

    pronouncements in this area.

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    How should weHow should we

    regardregardauthoritativeauthoritative

    non-infalliblenon-infalliblemoral teachings?moral teachings?

    A QuestionA Question

    2 Ways of Responding to2 Ways of Responding to

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    2 Ways of Responding to2 Ways of Responding toAuthoritative Non-InfallibleAuthoritative Non-Infallible

    TeachingsTeachings

    1. We are basically called toresponsible assent and obedience.

    3. But given certain conditions, we arepermitted responsible disagreementand dissent.

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    V. Genovesi, SJ states:V. Genovesi, SJ states:

    As such, these moral teachings donot require that we simply respondto them in an attitude of divine faith,

    as we are expected to do whenpresented with infallible teachings.Rather, in response to fallible

    teachings what is called for is aninternal religious assent.

    P ibilit f Di t i thPossibility of Dissent in the

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    Possibility of Dissent in thePossibility of Dissent in theChurchChurch

    A Venue for dialogue in whichenlightening ideas may evoke.

    A context where the scenario maybe bleak.

    Ismael I eneo Maningas onIsmael Ireneo Maningas on

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    Ismael Ireneo Maningas onIsmael Ireneo Maningas onthe Positive Side of Dissentthe Positive Side of Dissent

    If not for this dissent theChurch would have probablyremained complacent and

    would not have thoughtreading the signs of thetimes.

    I. I. Maningas, Filipino Christian Morality, p. 56.

    The Other Side by The Other Side by

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    The Other Side by The Other Side byJoseph Card. RatzingerJoseph Card. Ratzinger

    For the Church this office isindispensable today, too, andwhere her competence is

    challenged as regards essentialdecisions for or against aninterpretation of moralityfollowing upon grace, the

    fundamental form of apostolictradition is itself shaken.

    Joseph Card. Ratzinger, Magisterium of the Church, Faith, Morality, in Readings in Moral TheologyVol. 2 (eds. Charles Curran and Richard McCormick,SJ), 186-187.

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    For Cardinal RatzingerFor Cardinal Ratzinger

    the magisterium is first andforemost an apostolic

    teaching that must defendthe fundamental principles ofhuman knowledge that is

    purified, deepened andamplified by FAITH.

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    ConclusionConclusion

    In the midst of ambivalent attitudeamong Christians toward thepossibility of the dialogue between

    the SS and the Magisterium,constructive ways and means areencouraged.

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    The Pastoral Level ofThe Pastoral Level ofthe Dialoguethe Dialogue

    between SS andbetween SS andMagisteriumMagisteriumCo-responsibilityCo-responsibility

    This idea is drawn from GS 62This idea is drawn from GS 62

    and PCP II 1OO.and PCP II 1OO.


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