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A PROTOCOL FOR SUSTAINABLE PEATLAND MANAGEMENT Group... · WP2.1/2.2 Biodiversity / vegetation...

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BOGLAND A PROTOCOL FOR SUSTAINABLE PEATLAND MANAGEMENT May 2005 (Sept 2005) – May 2008 Peatlands perform important functions which underpin the rationale for their sound management Apply the principles of sustainability and wise use BOGLAND Develop guidelines for the future management of peatlands with the aim of sustaining the environmental and ecological goods and services they provide, as well as the human communities that use them Approach Review current information on physical, environmental, social and institutional aspects of peatland utilisation and management Address some of the gaps by carrying out research on different types of peatlands Partners UCD School of Biology and Environmental Sciences School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Policy School of Architecture, Landscape and Civil Engineering Trinity College Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering NUI Galway Department of Engineering Hydrology University of Limerick Centre for Environmental Research Teagasc Athenry Johnstown Castle Bord na Móna National Parks and Wildlife Service BOGLAND TEAM
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  • 1

    BOGLAND

    A PROTOCOL FOR SUSTAINABLE PEATLAND

    MANAGEMENT

    May 2005 (Sept 2005) – May 2008

    Peatlands perform important functions which underpin the rationale for their sound management

    Apply the principles of sustainability and wise use

    BOGLAND

    Develop guidelines for the future management of peatlands with

    the aim of sustaining the environmental and ecological

    goods and services they provide, as well as the human

    communities that use them

    Approach

    • Review current information on physical, environmental, social and institutional aspects of peatland utilisation and management

    • Address some of the gaps by carrying out research on different types of peatlands

    Partners• UCD

    – School of Biology and Environmental Sciences– School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine– School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Policy– School of Architecture, Landscape and Civil Engineering

    • Trinity College – Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering

    • NUI Galway– Department of Engineering Hydrology

    • University of Limerick– Centre for Environmental Research

    • Teagasc– Athenry– Johnstown Castle

    • Bord na Móna• National Parks and Wildlife Service

    BOGLAND TEAM

  • 2

    Sub-project 1: Management and co-ordination

    • Prof. Jim Curry (Project Co-ordinator)• Florence Renou (Project Manager)• Prof. Tom Bolger (Sub-project 2)• Prof. Shane Ward (Sub-project 3)• Prof. Frank Convery (Sub-project 4)

    Biodiversity study sites

    Name Region County OS map # Bog type Core sites Total area (ha)Scragh Bog Midlands Wh 41 Fen y 16

    Pollardstown Midlands Ke 55 Fen y 235Bellacorick flush West Mo 23 Fen y 30Suck rive callows Mid-West G/Rn 47 Fen 200

    Sharavogue Midlands Oy 53 Raised bog y 180Clara Midlands Oy 48 Raised bog y 665

    Carrowbehy Midlands Rn 32 Raised bog y 276Cloonshanville Midlands Rn 33 Raised bog 123Knockmoyle West Mo 23 Atlantic blanket bog y 157Owenirragh West Mo 23 Atlantic blanket bog y 166Ballygisheen West Ky 78 Atlantic blanket bog y 565Roundstone Connemara G 44 Atlantic blanket bog 134Fiddandary Ox mountains Mo/So 24 Mountain blanket y 1418

    Kippure Wicklow mountains Ww 56 Mountain blanket y 880Glenlahan Slieve Bloom Oy 54 Mountain blanket y 2230

    Cuilcagh/Lough Cratty Cuilcagh mountains Cn 26 Mountain blanket 5000

  • 3

    Base-line data collection

    • Water table wells and PVC tape• Water sampling for anions, cations and pH• Mapping of site with ‘degradation’ scale• Seasonal pictures

    BELLACORRICK BOG and FLUSH

    POLLARDSTOWN FEN SCRAGH FEN

    SHARAVOGUE RAISED BOG CLARA RAISED BOG

  • 4

    CARROWBEHY RAISED BOG KNOCKMOYLE ATLANTIC BLANKET BOG

    BALLYGISHEEN ATLANTIC BLANKET BOG OWENIRRAGH ATLANTIC BLANKET BOG

    GLENLAHAN MOUNTAIN BLANKET BOG KIPPURE/LIFFEY HEAD MOUNTAIN BLANKET BOG

  • 5

    FIDDANDARY MOUNTAIN BLANKET BOG Sub-project 4: Socio-cultural, economic and institutional/policy module

    Co-ordinator: Frank Convery

    • WP4.1 Stakeholder interviews• WP4.2 Socio-cultural issues• WP4.3 Socio-cultural case study• WP4.4 Socio-economic aspect

    A Protocol for Sustainable Peatlands in Ireland

    Sub-project 4:Socio-cultural, economic and

    institutional/policy

    Subproject Statement

    To develop an understanding of the values the Irish public, and adjacent communities in particular, of choices concerning peatlands, including – How the contribution of peatlands in social,

    economic and environmental terms can be characterised by indicators over time

    – How they should be managed to maintain or enhance their economic, social and environmental functions

    Context

    Social Economic and Policy dimensions – from hard to harder science….

    • Understanding:– Values of stakeholders and general public– National and local perspectives– How to shape policy to achieve desired outcomes

    • Contributing to:– Knowledge and decisions– Intellectual understanding and research literature

    Objectives and TargetsSOCIO-CULTURAL

    ISSUES

    Examination of communities linked to peatland areas, rural development, archaeology and culture, tourism

    ECONOMIC ISSUES

    Economic valuation of resource uses, future management options, market and non-market values including as carbon sink

    INSTITUTIONAL AND POLICY

    Examination of relevant government policies – energy, fuel, conservation, biodiversity and future use of cutaway bog, agriculture and forestry

    Descriptive/Analytical(developing and understanding of local and national issues and perspectives)

    & Prescriptive/Normative

    (addressing how to move the peatlands sustainability agenda forward)

  • 6

    Methodology

    Methodology 1 – Socio-cultural• Nationwide survey - attitudes to landscape• Boosted survey - attitudes to peatlands

    – Longford/Roscommon & Mayo/Offaly– Peatland after use - stakeholder views

    • Focus Groups– Professional stakeholders

    • Ecological and physical land-use options & landscape designation

    • Integration into the community• Visual impact

    – Community / individual stakeholders• Action Research methodology

    Methodology 2 – Surveys• National survey, incorporating environmental

    valuation. Including raised & blanket peatlands• Concentrated local survey

    – Incorporating former focus group analysis.– Focus on raised bogs under scenarios of:

    − Baseline protection − Extension of preservation − Alternative (National Wetland Park)

    • Issues of association, scale, biodiversity, cultural landscape

    Methodology 3 – Socio-Economic

    • Apply valuation methods to measure: – Use values: Direct use – extraction, forestry,

    recreation. Indirect – hydrology, carbon store– Non-use: Biodiversity. Landscape– Future: as above under different scenarios, and

    including wind, biomass, etc.• Methods:

    – Stakeholder analysis– Production function approaches– Valuation methods (probably CVM)

    Methodology 4 - Policy Instruments

    Review legislation

    Review policy instruments- Market based (taxes and charges, trading)- Regulation (command and control)- Information and education- Negotiated agreements- Develop draft portfolio of instruments to achieve desired

    outcomes- Test against economic efficiency, effectiveness, political

    and administrative feasibility.

    Timeline, Progress & WorkplanDescription Timeline

    Stakeholder Interviews In Progress Month 0-6

    Community Analysis In Progress Months 4-12

    Stakeholder Focus Groups Some groups completed

    Months 8-14

    Local Survey In consultation with survey company

    Months 8-20National Survey In consultation with

    survey companyMonths 14-20

    Investigate LBAPs In Progress Month 4-12

    Develop scientifically-grounded scenario

    In Progress Months 6-32

    Feasibility of extending cutaway network

    In Progress Months 8-36

    Stakeholder policy interviews In Progress Months 10-18

  • 7

    Linkage with other workpackagesand teams

    WP4.4.2/3 Surveys

    WP4.2.3 Prod Functions

    WP4.2.4 Internat workshop

    WP4.2.5 Soc-econ indicators

    WP4.1.6 Policy review

    WP4.2.7 Synthesis

    WP4.2.1 Community analysis

    WP2.1/2.2 Biodiversity / vegetation

    WP3.1/3.2/3.5 Carbon & climate

    WP3.4/3.6 Vulnerability & grazing

    WP3.7 Hydrology

    Outputs

    Outputs 1 - Socio-cultural• Map the after use options for the Mountdillon group of

    peatlands

    • Produce a plan for the development of the National Wetlands Wilderness Park

    • Create the National Wetlands Wilderness Park

    • Produce a blueprint / toolkit for stakeholder involvement in thebiodiversity/amenity afteruse of peatlands

    • Present at international conferencesGreifswald (2006), Sacremento (2007), Tullamore (2008)

    • PhD Thesis (& peer reviewed papers) & publish blueprint

    Outputs 2 - Socio-economic

    • Economic values: Current & future– Recreation– Biodiversity– Productive use– Climate-related.

    • Cost-benefit analysis – Alternative policy instruments – Alternative futures (e.g. Wetlands Park)

    Outputs 3 - Policy instruments

    Policy instrument alternative packages to achieve different outcomes

    Outputs - overall

    • Contribute to evidence-based policy making

    • Contribute to intellectual understanding and theoretical development

    • Contribute to methodological development– Policy instruments– National/local surveys and environmental

    values– Stakeholder participation– Focus groups and visual modelling

  • 8

    Outputs - overall

    • Theoretical and methodological development:– International conferences– Peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary international

    journals• Policy-making

    – Strategies for peatland conservation and development

    – National conferences– Policy briefs

    Summary

    • Understanding values for the first time via engagement with stakeholders and the general public at local and national levels

    • Understanding these choices and how they might be achieved

    • Achieve global intellectual leadership in this area, methodologically and empirically

    Sub-project 2: BIODIVERSITY

    Co-ordinator: Tom Bolger

    • WP2.1 Biodiversity database• WP2.2 Vegetation studies• WP2.3 Soil microbial community studies• WP2.4 Terrestrial invertebrate studies• WP2.5 Bird diversity studies• WP2.6 Aquatic invertebrate studies

    WP 2.1: Biodiversity databaseFlorence Renou

    • Existing reports, surveys, databases, academic works– NPWS– IPCC– BNM– Universities

    • Representative peatland sites– 12 core sites

    WP 2.2: Vegetation studiesFlorence Renou and Catherine Farrell

    • Existing studies• Survey of all core sites during the

    summer

    WP 2.3: Soil microbial diversityLouise Deering, Nicholas Clipson and Fiona Doohan

    • To identify microbial populations, especially: methanogen and methanotroph

    • Community fingerprint profiling to establish spatial and temporal variation between different peatland types, sub-structure (lawns, hummocks and hollows) and status (`intact’, degraded, restored)

  • 9

    WP 2.3: Soil microbial diversity

    • Intensive analysis on 4 sites in the first year• Sampling within each micro-topographical

    structure: lawns, hollows and hummocks• Peat cores extracted using a double skinned

    stainless steel corer• Three depths: 1-10 cm, 40-50 cm and 90-100cm• Two seasons: May and August

    WP 2.3: Soil microbial diversity

    • Peat DNA extractions

    • Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

    • Terminal restriction fragment (TRF) community profile

    • Cloning to identify the different microbial populations within Irish peatlands

    WP 2.4: Terrestrial invertebratesRachel Wisdom and Tom Bolger

    • To enhance the current body of knowledge on terrestrial invertebrates of peatlands in Ireland

    • To describe the biodiversity of the soil fauna of peatlands

    • To assess the terrestrial invertebrates in relation to peatland types and status

    WP 2.4: Terrestrial invertebrates

    • Sampling: extraction of peat cores (18 cm x 20 cm) using a Kempson high gradient extractor

    • Enchytraeids will be extracted from smaller peat cores (5 cm), using wet funnels

    • Pitfall traps will be setto assess beetles and spiders

    • Gather current information on the bird fauna of bogs

    • Breeding season bird surveys on the core biodiversity sites

    WP 2.5: Bird studiesFintan Bracken and John Whelan

    WP 2.5: Bird diversity

    • Line transects: two parallel 1 km transects per site - 500m apart

    • Two visits per site (weather permitting)

    • Four distance bands: 0-25m, 25-100m and >100m

  • 10

    WP 2.6: Aquatic invertebratesEdel Hannigan and Mary Kelly-Quinn

    • Identify the open-water habitats

    • Describe macroinvertebrate and microcrustaceans of open-water bodies

    • Identify potential indicators

    Sampling Methods••Traps:Traps:

    ••Horizontal traps every 3 m around Horizontal traps every 3 m around poolpool••Vertical traps will be used in the Vertical traps will be used in the hollows and densely vegetated hollows and densely vegetated areas of the poolsareas of the pools

    ••Sweeps with pond net:Sweeps with pond net:--Number depends on pool sizeNumber depends on pool size

    Aquatic habitats …..

    • The categories identified:– Drains– Sphagnum Hollows (includes mud-bottomed

    hollows)– Pools (1m² -10m²)– Pools (10. 1m² - 100m² )– Pools (> 100m² )– Lakes (>0.5 Ha)– Rivers

    Sub-project 3: The Peatland ResourceCo-ordinator: Shane Ward

    • WP3.1 Peatland mapping• WP3.2 Climate change scenarios• WP3.3 Peat extraction and bio-energy• WP3.4 Slope stability and slippage• WP3.5 Greenhouse gas fluxes• WP3.6 Sheep grazing• WP3.7 Hydrological balance

    WP 3.1: Peatland mappingJohn Connolly and Nick Holden

    Derived Irish Peatland Map = 13.8%

    • Compared to:GSM = 16.9%Peatland map = 17.1%CORINE = 13%

    Accepted for publication in Soil Science Society of America Journal

  • 11

    WP 3.2: Climate change scenariosJohn Connolly and Nick Holden

    The probability of disturbance on upland blanket bogs

    WP 3.3: Peat extraction and bio-energyEnda Kennedy, Shane Ryan, Kevin McDonnell and Shane Ward

    • Sub-task 1: Present a framework for a national bioenergy strategy based on cutaway peatlands as the base areas for biomass growth – By calculating direct and indirect energy inputs for

    willow, poplar, miscanthus and reed canary grass

    • Sub-task 2: Review of peat mining, its outputs and effects

    WP 3.4: Slope stability and slippageNoel Boylan and Mike Long

    • Peatland stability not currently addressed in guidelines for planning authorities

    • Slippage or ‘bog bursts’ have occurred recently due to natural but also anthropogenic influences

    • Sites have been studied for geotechnical analyses• Remote sensing and geologicalmapping to identify peat failures

    WP 3.5: Greenhouse gas fluxesDavid Wilson

    • Effect of drainage, harvesting, restoration on status of C gas exchange in Irish peatlands

    • CO2 and CH 4 to be measured for one year using static chamber

    • 1 Blanket bog (Glenlahan): – ‘intact’ area– restored area following decades of

    hand cutting• 1 Raised bog (Clara):

    – ‘intact’ area– lagg area severely damaged by small

    scale peat harvesting

    WP 3.6: Sheep grazingM. Walsh, M. Gormally, R. Schulte, T. Hochstrasser, R. Moles

    • Sub-task 1: Monitoring the use of mountain blanket bog resource by Scottish Blackface sheep using satellite geo-referencing and behavioural assessment under free-range grazing

    • Sub-task 2: Mechanism underlying preferential grazing areas and development of sustainable grazing management strategies

    •Sub-task 3: Physical and ecological impact of preferential grazing areas

    WP 3.7: Hydrological balancePaul Johnston and Con Cunnane

    • To identify key hydrological indicators and mitigation measures to enable ecological regeneration and sustainable development of peatland

    • Hydrological balance in successful and failed restored sites (using dams)

    • Hydrological assessment of cutaway peatlands for regeneration

  • 12

    BOGLAND

    End of morning session


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