• A thesis statement declares what you believe and what you intend to prove.
• A well developed thesis statement summarizes the argument the writer will make.
• The thesis statement is typically located at the end of your opening paragraph.
Attributes of a good thesis:
• It takes a position that can be challenged. A strong thesis is provocative; it takes a stand and justifies the discussion you will present.
• It is specific and focused.
• It clearly asserts your own conclusion based on evidence.
• It avoids the first person. ("I believe," "In my opinion")
Joseph Stalin was an excellent leader who guided the Soviet Union into becoming a world power. Or
Example: Joseph Stalin was a tyrant who tortured his people to the point of exhaustion in order to achieve his own goals.
If your source of information is not reliable, you cannot trust the information. Evidence can come from documents, eyewitness
accounts, historical sites, photographs
Say something new!
Then, Prove it!
What is the thesis of the following text?
When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.--Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
1. What is the Thesis of this document?
2. What are the arguments to support thesis?
3. What is the Conclusion of the Declaration of Independence?
4. Do you believe Thomas Jefferson’s had good arguments for Independence? Why or Why not?
5. Write a Thesis arguing if Thomas Jefferson supported or refuted Enlightenment thoughts
6. Is this a primary source or a secondary source?
By disobeying the King and Parliament, Thomas Jefferson was a traitor, and deserves the punishment that a traitor should receive.
Is this as good thesis Statement? Why or Why not?
What type of government is the best form? King makes rules?
Wealthy makes rules?
All People make rules?
Strong government or weak government?
Supreme power is held by the citizens
Citizens are entitled to vote
Elections are held for government officers who represent the citizens
Elected officers are must anser to the citizens
Elected Officials must govern according to the law. ( Nobody is above the law)
Alliance between states Structure was unicameral (single-chamber). Each state had one vote in Congress
no matter size or population. Powers under the Articles Make war and peace, enter into treaties raise and equip army/navy,
requesting troops from the states fix standards of weights and measures (money) regulate Indian affairs establish post offices decide certain disputes among states
All other powers resided with states What happened if the US added a new state? Or should the current states grow larger?
Should Western Territory be new states or added on to Existing states?
Congress, however, feared that the new states would quickly gain enough power to outvote the old ones and never passed the measure.
July 13, 1787, Congress enacts the Northwest Ordinance, creating a policy for the addition of new states to the nation
The Northwest Ordinance proposed that three to five new states be created from the Northwest Territory.
Required that every settlement adhere to the tenets set forth in the Articles of Confederation All settlers were granted freedom of worship. All settlers were both entitled to trial by jury, as well as habeas corpus. All settlers were encouraged to establish functional community relations, which included school systems and adequate housing. In addition, settlers were forbidden to do unjust harm onto Native Americans residing in surrounding areas. All settlers were to adhere to the Articles of Confederation, and like the citizens of the 13 states, they too were exempt from Government-impost taxes. All settlers adhere to the boundaries set forth in the Northwest Ordinance. They were forbidden from expanding past the set parameters. Slavery was forbidden in the western territories.
Each state would enter the union "on an equal footing with the original states."
1. Each territory would have an appointed governor and council.
2. When the population reached 5,000, the residents could elect their own assembly
3. When 60,000 settlers resided in a territory, they could draft a constitution and petition for full statehood. The ordinance provided for civil liberties and public
education within the new territories, but did not allow slavery.
revenue generated from the sale of a portion of each township in the state would go to fund public
"neither slavery nor involuntary servitude" were to be allowed. And four, that a good faith effort would be made to respect the Indians in the territory
How could this Agreement lead to problems? (example- Civil War)
Summarize the main ideas of the North west Ordinance.
Read Pages 72-73
Weaknesses: No power to levy or collect taxes State collected money and turned it over to the national treasury No power to regulate trade No power to enforce laws Laws needed 9 of 13 states for approval Needed consent of all states for amendments No national court system State courts enforced and interpreted laws
List ideas to create a government that solves the problems of the Articles of Confederation?
(remember: want a stronger government but not too powerful)
Divides governing powers into three branches
Executive (enforce Laws)
Legislative (creates Laws)
Judicial (interprets if laws are Constitutional)
Each power limits the other’s power
Executive- veto's legislative branch/ Appoints Judges
Legislative passes laws / override veto
Judicial – interprets if law violates Constitution
Goal was to prevent a King or dictator
Powers not specifically mentioned in Constitution is left to the states to solve (Why?)
Federalist (supported stronger government)- Wrote Federalist Papers – essays published in newspapers trying to convince people to support Strong National Government (need for taxation, strong national defense, separation of powers, and protection of citizens rights.)
Anti-Federalist (support strong state Governments)
Antifederalist Papers- argue threats of the power of taxation, strong military, and inadequate protection of states rights
The Constitution contained no rights guaranteed to citizens
Each State had own rights but Federalist promised to create a Bill of Rights if Constitution was ratified.
By 1791 Bill Of Rights were approved
Native Americans were excluded
Women were not mentioned
Free blacks had no protection from discrimination