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  • A COOPERATIVE ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATION PROJECT AT

    THE JOHN YOUNG HOMESTEAD

    PU'UKOHOLA HEIAU NATIONAL HISTORIC SITE KAWAIHAE 2, SOUTH KOHALA

    ISLAND OF HAW AIT

    by MARA DURST, B.A.

    University of Hawaii, Research Corporation/ National Park Service

    Pacific Island Cluster-National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior

    Publication^ in Anthropology 1 2001

    with contributions by

    Jake Barrow, NPS Senior Exhibit Specialist

    and Kecia Fong, M.S.

  • A COOPERATIVE ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATION PROJECT AT

    THE JOHN YOUNG HOMESTEAD

    PU'UKOHOLA HEIAU NATIONAL HISTORIC SITE KAWAIHAE 2, SOUTH KOHALA

    ISLAND OF HAWAPI

    by MARA DURST, B.A.

    University of Hawaii, Research Corporation/ National Park Service

    with contributions by

    Jake Barrow, NPS Senior Exhibit Specialist

    and Kecia Fong, M.S.

    Pacific Island Cluster National Park Service September, 2001

    Publications in Anthropology 1

  • PREFACE

    The National Park Service (NPS) staff and the Department of Anthropology at the University of Hawai'i at Hilo conducted the Summer 1999 archaeological field school at the John Young Homestead, Upper Portion at Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site. The archaeological research design was aimed at expanding our understanding of the locations, nature, and integrity of archaeological deposits within the upper portion of the Homestead. By establishing this context, the relationship of material assemblages can be placed within a broader cultural context. The controlled subsurface excavations dispersed throughout the site coupled with the information from previous limited archaeological excavations conducted at the John Young Homestead have enabled evaluation of three more of the eight principle structures at the site for site interpretation and development of a preservation plan.

    The primary emphasis of this project was to obtain data for interpretive value concerning Western-style Structure 1 (the house of John Young) and simultaneously develop an informed architectural fabric conservation plan with efforts by the architectural conservation team. Staff from the NPS Architectural Conservation Projects Program, Intermountain Region, Santa Fe, New Mexico conducted the 1999 field conservation project at the John Young Homestead also with the cooperation of the University of Hawaii's field school. Areas within the site selected for archaeological priorities were balanced against the conservation objective resulting in a system of conserving the stone masonry (remnant standing walls of stone and mortar) and plasters (wall surface plasters) of the structures on site. The first phase of the conservation effort has included the development of several material conservation proposals based upon pilot tested field conservation methods. The evaluation of the pilot conservation methods based upon material priorities and long-term objectives will be implemented during the next phase of the conservation effort.

    This three-party project represents the ongoing research efforts ultimately necessary to fulfill the Establishing Act of 1972, Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site. This Act, in part, mandates the preservation and interpretation for the public of the John Young Homestead, Upper Portion, State Site 50-10-05-2296.*

    ' State Site 50-10-05-2296 (the prefix "50" denotes the state of Hawaii; "10" represents the Island of Hawai'i; "05" signifies the USGS 7.5' Topographic Quad map in which the site is located, in this case Kawaihae ; and "2296" represents the unique, incremental site number assigned by the State of Hawai'i, Inventory of Historic Places (SIHP)).

    i

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    The author of this report would like to acknowledge those individuals who have contributed to this overall effort, as their assistance was vital and without it, it would have made this undertaking impossible. We are all much obliged to the project co-directors, Laura Carter Schuster, M.A. of the National Park Service and Dr. Peter Mills of the University of Hawaii at Hilo, for realizing the critical needs at the John Young Homestead site and moving this project forward.

    A big thanks to the 1999 UH Hilo Archaeological Field School crew who through the heat and dust of a Kawaihae summer were able to maintain their sense of humor and enthusiasm. All shall be named as they deserve credit for their efforts; Keola Awong, Pichya Boonpinion, Morgan Frazier, Adam Johnson, Sheila LaBelle, Celeste LeSuer, Bambi Nakamura, Nathan Oshiro, Connie Ritchey, Richard Rudolph, Frankie Stapleton, and Oat Wajvisoot.

    Jake Barrow and Kecia Fong, the conservation team from the NPS Intermountain Regional Office in Santa Fe, took the lead in the architectural field conservation project. Field school participation in this effort was the first of such here in Hawaii and proved to be a successful endeavor under the guidance of Mr. Barrow and Ms. Fong.

    The staff at Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site were invaluable as they allowed the field crew the ease of participation via the staff's ready cooperation and support. A note of thanks goes out to the clerical staff at Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park for their administrative assistance in managing the funding for this project.

    The post-field season tasks were equally as important. Several individuals provided technical support. Laura Carter Schuster assisted with the historical artifact analyses. Location maps were finalized by Sandy Margriter, HAVO GIS Specialist. The profile graphics were created by Dr. Peter Mills and finalized by Mara Durst. Thanks to Dr. Bonnie Yates, Senior Forensics Specialist for the National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory, who graciously offered her services in performing the animal hair taxa identification.

    Laura Schuster, Dr. Jadelyn M. Nakamura and Catherine Lentz, members of the Cultural Resource Management staff at Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, provided valuable comments on the final draft of this report.

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  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    PREFACE i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii

    LIST OF PLATES vi LIST OF FIGURES vii LIST OF TABLES viii

    Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION 1 OBJECTIVES AND RESEARCH DESIGN 4

    Chapter 2. ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING 5 PROJECT LOCATION 5 GEOLOGY 5 SOILS 5 TOPOGRAPHY 6 CLIMATE 6 FLORA 7 NATURAL PHENOMENON 8 FAUNA 8

    Chapter 3. CULTURAL BACKGROUND 10 PREHISTORIC OVERVIEW 10 KAPU 12 CONTACT/EARLY HISTORICAL PERIOD CA. 1778-1820 12 JOHN YOUNG 13 KAMEHAMEHAI 14 EARLY VISITORS TO KAWAIHAE 16 MISSIONARIES 16 THE MAHELE 17

    Chapter 4. PREVIOUS ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH 20

    Chapter 5. SITE HISTORY OF THE JOHN YOUNG HOMESTEAD 27

    Chapters FIELD METHODS 33 INTRODUCTION 33 EXCAVATION STRATEGY 36 EXCAVATIONS 36

    Feature 3 37 Unit7N49W 37

    Stratigraphy 37 Traditional Artifacts 40 Historical Artifacts 41 Faunal Material 43

    Feature 3 Discussion 43 Structure 1 47

    Unit30N21W 50 Stratigraphy 50

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  • Traditional Artifacts 56 Historical Artifacts 56 Faunal Material 62 Floral Material 66 Mineral (Non-cultural) 67

    Structure 1 Discussion 68 Structure 3 72

    Unitl4N19W 72 Stratigraphy 72

    Unitl3N19W 73 Stratigraphy 73

    Traditional Artifacts 75 Historical Artifacts 75 Faunal Material 77

    Structure 3 Discussion 77

    Chapter 7. LABORATORY METHODS AND FINDINGS 83 INTRODUCTION 83 ARTIFACTS 83

    Traditional Artifacts 83 Mineral 83 Faunal 85

    Historical Artifacts 85 Mineral 85 Faunal 88

    Plasters 88 Mortar 90

    ARTIFACT SUMMARY 91 FLORAL AND FAUNAL REMAINS 93

    Faunal Remains 93 Mollusks 93 Echinoderm 97 Bone Material 97 Animal Hair Identification 100 Coral 101

    Floral Remains 101 Wood Charcoal Identification 101 Pollen 101 Other Botanicals 103

    CARBON DATING RESULTS 104 SOILS 104

    pH 104 Phosphate 105 Mineral 105

    Chapter 8. SITE DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 107 SITE DISCUSSION 107 CONCLUSIONS 116

    IV

  • APPENDIX A: HISTORICAL RESEARCH OF THE LIFE OF JOHN YOUNG, ADVISOR TO KAMEHAMEHA I by Mara Durst, Research Corporation of the University of Hawaii/National Park Service.

    APPENDIX B: CHARCOAL TAXA IDENTIFICATION IN SAMPLES FROM THE JOHN YOUNG HOMESTEAD, PU'UKOHOLA HEIAU NATIONAL HISTORIC SITE, HAWAIT by Gail Murakami, International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc.

    APPENDIX C: THE JOHN YOUNG HOMESTEAD 1999 FIELD CONSERVATION PROJECT by Jake Barrow and Kecia Fong, National Park Service.

    APPENDIX D: POLLEN ANALYSIS OF SOIL SAMPLE FROM JOHN YOUNG HOMESTEAD BY DR. JEROME WARD, PACIFIC PALYNOLOGY.

    APPENDIX E: REPORT OF RADIOCARBON DATING ANALYSES BY BETA-ANALYTIC, INC.

    APPENDIX F: ARTIFACT CATALOG

    APPENDIX G: NON-ARTIFACTUAL REMAINS CATALOG

    GLOSSARY OF HAWAIIAN TERMS REFERENCES CITED

    REPORT CERTIFICATION

    v

  • LIST OF PLATES

    Plate 1. John Young 13 Plate 2. Keoni Ana and Emma Rooke, circa 1850 28 Plate 3. Base of excavation of unit 7N49W, Feature 3 40 Plate 4. Annular ware plate sherd recovered within unit 30N21W, Sublevel II/c 42 Plate 5. The interior of the north wall and the collapsed west wall of the John

    Young Home, Structure 1 (1964 by Lloyd Soehren) 48 Plate 6. The exterior of the John Young home, Structure 1, 1997 48 Plate 7. Structure 3 in the foreground and Structure 1 in the background, 1999 49 Plate 8. The interior of the John Young Home, Structure 1, northeast corner, 1997 49 Plate 9. The 'ili'ili paving encountered in Level II, excavation unit 30N21W,

    Structure 1 51 Plate 10. Excavation of Component Al complete, Component A2 and

    Component B in progress, unit 30N21W, Structure 1 54 Plate 11. Base of excavations of unit 30N21W, Structure 1 55 Plate 12. Gunflint recovered at the base of Sublevel H/b, unit 30N21W,

    Structure 1 56 Plate 13. Ferrous nail recovered within unit 30N21W, Sublevel I/a 58 Plate 14. Iron and lead wall hook, recovered from unit 30N21W Sublevel I/a 60 Plate 15. Monochrome glass bead recovered within unit 30N21W, Sublevel Il/a 61 Plate 16. Light microscopy image of Canis sp. hair specimen 66 Plate 17. Wilson photograph of the "Ruins of the John Young's House" ca. 1920 70 Plate 18. Exposed northeast wall of Structure 3 and 'ili'ili paving, unit 14N19W 73 Plate 19. Polychrome glass bead fragment recovered within unit 30N21W,

    Sublevel H/a 76 Plate 20. Porcelain bowl sherd recovered within unit 14N19W, Sublevel Fa 76 Plate 21. Light microscopy image of Sus scrofa hair specimen 77 Plate 22. Plaster fragment recovered within unit 14N19W, Sublevel Fa 89 Plate 23. Plaster fragment recovered within unit 30N21W, Sublevel IFa 90

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  • LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure 1. Location of Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Park, Island of Hawai'i 2 Figure 2. Pu'ukohola Heiau NHP: Land ownership and location of the Upper Portion of

    the John Young Homestead 3 Figure 3. Extent of the Polynesian Triangle 11 Figure 4. Overview of location of previous archaeological work in the vicinity of PUHE 21 Figure 5. Apple's map depicting "Land Awards ca. 1850" in and surrounding the John Young

    Homestead 29 Figure 6. Kelly's "Drawing of LCAs 4522 and 4523 to Kaoana'eha and Puna

    [Native Register, Vol. 8:6]." 30 Figure 7. Site map of the John Young Homestead, Upper Portion,

    State Site 50-10-05-2296 34 Figure 8. Location of excavation units for the 1999 project, John Young Homestead 35 Figure 9. Profile of the north wall, unit 7N49W, Feature 3 38 Figure 10. Profile of the west wall, unit 7N49W, Feature 3 38 Figure 11. Profile of the west face of northeast quadrant, unit 7N49W, Feature 3 39 Figure 12. Profile of the north wall, unit 30N21W, Structure 1 52 Figure 13. Profile of the south wall, unit 30N21W, Structure 1 52 Figure 14. Planview of the base of Sublevel H/b, unit 30N21W, Structure 1 53 Figure 15. Extrapolated interior wall of Structure 1 69 Figure 16. Profile of the east wall of units 13N19Wand 14N19W, Structure 3 74

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  • LIST OF TABLES

    Table 1. Principal structural features of the John Young Homestead, Upper Portion 32 Table 2. Summary of sediment stratigraphy, unit 7N49W, Feature 3 37 Table 3. Summary of non-artifactul remains, unit 7N49W, Feature 3 44 Table 4. Summary of bone fragment remains, unit 7N49W, Feature 3 45 Table 5. Summary of sediment stratigraphy, unit 30N21W, Structure 1 50 Table 6. Summary of non-artifactul remains, unit 30N21W, Structure 1 63 Table 7. Summary of bone fragment remains, unit 30N21W, Structure 1 65 Table 8. Summary of sediment stratigraphy, unit 14N19W, Structure 3 72 Table 9. Summary of sediment stratigraphy, unit 13N19W, Structure 3 74 Table 10. Summary of non-artifactul remains, unit 13N19W, Structure 3 79 Table 11. Summary of bone fragment remains, unit 13N19W, Structure 3 80 Table 12. Summary of non-artifactul remains, unit 14N19W, Structure 3 81 Table 13. Summary of bone fragment remains, unit 14N19W, Structure 3 82 Table 14. Summary of artifacts recovered form the 1999 excavation project 84 Table 15. Summary of coral lime plaster recovered from the 1999 excavation project 89 Table 16. Summary of marine shell remains from the 1999 excavation project 94 Table 17. Summary of identified Gastropoda from the 1999 excavation project 95 Table 18. Summary of identified Pelecypoda from the 1999 excavation project 96 Table 19. Summary of bone material recovered from the 1999 excavation project 99 Table 20. Summary of identified fish remains from the 1999 excavation project 100 Table 21. Summary of pollen types, Level III, unit 30N21W, Structure 1 102 Table 22. Summary of Pteridophyte spore types, Level III, unit 30N21W, Structure 1 102 Table 23. Summary of bulk matrix sample pH reaction from the 1999 excavation project 105

    viii

  • Chapter 1

    INTRODUCTION

    This report presents the results of the archaeological excavations and historical studies conducted for the John Young Homestead, Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site, Island of Hawai'i. A cooperative effort between the National Park Service and the University of Hawai'i at Hilo, Department of Anthropology Archaeological Field School enabled the 1999 archaeological field season while the National Park Service, Cultural Resource Preservation Program, provided the necessary funding for the project. The field project was conducted under the co-directorship of Laura Carter Schuster, M.A., Cultural Resource Management Branch Chief at Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO), and Peter Mills, Ph.D., Professor of Anthropology at the University of Hawai'i at Hilo. Project participants in the field included Dr. Mills and twelve University of Hawaii at Hilo field school students who were in attendance at the site from June 14, 1999 until July 9, 1999; and HAVO Cultural Resource Management staff.

    Previous archaeological studies at the site were limited in scope (Rosendahl and Carter 1988, Schuster 1992) yet provided important information regarding site processes. The objective for the 1999 archaeological excavation project at the Homestead was to uncover data from at least three of the eight principle features at the Homestead to assist in rendering a developmental plan for interpretation as well as preservation and access to this important historical site.

    Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE) is situated along the leeward coast of the Island of Hawai'i (see Figure 1) in the ahupua'a of Kawaihae 2 (also known as Kawaihae Hikina or Kawaihae East), South Kohala district. The seaward portion of Kawaihae 2, including John Young's house site (established circa 1798) is incorporated within the boundaries of Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site. The Establishing Act to provide for Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site was passed by Congress in August of 1972. Thus, defining a park unit containing contemporaneous structures, Pu'ukohola Heiau and the John Young Homestead together represent diverse cultural traditions expressed on the Hawaiian landscape of the 1790s by their unique architecture and material remains (Mills, etal. 1999).

    The John Young Homestead (Upper Portion), State Site 50-10-05-2296, is one of the few examples and perhaps the earliest example of the transitional period between traditional Hawaiian architecture and the Western influence of architectural design and construction. The John Young Homestead as a whole contains several structures dispersed between the "Lower Portion" (west/makai of Akoni Pule Highway (Highway 270)) now owned by the State of Hawai'i, and the "Upper Portion" (east/mauka of Akoni Pule Highway (Highway 270)) owned by the National Park Service (see Figure 2). The "Lower Portion" of the Homestead is likely buried under fill now a part of Kawaihae Harbor complex (Apple 1978:27). The majority of known structures at the Homestead are concentrated in the "Upper Portion" of the site on a small knoll, bounded by two dry gulches: Makahuna Gulch to the north and Makeahua Gulch to the south. It is in the "Upper Portion" of the Homestead where the current archaeological efforts were concentrated, and henceforth will be referred to as the "upper portion."

    As with the previous archaeological excavation conducted in 1978 (Rosendahl and Carter 1988), the reality of site logistics and conditions, and unit recovery greatly reduced the extent of the excavation plan as proposed in the Project Research Design (Mills, et al. 1999). Excavations were limited to Structure 1, Structure 3, and Feature 3 at the John Young Homestead site during the 1999 field season. The results of which yielded hitherto unknown architectural data as well as data regarding artifact and midden dispersal at the site.

    1

  • Figure 1. The location of Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site, Kawaihae 2, South Kohala, Island of Hawai'i. Information derived from USGS Digital Line Graphs.

    2

  • Figure 2. Current land ownership and the location of the Upper Portion of the John Young Homestead, Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site.

    3

  • Objectives and Research Design

    The 1999 archaeological excavations at the John Young Homestead as well as the 1997 assessment and documentation effort (Colby and Barrow 1997) and the 1978 archaeological excavations (Rosendahl and Carter 1988) represent a response to the ongoing need for a preservation and interpretation plan for the site. The 1999 archaeological excavations focused on recovery of data for the archaeological record to promote understanding of site processes and site history.

    Research Questions

    Previous archaeological investigations and historical surveys were allowed limited insight into early activities at the John Young Homestead, Upper portion. Specific inquiries directed to answer interpretive questions were developed and hence, guided the 1999 archaeological research design at the Homestead (Mills, et al. 1999). The following research questions were posed and are addressed in Chapter 8 under the heading of Site Discussion.

    1. Can we identify a longer sequence and earlier occupation of the Homestead than historical documentation and the limited previous archaeological investigations suggest?

    2. What can we learn of John Young's family and their connection to the Homestead? In addition, what association did the surviving children of Isaac Davis, who were adopted by John Young after Davis' early demise in 1810, have to the Homestead?

    3. What if any new information can be gleaned from controlled archaeological excavations to contribute to our understanding of the architectural form and details of the various structures at the Homestead?

    4. Can criteria be devised to differentiate between the established "Hawaiian-style" and "Western-style" form and material construction at the Homestead, and a "Transitional-style" of construction which incorporates elements from both established styles?

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  • Chapter 2

    ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING

    Project Location The Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE) including the John Young Homestead is located within the South Kohala coastal zone of the leeward side of the Island of Hawai'i. PUHE is depicted on the Kawaihae, Hawai'i, Hawai'i County, Island of Hawai'i, South Kohala District 7.5 minute series USGS Topographic Quadrangle (1995) as situated between 20 01'35" and 20 02'09" North Latitude and 155 49' 12 and 155 49'47 West Longitude.

    Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site is situated upon the lower western slopes of the Mauna Kea volcano, contiguous and south of the Kawaihae Harbor complex, the major deep-water port on the west side of the Island of Hawai'i. The harbor has served as one of only two naturally deep harbors off the coastline of the Island of Hawai'i. The State of Hawai'i owns the onshore property for the harbor as well as property within northern section of the proposed park boundary (this parcel is owned by the State yet managed by the NPS). The park borders the Queen's Medical Center, Queen Emma Foundation land to the east, and other State of Hawai'i property, Spencer Beach Park, to the south (see Figure 2).

    Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site in its entirety encompasses 86 acres. The majority of the park lies to the west or makai of Akoni Pule Highway (State Highway 270). The upper portion of the John Young Homestead lies to the east or mauka of Highway 270 and as such, is physically separated from the rest of the park in regards to pedestrian trail access or safe vehicular access.

    Geology Shield basaltic volcanoes form the islands in the Hawaiian Chain. The Island of Hawai'i is comprised of five such volcanoes: Mauna Loa (13,679 ft.), Mauna Kea (13,796 ft.), Kohala (5,505 ft.), Kllauea (4,078 ft.), and Hualalai (8,271 ft.) (National Geographic Society, Map of Hawaii, September 1995).

    The John Young Homestead is situated on the westerly slopes of Mauna Kea at close proximity to the interface of the Kohala Mountains and Mauna Kea. The Kohala volcano became extinct in the Middle Pleistocene and it was by the late Pliocene that the windward side of the volcano had deeply eroded. The last eruption of Mauna Kea occurred ca. 4,500 years ago, though the surface flows within the boundaries of Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site belong to the much older Hamakua Volcanics series of Mauna Kea dating to 0.27 million years before the present and older (Petersen and Moore 1987:156-157).

    Soils An advanced copy of the most recent map unit descriptions (MUDs) of the Island of Hawai'i from the United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service (USDA, SCS) identify three soil series which cover the area within the Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site, Kawaihae. The Waikui and Hapuna soils are a complex (two or more soils that are in such a complex spatial distribution pattern that they cannot be separately delineated at a scale of 1:24,000 (personal communication: Dr. Robert Gavenda, USDA, SCS)) on knolls of 'a'a lava. These two soils form a complex with the Lalamilo series as well. The following soil series descriptions were gleaned from an in-progress advanced copy of the USDA Soil Conservation Service Map Units.

    5

  • The Hapuna Series is classified as a medial-skeletal, isotic, isothermic Petrocalcic Duritorrand of which the parent material is volcanic ash over 'a'a lava of the Hamakua Volcanics. The top 13 cm typically consists of a brown to dark brown cobbly silt loam underlain by ca. 7 cm of brown gravelly loamy sand. A brown gravelly loamy sand ca. 28-cm thick and a gray, gravelly sand over 43 cm thick follows.

    The Wiakui Series is typically of a dark brown gravelly silt loam followed by ca. 31 cm of a dark brown to dark yellowish brown very gravelly silt loam. This is underlain by ca. 83 cm of extremely gravelly silt loam yellowish brown to dark yellowish brown. This type of soil is well drained. The Wiakui Series occurs on the smooth backslopes of small knolls on hummocky constructional 'a'a. flows with slopes of 6 to 12 percent.

    The Lalamilo Series is classified as a medial, isotonic isohyperthermic calcic Haplotorrand of which the parent material is volcanic ash in 'a'a lava of the Hamakua Volcanics. The top 46 cm of soil is a dark yellowish brown to strong brown silt loam. From 46- to 109-cm-deep the soil is a brownish yellow silt loam, then underlain by a yellowish brown gravelly silt loam. This type of soil is well drained and occurs in swales on hummocky constructional 'a 'a flows along slopes ranging from 2 to 6 percent.

    Topography The topography for this region ranges from nearly level to gently sloping, and rolling coastal plains to moderately steep low mountain slopes (USDA, SCS 1994). Slopes range from l-to-15% and occur on south and west aspects. The drainage network of the Kohala Mountains to the north and east has dissected ancient lava flows establishing gulches and streambeds across the natural landscape.

    The site known as the John Young Homestead, Upper Portion is situated on a knoll above the Makahuna Gulch to the north and the Makeahua Gulch to the south. According to Apple (1979:8), waters flowed through Makahuna gulch fairly consistently during John Young's time, thereby, giving the functional name of Kapili Kahawai-meaning " stream to which boundaries cling"-- to Makahuna gulch.

    The site ranges in elevation between ca. 41 feet (12.5 m) and 58 feet (17.7 m) AMSL (above mean sea level) across an approximate area of 40 m by 50 m. The elevation rises gently so that the knoll contains a relatively flat surface upon which the eight principal features at the Homestead were constructed.

    Climate Kawaihae and environs are situated within the rain-shadow of the Kohala Mountains and Mauna Kea. Thus, the project area is classified as a desert, aridic-xeric in nature (USDA, SCS 1994). The arid and semiarid low mountain slopes of this region experience an annual mean precipitation ranging from 5 to 10 inches (USDA, SCS 1994). The majority of the precipitation in this resource area falls between October and May, the wettest month generally being February. The mean annual air temperature at the project locale varies between 62 to 77 degrees Fahrenheit, mean annual soil temperature from 52 to 72 degrees Fahrenheit (USDA, SCS 1994).

    An influencing factor as to the climate of Kawaihae and environs is the fluctuating wind velocity. The area is vulnerable to high winds, especially when there is an area of high pressure to the north of the islands. The northeast trade winds dominate most of the year, shifting to a more easterly pattern in the saddle between the Kohala Mountains and Mauna Kea. Here, the corridor between these two mountains acts as a funnel for winds causing even greater wind speeds. Denizens and visitors alike

    6

  • documented events indicating that wind variability was frequent in historical times. John Young's Log Book (1801-1809:14) files this report for 26 July 1809:

    26 Tuesday this twenty 4 ours [twenty-four hours] blowing very Hard from the NE But perfectly Clear

    William Ellis, missionary and explorer of the times, notes in 1823 that:

    At four o'clock P.M. a light air sprung up from the southward, and carried us slowly towards Towaihae [Kawaihae], a district in the division of Kohala, about four miles long, containing a spacious bay, and good anchorage.... The north side of the bay affords much the best anchorage for shipping, especially for those that wish to lie near the shore. It is the best holding ground, and is also screened by the kuahive (high land) of Kohala from the sudden and violent gusts of wind called by the natives mumuku, which comes down between the mountains with almost irresistible fury, on the southern part of Towaihae [Kawaihae], and adjacent districts. [1969:95-96]

    Even today, weather data recorded at Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site indicates that wind speeds up to 65 mph are not uncommon. The mumuku of Kawaihae still cause difficulties on land and at sea.

    Flora The John Young Homestead, Upper Portion and the surrounding environment is considered open desert grassland. The majority of plant species across this landscape are species introduced to Hawai'i. Warm season perennial grasses dominate and are well dispersed throughout the plant community (USDA, SCS 1994). The vegetation covering Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site consists predominantly of alien species of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris) scrub grassland and kiawe (Prosopis pallida) forest (Pratt and Abbott 1996:2). The major species of grass present at the John Young Homestead site today is buffelgrass, a drought resistant grass species. Buffelgrass was introduced as a cultivated plant in the 1930s (Wagner, et al. 1990:1512; St. John 1973). Pili grass (Heteropogon contortus) and hardstem lovegrass (Eragrostis atropioides) both native species are present within the overall desert grassland biota, as well as Australian bluegrass (Dichanthium sericeum), fountaingrass (Pennisetum setaceum), and pitted beardgrass (Bothriochloa pertusa) (USDA, SCS 1994). Coastal lands of Kawaihae were called "pili" lands during the early historic period in light of the predominance of these grasses across the Kohala Districts. This reference is stated in various boundary testimonies given by resident Hawaiians between 1865 and 1873 to distinguish such lands from kula (cultivated) lands (BCB: Vol. A, 6-10, 73, 80-81 and Vol. B, 129-130, 147, 276).

    Perennial and annual forbs comprise only 5-10% of the total annual herbage production within this open desert grassland. Most common forbs include 'uhaloa also known as waltheria (Waltheria americana), Japanese tea (Cassia leschenaultiana), the native species of pa"'uoHi'iaka (Jacquemontia sandwicensis), prickly pear cactus (Opuntia megacantha), sisal (Agave sisalana), Australian saltbush (Atriplex semibaccata), golden crownbeard (Verbesina encelioides), and zinnia (Zinnia pauciflora) (USDA, SCS 1994).

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  • Few species of low and tall shrubs are represented. Most specific to the John Young Homestead site is kiawe {Prosopis pallida). The kiawe canopy covers approximately 10-25% of the overall naturalized plant community in the region. Kiawe thrives in semi-arid conditions along coastal regions, as it is able to use brackish groundwater from great depths (Wagner, et al. 1990:62). Kiawe was introduced to Hawaii in 1827 at the Catholic Mission in Honolulu, and eventually spread to other Hawaiian islands as the pods were used for cattle forage (Yzendoorn 1911:30; Neal 1965:413; Wagner, et al. 1990:693). Other species of shrubs identified across this desert grassland include koa haole (Leucaena glauca), kolii bush {Acacia farnesiana), lantana {Lantana camara), and native species 'ilima {Sida cordifolia) and 'a'ali'i (Dodonaea viscosa) (USDA, SCS 1994).

    Early historical accounts indicate that coconut {cocos nucifera) grew at Kawaihae as well as hala (Pandanus sp.), milo {Thespesia populnea), kou (Cordia subcordata), and loulu (Pritchardia ajfinis) (Kotzebue 1821:295-296; Lyman 1846:June 13). Reportedly, palm (possibly coconut) and banana {Musa sp.) trees were cultivated at the Homestead during John Young's occupancy (Kotzebue 1821:295-296).

    Natural Phenomenon Historically, there have been numerous destructive wildfires within the region, in part due to the aridic-xeric nature of the landscape. Grasses thrive during the short rainy season and become dry during the remainder of the year, thereby, exposing a fair amount of fuel across the landscape. In addition, the lack of livestock ranging has increased the fuel supply. "Some of the [plant] species now associated with the site developed in other parts of the world where natural fire is part of the ecosystem" (USDA, SCS 1994:5). Wildfires can promote the development of naturalized plant communities in which kiawe {Prosopis pallida) thrives. With the depletion of vegetation cover, the area is subject to wind erosion.

    Fauna The region in which the project area is located is host to introduced and native birds. The Hawaiian hawk, the 'io {Buteo solitarius) and the Hawaiian owl, the pueo {Asio flammeus sandwichensis) are transitory through the area. The Northern cardinal {Cardinalis cardinalis), the Yellow-billed Cardinal {Paroaria capitata), the Japanese White-eye {Zosterops japonicus), the Gray Francolin {Francolinus pondicerianus), the Warbling Silverbill {Lonchura malabarica) and various species of doves (Columbidae) find suitable habitats in this region (Morin 1996).

    Common Mynas {Acridotheres tristis) are the most frequent species in the park. The indigenous Black-crowned Night Heron or 'Auku'u {Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli) and the short-eared Owl or Pueo {Asio flammeus sandwichensis) have been observed at PUHE (Morin 1996).

    The presence of select mammals in Hawai'i began with the arrival of the Polynesian colonizers. Dog (Canidae) and pig (Suidae) were introduced taxa held sacred to traditional Hawaiian culture. It is thought that Rattus exulans was accidentally introduced by the Polynesians. Historically, small mammals including the small Indian mongoose {Herpestes auropunctatus), rats {Rattus norvegicus, Rattus rattus) and other rodents, and feral cats {Felis catus) were introduced post-contact (Tomich 1986). In 1793, Captain Vancouver introduced cattle {Bos taurus), from Mission San Carlos in California (on his second voyage to Hawai'i) as a gift to the ali'i nui, Kamehameha I. Vancouver asked for a 10-year kapu on this species to propagate a herd and establish a livestock population (Henke 1929:9). During this kapu and after it was lifted, wild herds of cattle roamed the island damaging residences, destroying agricultural crops, and heavily impacting the natural vegetation (Tomich 1986:140-150). In 1792, Vancouver noted that Chief Kaiana (on Ni'ihau) already possessed several goats, though it is believed that domestic goats {Capra hircus) were introduced to the

    8

  • Hawaiian Islands in 1778 (Tomich 1986:150-156). Vancouver delivered two ewes and a ram from California to Kealakekua for Kamehameha and requested a similar 10-year kapu to be placed on this species (Henke 1929:16). Subsequently, Capra hircus developed feral herds that negatively effected small communities on Hawai'i, as well. At Kawaihae Bay on June 24, 1803 John Young received the first mare with foal to Hawaii from Richard Cleveland, captain of the merchant-vessel the Lelia Byrd (Henke 1929:5). By 1854, the increase in the horse population too had become a problem not only across the countryside of Hawaii but in downtown Honolulu, as well (Henke 1929:5).

    9

  • Chapter 3

    CULTURAL BACKGROUND

    Prehistoric Overview The Hawaiian Islands are considered the most isolated island chain in the world. As such, these Islands are situated within the northern-most reaches of the Polynesian Triangle. New Zealand at the southwest and Easter Island at the southeast complete the extent of the vertices of the Triangle (see Figure 3). It is thought that peoples from western Melanesia or Southeast Asia, ancestors of the Polynesians, began their migration to colonize the Triangle as early as the middle of the second millennium BC (Dye 1988:5; Kirch 1985:54). Polynesian colonization of the Hawaiian Islands had occurred by at least the fourth or fifth century AD (Kirch 1985:87), likely the end of the migration period of human dispersal throughout the Triangle. Based on radiocarbon dating results from charcoal samples from seven of the Hawaiian Islands, some believe human presence in the Islands may have occurred as early as the first century AD (Hunt and Holsen 1991:158; Kirch 1985:68-88). The pattern of evidence from habitation as well as agricultural sites suggests that it was the Marquesans who were the first settlers in Hawai'i (Kirch 1985:58).

    Adaptation to the environment regarding agricultural practices and settlement patterns was vital to the success of Polynesian colonization in Hawai'i. Certainly, critical resources such as water, natural vegetation, lithic sources, and marine resources, in addition to suitable habitats, were available. Yet, endemic Hawaiian vegetation was notable for its lack of edible plants. The newcomers were faced with environmental hazards of catastrophic weather and geologic conditions. The Polynesian colonizers were able to test an uncanny sense of the environment through traditional and adaptive fishing and agricultural techniques as well as supplementing the resource base found in Hawai'i with Polynesian introductions of various plant and animal species.

    Early pre-contact history was thought to be a light-hearted or tranquil time in Hawai'i known as the La'ila'i (Beckwith 1940:276-277; Malo 1951:241). With the development of political and economic power and a rapidly increasing population, political conflicts arose. By ca. 1400 AD, populations began to expand inland increasing economic exploitation and subsistence diversity (Hommon 1976:230), ultimately resulting in a competition for land and resources which continued up until and beyond the period of Western contact (Kirch 1994:266). Hommon (1976:272) suggests that inland expansion was "the first and most important step in the development of the ahupua'a", establishing land divisions which contain natural resources and setting their boundaries. During this "developmental period", 'Umi-a-Liloa conquered all the district chiefs and unified the Island of Hawai'i. Two schools of thought exist as to when 'Umi reigned. Based on a thirty-year generation, 'Umi was in power by ca. 1400 AD (Kalakaua 1990, Kamakau 1992, Malo 1951, Fornander 1969) others suggest a twenty-year generation placing 'Umi ca. 1600 AD (Hommon 1976, Kirch 1985, Cordy 2000). Nonetheless, there was peace during 'Umi's reign on the Island of Hawai'i and between the Island of Hawai'i and Maui, which then allowed cultural development to flourish. With the decreased need to focus on warfare and defense, 'Umi was able to instill occupational specialization and division of labor amongst the people, a result of which was setting class distinctions (Handy 1931:282-286; Hommon 1976:231; Kamakau 1992:19). Though Hawaiian society thrived during 'Umi's reign, his successors failed to maintain political control of the island. Battles and strife between district chiefs of Hawai'i Island and neighbor islands continued almost unabated until the late 1700s.

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  • Figure 3. The limits of the Polynesian Triangle, where peoples are thought to have a common ancestry (Based on Kirch 1985: 23).

    The rise of political power and population clearly had an effect on land tenure. The lands in the Hawaiian Islands were divided into major divisions or moku running from a point on the mountaintop extending out towards the ocean. The largest subdivision within the moku is the ahupua'a whose boundaries extended into the sea's outer reef, up to a mile offshore. Early Hawaiian land tenure was held by the chiefs, although the commoners were the residents and toilers of the land. In general, the ali'i nui selected the choice lands and divided the remaining lands amongst his warrior chiefs. The warrior chiefs further divided the lands amongst their followers, continuing down to the native tenant. Hence, territorial control was held by a "pyramidal class of chiefs" (Kirch 1985: 294). The district chiefs obtained further control through success in warfare, annexing lands and therefore increasing their resources base. Lesser chiefs controlled the ahupua 'a, where tribute and labor was paid to the chief by the increasing population of "tenant" commoners. All resources within the ahupua 'a were under the control of the chiefs including marine resources, which were an extension of the ahupua'a. The households within the ahupua 'a shared and exchanged coastal and upland food sources, goods, and services in general reciprocity.

    Habitation patterns evolved along with the cultural change in Hawaiian society, from simple thatched shelters to multi-structural permanent habitation sites. Clark and Kirch (1983) and Handy and Pukui (1972) suggest that residential clusters could include several structures for various functions. Multiple platforms and terraces used as separate areas for sleeping and cooking, storage sheds for agricultural activities, canoe sheds, men's houses, and women's menstrual houses suggest an architectural "model" associated with domestic life. It is unlikely that the majority of clusters contain the complete array of functional structures, as permanent versus temporary habitation, and variability of status of the residents would be influencing factors.

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  • Repeated conquest, integration of annexed lands, and subsequent collapse of major political units continued particularly between leeward and windward districts of Hawaii Island (Kirch 1985, Hommon 1976). During this period of unrest, socio-political division was maintained by a common belief system chiefdoms sharedthe kapu.

    Kapu Extremely important to the structure of Hawaiian society was the kapu system. Kapu was applied as the framework of traditional Hawaiian cultural and consisted of socio-political and socio-religious prohibitions. Kapu was based on the principle of "complementary opposition" (Levin 1969). Through the interaction of the elements of darkness and light, P6 and Ao, all things were created. Levin (1969:412) suggests:

    ...that which constituted the sacred, positive aspect of nature was the male principle-the sky, light, life, day knowledge, and strength. That which was considered the unsacred, negative aspect of nature was the female principle-earth, darkness, night, ignorance, weakness and the left side.

    The transformation from the Polynesian descent-group system to a state-like society during the classic period of Hawaiian society (post-1400 AD) brought about class distinction. Thus, the concept of sacred (kapu) and common (noa) or unsacred were distinguished and crosscut by birth, genealogical seniority, and gender (Davenport 1969, Levin 1969, Valeri 1985, Webb 1965). The distinction of aristocracy, commoners, and those in servitude (kauwa) considered "unclean" were determining factors in the control of the lands and the associated resources.

    The expression of kapu in Hawai'i involved the practices of the segregation of the sexes during various activities, i.e. food preparation and consumption, religious activities and worship. Segregation of the sexes as determined by the kapu was a physical expression in the traditional household cluster-the preparation and consumption of food by males and females was conducted in separate areas, a separate menstrual hut would be available to women, men would gather at the mua or men's house (Handy and Pukui 1972, Malo 1951, Kamakau 1976). Practices regarding clothing, personal actions, and many more customs were all part of the religious doctrine steeped in kapu extending into the socio-political arena. The kapu also involved chiefly taboos. It was by this system of prohibitions that the ali'i were able to sustain the socio-political system and bring about an order of control to the kingdom. The kapu served the Kingdom for centuries; its biggest threat was not an eventual internal factor or factors but presented itself as the coming of foreigners to islands of Hawaii in the late 18lh century.

    Contact/ Proto-Historic Period ca. 1778-1820 Captain James Cook and his crew aboard the Discovery, and the Resolution with Captain Clerke at the helm made the first documented European contact with the Island of Hawai'i in January of 1779. Upon Cook's arrival at Kealakekua Bay, thousands of Hawaiians were celebrating the Makahiki, a festival of harvest and fertility, and a time of the lifting of kapu. The Makahiki was a time when Lono, the principal deity of fertility and agriculture, symbolically returned from his travels. The coincidence of the arrival of Cook during the festival may account for the chiefly homage initially paid to Cook. The Captain and crew were treated with great respect and were freely given the food and supplies they needed. Later on this, his third voyage to the South Pacific, Cook met with his death at Kealakekua Bay. A skirmish broke out when an incident involving a missing cutter from the Discovery was noted and suspected as been taken by a Hawaiian. Captain Cook, in an attempt to recover the cutter, became involved in a physical altercation and was mortally wounded (Fornander

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  • 1969:191-193; Beaglehole 1967:v3: 1194-1198; Kuykendall 1938:18-19; Sahlins 1985:104-135).

    It was eight days after the death of Cook that the crew was able to replenish and repair the ship and sail out of Kealakekua Bay. The crew of the Discovery and the Resolution returned to their native lands and gradually, within the next decades, the Hawaiian Islands were established as part of the fur trade route between the Northwest American coast and China principally for supplying provisions. Some of the first vessels to follow Captain Cook to the Hawaiian Islands sailed in 1786. Fur merchants Captains Portlock and Dixon aboard the King George and Queen Charlotte were some of first to embark in the long history of trade with the Hawaiian peoples (Fornander 1969:229-230, Kuykendall 1938:20-21).

    Another early trader in the Pacific was Captain Simon Metcalfe who visited Hawai'i in 1788 on a voyage to China (Richards 1991; Cahill 1999). It was on a later voyage with boatswain John Young aboard that Metcalfe's decisions regarding his ship and crew brought about events that would serve as catalysts for great change, not only to the lives of a few men, but to the foundations of Hawaiian society.

    John Young (Details of the life of John Young will be found in APPENDIX A)

    In 1790, John Young was a 47-year-old British boatswain aboard the American brig Eleanora, the ship on a trading voyage between the Northwest American coast and China. Captain Simon Metcalfe was at the helm when the Eleanora came into Hawaiian waters off Kealakekua Bay, Hawai'i. Through a series of tragic events, misadventure and then good fortune, Young soon found himself included among high-ranking Hawaiian chiefs, granted large parcels of land, and married into the royal line of the Kamehameha dynasty.

    Plate 1. "John Young, lithograph done after Pellion." (Courtesy of the Bishop Museum Archives, Negative No. CP 441).

    John Young, whilst on shore leave from the Eleanora, was detained by one of the powerful chiefs of the Island of Hawai'i, Kamehameha I. Though with great trepidation at first (Barnard 1937), John Young along with his shipmate Isaac Davis, a Welshman, quickly became willing and valued advisors to Kamehameha I. Young found himself consulting and participating in issues of politics, economic affairs, foreign affairs and diplomacy, and warfare. He served as the keeper of the royal arsenal, business and royal agent, governor of the Island of Hawai'i (from 1802 to 1812), and friend and advisor to Kamehameha I and Kamehameha II over the course of forty-five years of residence in Hawai'i.

    Kamehameha I bestowed on Young property including Kawaihae 2, amongst several other ahupua'a (traditional Hawaiian land division) and 'Hi aina (a smaller land division within an ahupua 'a) (Apple 1978). The ahupua'a, the traditional Hawaiian land division that extended from the sea to the mountaintop, varied in size, and abundance and variety of resources. This gift of property from Kamehameha was typical of the ancient custom of distributing conquered lands amongst loyal supporters (Clark and Kirch 1983:28). John Young chose to reside at Kawaihae over all of his other land holdings. He lived out his years at his homestead near the sacred heiau of Kamehameha I at Kawaihae known as Pu'ukohola (meaning "whale hill" (Pukui, et al. 1974) or "hill of the whale"),

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  • until his death in 1835 at the age of 91. So revered that Young was interred amongst the high chiefs at the Royal Cemetery in Honolulu. His family retained close ties to the monarchy as John Young's son, known as Keoni Ana, served the royal family in various high-ranking offices. John Young's other children as well as later generations took part in the kingdom's affairs, as illustrated by granddaughter, Emma Rooke, who reigned as Queen after marrying Kamehameha IV in 1856.

    Kamehameha I In the mid-18,h century (c. 1753 (Kuykendall 1938:430)), a male child man was born to a royal family in North Kohala, on the northern coast of the Island of Hawai'i. Pai'ea, as the child was called, was born of the daughter of a Kona chief and it is believed Kebua, the chief of Kohala (Ii 1959:3; Kamakau 1992:67-68). Threats from hostile factions prompted the removal of Pai'ea to the secluded valley of Waipi'o. At five years of age, Pai'ea was sent to Kailua in North Kona where the young man received chiefly training in many things including religious ceremonies, warfare, and oral history from his uncle, Kalani'opou'u, the ali'i nui of Hawai'i Island. This instruction was preparation in becoming an ali'i 'ai moku (a district chief). Pai'ea learned well and excelled in all endeavors, maturing into the man commonly known as Kamehameha I.

    Kamehameha proved himself to be physically strong and an intelligent warrior with enterprising spirit and abilities and was given the feathered-covered image of the Kunuiakea (one of the images of the Hawaiian war akua or god, Ku) for safe keeping by his uncle Kalani'opou'u (Beaglehole 1967:505-506; Beckwith 1940:28-29; Kamakau 1964:12). This expressed the great respect and trust Kalani'opou'u held for Kamehameha, but the designated heir to the chief was his son Kiwala'o. Through several conflicts and campaigns before and after Kalani'opou'u death, Kamehameha was able to secure a place for himself and his loyal followers. Kamehameha I (also called Kamehamehanui or Kamehameha the Great) became chief of Kona, Kohala and half of Hamakua (Kamakau 1992, Fornander 1969, Dibble 1909[1843]), but ultimately, Kamehameha was desirous to unify the Island of Hawaii and eventually control all of the Hawaiian Islands.

    Kamehameha I was exposed to the power of western armament whilst spending the night onboard ship with Captain Cook in 1778, perhaps Kamehameha saw the "red-mouthed guns" used there for the first time. In fact, it was months later in the battle that took James Cook's life at Kealakekua Bay, that Kamehameha participated in and gained considerable notoriety establishing a far reaching reputation as a warrior who "moved in an aura of violence [Daws 1968:29]."

    Direct responsibility for John Young and Isaac Davis residence in Hawai'i lies with Kamehameha I. With the detention of Young and Davis in 1790, Kamehameha secured individuals able to tutor his forces in the usage of western artillerycannons and muskets salvaged from the Eleanora. Promoting his own campaigns with western armament clearly gave Kamehameha's forces the advantage over enemies limited to traditional implements of warfare.

    It was in 1790 when a prophecy was delivered to Kamehameha I by the priest Kapoukahi of Kaua'i. It was stated that Kamehameha should begin the construction of Pu'ukohola heiau to honor the war god Kuka'ilimoku. Thousands of Hawaiians including Kamehameha himself assisted in the effort to complete the heiau. Kapoukahi became one of the temple architects whom determined the site, orientation, dimensions, and configuration of the heiau and performed ceremonies throughout its construction (Dibble 1909 [1843]:51; Fornander 1969:327-328; Kuykendall 1938:37; Apple 1979:2). The prophecy foretold that Kamehameha would conquer all of the Hawaiian Islands if he built the heiau in honor of his war god. The heiau was completed in the summer of 1791 and only a few months later, Kamehameha was successful in defeating Keoua (chief of the two districts Ka'u and Puna, Island of Hawai'i that were not under Kamehameha's control). The body of the dead chief was one of the first sacrificial offerings at the altar of the heiau and with this, Kamehameha became the

    14

  • ali'i nui or paramount chief of the Island of Hawai'i. This campaign brought both Young and Davis success and respect, securing them status in the upper echelon within the pyramidal class structure of Kamehameha's chiefs.

    By 1810, the year of Isaac Davis' death, Young had the responsibility of consultation and participation in many issues particularly that of warfare. Young held a commander's rank and he placed 21 cannons on the ancient heiau Mailekini, located just down-slope from Pu'ukohola heiau. One of three small brass cannons that were removed from the Fair American, called Lopaka (Hawaiian for "Robert") was one of the 21 placed at Mailekini. This heiau, believed to have been built in prehistoric times by a district chief, was utilized as a fort in the 1810s to protect Kawaihae Bay and the kingdom's arsenal under the direction of John Young (Ladd, n.d.).

    With all of these strategic elements in place, Kamehameha was then able to conquer three neighbor islands-Maui, Molokai, and the island of O'ahu. Struggling with warring factions, Kamehameha eventually brought the Hawaiian Islands together under one rule in 1810 with the diplomatic surrender of Kaua'i by ali'i nui Kaumuali'i. Kamehameha divided the lands among his chiefs and appointed a specific chief to serve as governor on each of the islands. Acting in the role of governor with loyalties to Kamehameha also served to thwart chiefs on other islands from gaining strength and challenging Kamehameha's authority (Hommon 1976:142). Until Kamehameha gave both Young and Davis lands of their own, "Young & Davis wandered from place to place for several years dressed in the native habit...[Reverend Artemas Bishop, Journal entry dated December 14, 1825]."

    Economic developments in the islands were solely under Kamehameha's control as he monopolized all foreign commerce, particularly that of trading and whaling ships. Kamehameha assigned John Young the duties of foreign and domestic trade. Kamehameha was instrumental in the rise of harvesting sandalwood for export beginning c. 1811 and was the first to instigate a type of forest resource management with the practice of controlling the quantity of sandalwood that was harvested. However, when Kamehameha I died, Kamehameha II (Liholiho) was swayed to relinquish control of this resource to his chiefs and therefore the profits from the sandalwood trade as well. Reverend William Ellis, one of the early missionaries to Hawai'i, makes this observation on July 22, 1823:

    Before daylight on the 22d we were roused by vast multitudes of people passing through the district from Waimea with sandalwood, which had been cut in the adjacent mountains for Karaimoku [Kalaimoku], by the people of Waimea and which the people of Kohala, as far as the north point, had been ordered to bring down to his storehouse on the beach [at Kawaihae], for the purpose of its being shipped to Oahu.

    There were between two and three thousand men, carrying each from one to six pieces of sandalwood, according to their size and weight. It was generally tied on their backs by bands made of ti leaves, passed over the shoulders and under the arms, and fastened across their breast. [1963:286-287]

    Ultimately, the resulting mass-harvesting of this prized hardwood almost completely depleted the reserves by the 1830s. Sandalwood from Hawai'i could no longer serve as the treasury for the Kingdom.

    Kamehameha's passing in 1819 ended a period in Hawaiian history in which the rule of the kingdom brought a sense of stability to the general populace hitherto unknown. John Young lost his benefactor, good friend and ali'i nui. At this time, John Young was ca. 76 years old and though Young continued in service to the kingdom, the era of Kamehameha the Great was over and so was the centralized control and ultimate authority that Kamehameha wielded. The accession to power of Kamehameha's son Liholiho (Kamehameha II) had a great effect on the cohesion of the kapu system

    15

  • and the centralized authority in the kingdom. This and other factors served as catalysts for the wave of changes that were soon to come to Hawai'i.

    Early Visitors to Kawaihae George Vancouver first came to the Hawaiian Islands with Captain Cook, then returning on three occasions between 1792-1794 as commander of the HMS Discovery. Vancouver developed favorable relations with Kamehameha I, aiding in the attempt to help bring about an end to the struggle for ultimate control of the islands of Hawai'i. Captain Vancouver formed a well-disposed association with John Young and Isaac Davis, as well. It was Vancouver who advertised in an English newspaper to notify any living relatives of John Young and Isaac Davis of their whereabouts and state of health. Public notice was successful. On May 2, 1799, more than nine years after Young and Davis' detention, Sarah Davis, sister of Isaac Davis, responded with a letter expressing relief at the state of his health, and informed Isaac of the well-being and fortune of his sisters and mother (Henriques 1917:51).

    Vancouver had an interest in developing relations with the Hawaiian kingdom with the underlying motive of securing a vested interest for the British Empire (Vancouver 1967:v3:16-17). Kamehameha agreed to place the Island of Hawaii under British protection. Nonetheless, Vancouver furnished Kamehameha with sufficient supplies to build a good-sized ship and weapons including "a dozen sky rockets, and half that number of effective hand grenades for the sole purpose of Tamaahmaah's [Kamehameha's] protection" (Vancouver [1793] 1967:vol. 2, 155; Stewart 1970:28).

    The Vancouver voyages are credited with introducing cattle, mules, sheep, goats (Kuykendall 1938:41; Fornander 1969:336-337; Menzies 1920:58, 61-62; Vancouver 1967:vol. 2, p. 122, 127), even almond and orange trees (saplings grown from seeds aboard the ship) (Menzies 1920:12) as well as water and musk melon (Stewart 1970:146) to Hawai'i.

    Vancouver was not the only ship's captain to visit Hawaii in the early post-contact period. A myriad of trading vessels put in at Kawaihae during the early 19th century. It is from numerous journals and ship logs of that era, which provide some of the earliest accounts of John Young in Hawai'i as well as impressions of Kawaihae.

    We now saw Young's settlement of several houses built of white stone, after the European fashion, surrounded by palm and banana trees; the land has a barren appearance,... [Kotzebue 1821:295-296]

    The Homestead, situated in plain view from Kawaihae Bay, likely appeared as an oasis to foreign travelers whose voyages took them to lush, exotic landscapes and whose homelands were likely much different from the lava landscape and desert-like conditions of Kawaihae.

    Missionaries In 1819, Kamehameha II (Liholiho) abolished the kapu system leaving open a pathway for new religious doctrine to be introduced to Hawai'i. In April of the following year, the first wave of Protestant missionaries arrived on the Island of Hawai'i. Leaving Boston, Massachusetts aboard the brig Thaddeus on October 23, 1819, Reverend and Mrs. Hiram Bingham, Reverend and Mrs. Asa Thurston, five other couples, and three Hawaiian studentsThomas Hopu, William Kanui, and John Honolii- from the Cornwall Mission School in Connecticut, arrived in Kailua-Kona, Hawai'i at first landfall (Bingham 1849; Hawaiian Mission Children's Society 1969). Representatives from the corps of missionaries were first sent to Kawaihae to garner the permission of John Young (by then long

    16

  • time advisor to Kamehameha I) for an audience with Liholiho (Dibble 1909:137; Stewart 1970:161; Apple 1978:5-6). Under Young's advisement, Liholiho granted permission to establish a missionary station at the King's residence in Kailua-Kona on a one-year trial basis.

    It was Reverend Asa Thurston who established the First Church in KailuaMoku'aikaua Church, founded in 1820. The first church built on site was of a traditional Hawaiian-style thatched structure. A more formal church of lava rock and lime plaster with a thatched roof replaced this structure by 1825. By that same year, the first schools run by missionaries were in operation.

    Missionaries were welcomed at the Homestead and many broke bread at Young's table (e.g. Ellis [1969], Bishop [1825], Judd [1880]). It might be assumed that conversation in Young's native tongue was very welcome as well as the spiritual discussion and instruction that may have occurred. Young's wife embraced this new religion as did other royal personages and commoners. Reverend Artemas Bishop (1825:32-33) relays that he:

    Intended to have set out this morning for Kohala, but the importunity of Mrs. Young has induced me to spend the day at this place [Kawaihae] in giving religious instruction to herself and her people.

    The acceptance of Christianity was one of several western tenets integrated into Hawaiian society during the course of the 19lh century. The concept of land ownership was another.

    The Mahele On December 10, 1845, the Hawaiian legislature created the Board of Commissioners to Quiet Land Titles, better known as the Land Commission (Chinen 1958:8). The Land Commission was invoked to oversee and process title claims to Hawaiian lands within a two year period beginning on February 7, 1846. The Commission established a set of guidelines consisting of six principles to the process; these guidelines became law on October 26, 1846 (Chinen 1958:8).

    The Mahele of 1848 divided the land on all of the Hawaiian Islands between Kamehameha III and 245 Hawaiian chiefs (Kuykendall 1938:287; Chinen 1958:16). Place names only were entered into the Mahele Book during the period of the Mahele from January 27, 1848 to March 7, 1848 (Chinen 1958:16, 20). This began the concept of private land ownership as opposed to the traditional concept of land use value within the kingdom. In March 1848, a set of rules were established by the Privy Council as guides for the separating and defining of rights and interest in the lands of the Kingdom. Kamehameha III retained all of his private lands while the remaining lands were further divided (ca. two-thirds of the lands in the Hawaiian Islands) into one third of the lands for the chiefs and konohiki, one third for the Hawaiian Government and one third set aside for the tenants, thus, converting the kingdom's land system into a private land holding system.

    A Certificate of Award was issued by the Land Commission upon confirmation of a claim, the title was then conferred with absolute control and possession vested to the holder. A Land Commission Award (LCA) was awarded to native Hawaiians, naturalized or long-term resident foreigners, or a non-Hawaiian born in the Islands. Each claim was to be presented to the Land Commissioners along with a commutation fee (Chinen 1958:20-21).

    The Mahele Award came about after the dissolution of the Land Commission (March 1855) and was issued by the Minister of the Interior to a chief or konohiki who had not yet obtained an award on land recorded in the Mahele Book as quitclaim (title transfer to another) by Kamehameha III. The ali'i were required to pay a fee for the claim title and present a survey of the boundary of the claimant

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  • Award. Ali'i Awards were subsequent to the tenure of the Land Commission and in fact, it was not "until 1909 that a statue was enacted establishing a procedure for enforcing the [ali'i or chief's] payment of commutation" (Chinen 1958:14). A Royal Patent quitclaimed the interest in the land and was issued to a chief upon surveying of the land. It was not until the 1880s that Boundary Commission Testimony was given to establish the Royal Patents and patent boundaries.

    Regarding the lands of Kawaihae, now including the John Young Homestead and Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site, the April 1848 awards to quit land titles including Ali'i Awards in The Kings Mahele: The Awardees and Their Lands compiled by Dorothy B. Barrere, 1994 were reviewed. Of John Young's six children, five are mentioned as receiving property through the process of the Mahele and Land Commission Awards. The sixth child Robert Kanehoa, the eldest of two sons of John Young and his first Hawaiian wife Namoku'elua, was sent to attend school Boston at the age of six (c. 1802). Robert joined the United States Navy in 1812 and is thought to have been captured by the British, imprisoned in Bermuda, and likely died there as he was never heard from again (Cahill 1999:142).

    John Young's son Keoni Ana, also known as John Young, Jr., was born in March of 1810 at or near Kawaihae. Ana served as the Governor of Maui (c. 1845-1857), Premier of the Kingdom of Hawaii, Minister of the Interior, advisor to Kamehameha III, and a member of the committee appointed to plan the procedures for the Mahele (Kamakau 1992:409; Kuykendall 1938:265, 287). Ana was awarded the Royal Patent in 1848 for the ahupua'a of Kawaihae Hikina (Kawaihae East/Kawaihae 2) under the Land Commission Award 8515. This award also included the ahupua'a of Kukuau in Hilo, Hawaii, Halehaku on Maui, and Pahoa in Kona on O'ahu. In October of 1854, Royal Patent 1661:1 for Kawaihae Hikina was issued to Ana with a waiver of commutation. The boundaries for this Royal Patent were not set until 1903.

    Other property John Young left to his children was noted in the Indices (1929:58) as "exempted from division and commutation by the Privy Council on August 29, 1850, by Resolution passed as follows:

    'Resolved that the Minister of the Interior is hereby authorized to grant Royal Patents to the heirs of John Young (Olohana) for the lands they severally inherit from their father, without commutation or division.' "

    The extent of John Young's holdings was sizable. John Young's other children:

    1) Pane (Fanny Kekelaokalani Young) was awarded Ali'i Award LCA 8519-B which included the ahupua'a of Ki'iokalani and Pahoehoe on the Island of Hawaii, Haleu on Maui, and Maunalei on Lanai. Fanny Kekelaokalani was born at Kawaihae, Kohala on July 21, 1806. From her union with husband George Na'ea, Emma Kaleleonalani was born. Emma was hanai to Aunt Grace Kamaikui, and went on to marry Alexander Liholiho, Kamehameha IV, thus becoming Queen Emma. Fanny Kekelaokalani died on September 4, 1880.

    2) Grace Kamaikui was awarded Ali'i Award LCA 8516-B, which included the ahupua'a of Wai'aka 1, Kalama, and Kahului, Hawai'i, as well as Halawa on O'ahu. Grace Kamaikui was born at Kawaihae, Kohala on September 8, 1808. She married Ke'eaumoku (George Cox) who died in 1824. Grace Kamaikui then married Dr. Thomas C. B. Rooke. She had no children of her own but was makuahine hanai to Emma Kaleleonalani (Queen Emma). Grace Kamaikui died on July 24, 1866.

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  • 3) Gini Lahilahi (Jane Lahilahi Young) was awarded the Ali'i Award LCA 8520-B and received the ahupua'a of Wai'aka 2, Waika, Pahoehoe, and Waikahekahe 1 on the Island of Hawai'i. This totaled ca. 5,541 acres. Gini Lahilahi was born at Kawaihae, Kohala in May of 1813. She married Joshua Ka'eo (a.k.a. Iosua or Ka'eo Ehu, his second marriage) and had two sons, Peter Kuaokalani Ka'eo (hanai to Keoni Ana) and Albert Kunuiakea who was raised in the household of Queen Kalama. Gini Lahilahi died on January 12,1862.

    4) James Young Kanehoa was awarded 'Ouli, Kohala, on Hawaii, 'Ula'ino, Ko'olau, on Maui, and Lawa'i, Kaua'i. Kanehoa was the son of John Young and his first wife Namoku'elua. Kanehoa married Sarah (Kale) Davis, daughter of Isaac Davis. No children were born of this union. Kanehoa was educated in Boston, Massachusetts, and served as Governor of Kaua'i and then Maui (Stokes 1939:16, Thrum 1912:102). He accompanied Kamehameha II, Liholiho, on an ill-fated trip to Great Britain and served as interpreter during an audience with King George IV (Kamakau 1992:256, Kuykendall 1938:77, 79). Days later Liholiho's queen and then Liholiho died of measles.

    In addition, John Young's surviving wife Ka'oana'eha, received awards in the Mahele of 1848 including property on the Island of Hawai'i: Kamoamoa and Kukuihala in Puna; Opuo'ao, Ho'owaliohalawa, Kealahiwa, and Kaupo in Kohala; and Kaloakiu, Waipi'o, in Hamakua, Hawaii.

    Ka'oana'eha and Isoba Puna, the konohiki of Kawaihae Hikina, applied for and received LCA 4522, what is now considered the Lower Portion of the John Young Homestead. Essentially, Ka'oana'eha was the resident chiefess of the ahupua'a of Kawaihae 2 from 1835 (the year of John Young's death) until her death in 1850, even though the formal Land Commission Award was granted posthumously in October of 1851 (Apple 1978:24).

    The holdings of John Young's heirs, inclusive of Isaac Davis' children (whom Young reared upon Isaac Davis' death), were considered 'aina ho'oilina or inherited lands, as they were one of three groups of the kaukau ali'i (class of chiefs of lesser rank than the high chief) (Kame'eleihiwa 1992:249). Whilst other kaukau ali'i were required to relinquish land to the M6T as stated in the Buke Mahele (the Mahele Book), the heirs of John Young retained all 27 inherited lands (Kame'eleihiwa 1992:249).

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  • Chapter 4

    PREVIOUS ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH

    Cultural sites found on Hawai'i have engaged the interest of some of the earliest visitors to the islands. That interest gave rise to the pioneering of archaeological investigation on Hawai'i early on in the 20lh century. Previous archaeological research conducted near the John Young Homestead began as early as 1906. Other investigations were conducted in the first half of the 20th century but it was during the 1960s and 1970s that several major archaeological projects were contracted for various development projects of rather large scope. These projects included the Queen Ka'ahumanu Highway, the Mudlane-Waimea-Kawaihae Road Corridor, as well as resort and other commercial developments planned for South Kohala. Figure 4 provides a locational map for the projects described below.

    J.F.G. Stokes (1919) In a volume of surveyed Hawaiian heiau, Stokes documents both Pu'ukohola and Mailekini heiau (Stokes 1919:164-171). This section of Stokes' text is well illustrated and contains several figures of both heiau. Stokes conducted his survey during 1906-1907 based on a list of Hawaiian heiau gathered by Thomas G. Thrum, publisher of 27ze Hawaiian Almanac and Annual.

    Reinecke (1930) In July of 1930, John E. Reinecke conducted a survey of cultural sites from South Kona to Kalahuipua'a, Kohala, Island of Hawai'i. Working for the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Reinecke concentrated on the coastal areas and divided his survey into four sections. Reinecke (1930) suggested that:

    Kawaihae and Puako were the seat of several thousands, and the smaller places number their inhabitants by the hundreds. Now there are perhaps fifty permanent inhabitants between Kailua and Kawaihaecertainly not over seventy-five.

    During Reinecke's survey he:

    "...also walked along the coast from Kalahuipuaa to Kawaihae, but considered it not worth while to attempt a survey of this algaroba-covered [/nnwe-covered] coast unless I had a base there [1930]."

    Soehren (1964) A National Science Foundation grant to the Bishop Museum spurred the archaeological reconnaissance survey of the Mahukona-Kawaihae Highway in 1964 (Soehren 1964a). Prior to the survey "Nearly the whole centerline of the highway had been previously cleared by a bulldozer to facilitate the work of the surveyors" (Soehren 1964a:3). The archaeological survey revealed fourteen sites recorded on or near the centerline of the proposed new highway. All sites were identified as pre-contact period sites including "camp sites", burials, and those of an unknown function. Kanupa Cave, a burial cave within the project area, was recommended for preservation.

    In addition, in 1964, Lloyd Soehren conducted an archaeological survey along the shores of 'Ouli and Kawaihae 2, South Kohala for the Bishop Museum (Soehren 1964b). The Bishop Museum received a

    20

  • Figure 4. Locator map for previous archeological investigations conducted in the vicinity of the Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site, Kawaihae, Hawai'i.

    21

  • "grant-in-aid" for this survey project from Mr. Laurance S. Rockefeller. Soehren identified, surveyed and documented, amongst other sites, Pu'ukohola and Mailekini heiau, HaleoKapuni an offshore heiau, the large upright stone known as "Kamehameha's stone seat" or Kikiako'i, another large stone named "Unea", the WaiaKane spring, and the larger features at the John Young Homestead.

    Regarding the John Young house, Soehren indicated that:

    ...the walls are deteriorating rapidly and in many places have collapsed to a large extent, they appear to have been approximately 8 feet high originally...Wooden posts, several of which still remain imbedded in the walls, were inserted to provide a point of attachment for the rafters...Almost directly in front of Young's house is a platform grave [1964b:14].

    Bonk (1968) William Bonk, with the State Parks Division of the Department of Land and Natural Resources, conducted an archaeological survey of the coastal tract between Honokoa Gulch of Kawaihae 1 and the southern boundary of the U.S. Coast Guard Loran Station in the ahupua'a of 'Upolu, North Kohala. The three-week survey project occurred in June and July of 1967 and resulted in the identification and recordation of 93 sites within the first three miles of the twelve-mile route. Time constraints altered the survey design and the remainder of the survey was shifted to general site descriptions. Only village sites were surveyed and mapped. Specifically within the coastal area of Kawaihae 1, the survey identified and recorded both "L"- and "U"-shaped stone walls, stone alignments, stone enclosures, a canoe shed, a salt pan and a "chum hole (poho)" (Bonk 1968:8). Lapakahi Village was recorded as part of the latter section of this survey.

    Cluff.etal.G969) Under contract to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Bishop Museum conducted an archaeological survey within the current Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site boundaries in August of 1969. Pu'ukohola heiau and Mailekini heiau were archaeologically surveyed, and an historical survey of the John Young house, HaleoKapuni heiau, and the "Alapa'i's seat" were included due to the concerns of possible impacts to the aforementioned sites during the then proposed construction of the Kawaihae Small Boat Harbor.

    Within this same volume, Apple presents an historical overview of the John Young Homestead site. Apple states that "The walls of his [John Young] principal house still stand in 1969" (Cluff, et al. 1969:20-24).

    Ching(1971) The archaeological survey of the Kailua-Kawaihae Road Corridor, the third section of the Queen Ka'ahumanu Highway, was conducted under contract between the State of Hawai'i Department of Transportation, Highway Division and the State of Hawai'i Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of State Parks, Outdoor Recreation, and Historic Sites. The fieldwork began on June 10, 1970 and continued until October 7, 1970, at which time the two-thousand-foot-wide and twenty-three-mile-long road corridor was surface surveyed for archaeological resources. The study area extended from the north extent of Lalamilo ahupua 'a south to the ahupua 'a of Hamanamana. The study documented 443 habitation structures, 19 agricultural sites, 11 livestock enclosures, burial features, trails, a refuge cave, a holua slide, an abrader manufacturing area, petroglyphs, and 23 features of unknown function. A high concentration of features including ahu, shelters, "C"-shaped and "U"-shaped structures, walls, "hunting blinds", and mounds were identified in the Lalamilo section of the survey corridor, though few artifacts were identified.

    22

    http://Cluff.etal.G969

  • Rosendahl (1969 and 1972) The Bishop Museum, under contract to the Olohana Corporation, conducted a nine-day surface survey along an 0.8 kilometer long by ca. 0.3 kilometer wide stretch of coastal land from Hapuna Bay to Kauna'oa Bay between December 23, 1968 and January 4, 1969 (Rosendahl 1969). Thirty-eight features were identified in the survey area. Shelters, house structures and habitation sites, burials, as well as cairns and unidentifiable structural remains were recorded during the survey. In addition, excavations took place at Site E4-14 located at Kauna'oa Point. Stratified deposits were not identified at the site. The artifacts recovered include fishing gear (twelve such artifacts inclusive of fishhooks and lures), tools and tool fragments (101 echinoid files, files saws, and abraders of coral, as well as four adze fragments), items such as a scraper, a bone pick, a basalt pestle, two shell augers, and personal adornments including shell beads. The cultural remains were in shallow deposits suggesting intermittent or temporary occupation.

    During August of 1971, a four-week archaeological salvage project was completed within and adjacent to the Hapuna to 'Anaeho'omalu section of the Kailua-Kawaihae Road Alignment (Rosendahl 1972). Eleven crewmembers recorded 130 archaeological features including 61 residential features identified as low "C"- and "L"-shaped shelters, small cave and rock shelters, platforms, and midden features. Cairns, trails, walls, a cave burial, and abrader manufacturing areas were also identified within the project area.

    Barrera (1974) The Bishop Museum under contract to the State of Hawai'i Department of Transportation conducted an archaeological and historical survey of the Waimea to Kawaihae Road corridor. The survey of the approximate 2000-foot-wide corridor resulted in the identification of 4,561 features of which 306 were located within the ahupua'a of Kawaihae 2. The predominant feature type identified within Kawaihae 2 were shelters (153 in all), followed by walls (51), mounds (49), terraces (20), platforms (4), animal enclosures (6), midden deposits (16), and a few features classified as roads, ditches, a well, a petroglyph, and "community-oriented structures."

    Under this same cover, Marion Kelly (In Barrera and Kelly 1974; Kelly 1974) authored a report describing the major historical events and activities, which occurred in Kawaihae and Waimea. Information regarding historical figures and archival maps were included to illustrate the rich history of the area.

    Apple (1978) In 1978, Russ Apple, the Pacific Historian for the National Park Service published the historical data section of the Historic Structure Report (HSR) for the John Young Homestead, Pahukanilua. Though Apple considered this historic data section as "preliminary", the compilation of information regarding land ownership is extensive and the document provides site data and history, historical references, and a Young family genealogy.

    Luscomb(1974) Bernice P. Bishop Museum was contracted to conduct a walk-through survey of the proposed Kawaihae-Kukuipahu power plant site in the ahupua'a of Kawaihae 1. Margaret Luscomb surveyed and mapped previously located sites in the work area and evaluated each site for significance during a one-week period in February of 1974. Three sites were identified which contained a total of 27 features. Thirteen enclosures, ten "C"-shapes, as well as one wall feature, a depression, an ahu, and one "L"-shape were recorded.

    23

  • Kirch (19791 The Bishop Museum under contract to the Mauna Loa Land, Inc. conducted an archaeological survey of 3,841 acres of land in the Kalahuipua'a, Waikoloa and Lalamilo ahupua'a, South Kohala. Two phases of work were conducted during the period of June 25 through July 26, 1973, and June 29 through August 7, 1975. One hundred and seventy nine sites containing 449 features were identified during the survey to include over 200 "C"-shapes, 47 shelter caves, 41 enclosure, 63 cairns, 28 abrader manufacturing areas, as well as platforms, petroglyphs, trails, walls, burials, and an historic-era cemetery. The second phase of the project conducted in 1975 included the excavation often sites, all shelter caves with midden deposits.

    Hammatt and Folk (19801 In 1980, the Archaeological Research Center Hawaii, Inc. surveyed, mapped, and recorded coastal sites (many of which were originally recorded by Rosendahl in 19691 for the proposed Mauna Kea Hotel expansion plan. Eighteen of the 21 sites identified were tested, resulting in either sparse recovery of cultural materials or discovery of disturbed matrices. Twenty of the 21 sites were associated with habitation activities. One site was identified as a probable men's house with internal features, multiple paved living floors, and a long, narrow cupboard containing sections of a structural pole. Artifacts recovered were identified as associated with "craft activities."

    Clark and Kirch (19831 The undertaking of the archaeological investigations of the Mudlane-Waimea-Kawaihae Road included four geographical sections, one of which traversed the stretch of the alignment from the now Kawaihae Small Boat Harbor, paralleling State Highway 270 and terminating at Wai'ula'ula Gulch. The investigations of this section of the project were conducted in two phases; the intensive survey during 1973, and the data recovery phase within the right-of-way in late 1980 and early 1981. The initial survey conducted by William Barrera (Barrera and Kelly 1974) identified 235 sites. In the interim of this survey phase and the 1980 data recovery phase, the construction of the small boat harbor and the then existing highway disturbed if not destroyed the shoreline settlement zone (Clark and Kirch 1983:130). In addition, bulldozing in the area and designation of natural features as cultural features prevented relocation of eight of the 235 sites.

    Data recovery investigations revealed 51 sites (Clark and Kirch 1983:65) across ca. 225 hectares (555 acres) to include residential, burial, agricultural, and military activity sites. These sites contained shelter, platform, terrace, enclosure, wall, burial, trail, and agricultural (e.g. "C"-shape walls) as well as irrigation features.

    Ladd(1986) The after-effects of the April 26, 1973 earthquake prompted the emergency preservation project at Pu'ukohola Heiau, PUHE. Portions of the structure collapsed during the earthquake and posed a concern for visitor safety and the preservation of the heiau itself. Undocumented reconstruction of the heiau took place in 1928 and since that time additional collapse of the traditional Hawaiian mortar-less structure had occurred. The National Park Service undertook two phases of stabilization and rehabilitation during the period between March of 1975 and September 30, 1976. Archeologist Edmund Ladd documented the conditions of the heiau and architectural details prior, during, and after the emergency preservation efforts.

    24

  • Soehren(1980) This survey of a ca. 372-acre parcel was conducted west (seaward) of the Queen Ka'ahumanu Highway within the ahupua'a of Kawaihae 2 (Tax Map Key 6-2-02:6). This was the third of three surveys (Soehren 1964b; Barrera 1974; Soehren 1980) conducted by the Bishop Museum within this parcel, which in total identified 132 features. The 1980 investigation recorded 25 features which were categorized as agricultural features, habitation features, or grave sites.

    Rosendahl and Carter (1988) From July 17 to September 30, 1978, under the direction of Principal Investigator Dr. Paul Rosendahl, Rosendahl and four crewmembers attempted subsurface excavations and/or stabilization of four of the structures at the John Young Homestead, Upper Portion. The scope of work was sharply diminished once the crew began the excavations, as time and manpower requirements far exceeded the prescribed project limits. In effect, the excavations conducted during this project focused on Western-style Structure 2 (S2). The results of this archaeological investigation detailed the architecture of the structure to include the basalt stones bound by a mud mortar. The interior walls were whitewashed and plastered, and a locally made plaster was applied to the exterior walls. Five postholes were identified; three of which were stone braced. Flooring material of 'ili'ili was identified. In addition, a stone crypt containing the remains of two human individuals was identified within Western-style Structure 2.

    Portable remains numbering over 1,150 items were recovered to include traditional artifacts of stone, volcanic glass, bone, and shell objects, and historic artifacts of glass, metal, stone, and ceramic. The interpretation of the archaeological remains recovered during this excavation suggested that Western-style Structure 2 was utilized as a storage facility containing a "collection of artifacts and non-artifactual remains [which] provides a baseline assemblage for future analyses of sites dated between 1793 and 1840" (Rosendahl and Carter 1988:75).

    Schuster (1992) During upland fire suppression activities on July 22, 1991, a misdirected state-operated bulldozer traversed the Upper Portion of the John Young Homestead and caused damage to several of the structural features at the site. Subsequently, between May 19 and June 2, 1992, limited test excavations were conducted to determine the extent of bulldozer damage to the site. It was concluded that structural damage had occurred to Hawaiian-style Feature 1 and Western-style Structure 2, as well as to subsurface rock and artifacts beneath the bulldozer's path.

    Artifacts recovered from this excavation include glass and ceramic fragments, an iron nail fragment, a strike-a-light, slate fragment and a musket ball. Traditional artifacts recovered include basalt and volcanic glass debitage, a hammerstone, a coral file, and a shell scraper.

    Information gleaned from the excavations at Hawaiian-style Feature 1 (Fl) revealed plastered surfaces of the foundation construction material. This suggested that in fact "Hawaiian-style Feature 1" exhibits both Hawaiian and Western style construction techniques and materials, thereby redefining or including a third style of construction at the John Young Homestead, identified as a "transitional-style" of construction (Schuster 1992:28).

    Colby and Barrow (1997) The process of developing a preservation and interpretation plan for the John Young Homestead had been discussed early on in PUHE's history. Catherine Colby and Jake Barrow, a conservation team from the National Park Service, Intermountain Field Area, Santa Fe were brought in to assess and

    25

  • document the house of John Young resulting in the development of an Historic Structure Report (HSR). The team assembled available historical and archaeological sources and maps, reported on the architectural data and conditions of the house of John Young, provided a historic fabric evaluation of the house and, though Colby and Barrow considered an HSR premature, recommendations were made for further studies necessary to formulate short-term and a long-term preservation treatment solutions.

    International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc. (IARII) (1997) In 1997, IARII was contracted buy the National Park Service to conduct historical research and a field-mapping project pertaining to the John Young Homestead, Upper Portion. This project was spurred on by the needs of the conservation team of Colby and Barrow (1997) for discovery of historic photographs pertaining to the Homestead and environs, and for a detailed AutoCad field map of the John Young Homestead, Upper Portion. Both objectives were accomplished.

    26

  • Chapter 5

    SITE HISTORY OF THE JOHN YOUNG HOMESTEAD

    The abandonment of the John Young Homestead after John Young's death did not remove the site from the public's interest. Many a map created by seamen or surveyors of the 19th century and few of the 20"' century include the site and location stated sadly as "ruins." Yet, the foundations of the Homestead have survived centuries of neglect, having revealed and may yet yield new archaeological data to allow a more complete picture of the life and times of John Young at Kawaihae. Archival research has produced several documents containing limited information regarding the history of the John Young Homestead site. Russell Apple (1978) authored a report synthesizing archival data regarding Pahukanilua, the Hawaiian name of the homestead of John Young, and related information.

    John Young's diary (1798-1799) gives us scant information regarding the life

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