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adr gdr idr

Date post: 29-Sep-2015
Author: mohit-batra
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  • ADR, GDR & IDR*

  • DEPOSITORY RECEIPTSDepository receipts are instruments issued by international depositories (ODB), and they represent an interest in the underlying shares held by them in the issuer company (Indian Company). The shares are usually held by a domestic custodian on behalf of the depositories in turn issue the depository receipts, which entitle the holder of the receipts to get the underlying shares on demand.

    DRs are traded on Stock Exchanges in the US, Singapore, Luxembourg, London, etc.

    DRs listed and traded in US markets are known as American Depository Receipts (ADRs) and those listed and traded elsewhere are known as Global Depository Receipts (GDRs). In Indian context, DRs are treated as FDI. *


  • AMERICAN DEPOSITORY RECEIPTSADR is a dollar-denominated negotiable certificate. It represents a non-US companys publicly traded equity. It was devised in the late 1920s to help Americans invest in overseas securities and to assist non-US companies wishing to have their stock traded in the American Markets.

    ADR were introduced as a result of the complexities involved in buying shares in foreign countries and the difficulties associated with trading at different prices and currency values.*

  • Process to Issue ADR/GDRIssuing Company(RIL)Foreign Depository(Morgan Stanley)Clearing Agency(Euro Clear)Foreign Stock Exchange(NYSE)GDR/ADR Holders (Bank Of America)Domestic Custodian bank(SBI)Share CertificateConfirmationIssue of DRPaymentDividend*

  • Advantages Of ADR/GDRCan be listed on any of the overseas stock exchanges /OTC/Book entry transfer system.

    Freely transferable by non-resident.

    They can be redeemed by ODB.

    The ODB should request DCB to get the corresponding underlying shares released in favor of non resident of investors. (Shareholders of issuing companies).*

  • Types of ADR*

    SPONSORED ADRUNSPONSORED ADRIssued with cooperation of the company whose stock will underlie the ADRIssued by broker/dealer or depository bank without the involvement of company whose stock underlies the ADRComply with regulatory reporting.No regulatory reportingListing on international StockExchanges allowed.Trade on OTC market

  • Levels of ADR*

  • Level 1 ADRs:

    Level 1 ADRs are the lowest level of sponsored ADRs and also the simplest method for companies to access the US capital markets.Level 1 ADRs are traded in the over-the counter (OTC) market.The issuing company does not have to comply with US generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) or provide US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) disclosure.Level 1 ADRs essentially enable a company to obtain the benefits of a US publicly traded security without altering their current reporting process.Companies that have level 1 ADRs may upgrade to level II or level III ADR program.They require minimal SEC registration.*

  • Level II ADRs:

    Level II ADRs enable companies to list their ADRs on Nasdaq, the American Stock Exchange, the New York Stock Exchange and the OTC bulletin board, thereby offering higher visibility in the US market, more active trading and greater liquidity.Level II ADRs require full registration with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Companies must also meet the requirements of the appropriate stock exchange.Level II ADRs require a form 20-F and form F-6 to be filled with the SEC, as well as meeting the listing requirements and filing a listing application with the designated stock exchange. Upon F-6 effectiveness and approval of the listing application, the ADRs begin trading.


  • Level III ADRs:

    level III ADRs enable companies to list their ADRs on Nasdaq, the Amex, the NYSE or the OTC Bulletin Board and make a simultaneous public offering of ADRs in the united statesThe benefits of level III ADRs are substantial; it allows the issuer to raise capital and leads to much greater visibility in the U.S market.Level III ADR programs must comply with various SEC rules, including the full registration and reporting requirements of the SEC's Exchange Act. *

  • Pricing of ADR/GDRShould not be less than higher of the two followingAvg weekly (high & low) closing prices in the last six months. Avg weekly (high & low) closing prices in the last two weeks.Issue related expenses: should not exceed4%--- in case of GDR7%----in case of ADR2%----Private placement of ADRs/GDRs.There are no end-use restrictions on GDR/ADR issue proceeds, except for an express ban on investment in real estate and stock markets.*

  • Trading Depositary ReceiptsSource: Depositary receipts information guide; CITIGROUP


  • India's STERLITE INDUSTRIES LTDRaised $1.75 billionADSs that were offered: 130,440,000 ADSsOffering price: $13.44 per ADSUnderwriters: Merrill Lynch, Fenner & Smith Inc, Morgan Stanley & co. intl plc, and Citigroup, Global markets IncDepositary for the ADS: Citibank, N.A.Total expenses of the offering excludingUnderwriting discounts & commissions: $ 9.0 millionRegistration fees: $ 0.1 millionPrinting fees: $1.6 millionEstimated legal fees: $ 2.5 millionAccounting fees: $2.0 millionNote: - Underwriters pay for their own legal fees


  • GLOBAL DEPOSITORY RECEIPTSA bank certificate issued in more than one country for shares in a foreign company. The shares are held by a foreign branch of an international bank. The shares trade as domestic shares, but are offered for sale globally through the various bank branches.

    A financial instrument used by private markets to raise capital denominated in either U.S. dollars or Euros.

    The voting rights of the shares are exercised by the Depository as per the understanding between the issuing company and the GDR holders.*

  • Types of GDRRule 144A GDRsRule 144A GDRs are privately placed depositary receipts which are issued and traded in accordance with Rule 144A. This rule was introduced by the SEC in April 1990 in part to stimulate capital raising in the US by non-US issuers.Non-US companies now haveready access to the US equity private placement market and may thus raise capital through the issue of Rule 144A GDRs without complying with the stringent SEC registration and reporting requirements.

    Regulation SWith the global integration of the major securities markets, it is now commonplace to have fungible securities listed and cleared in more than one market.Just as ADRs allow non-US issuers to access the important US market, GDRs allow issuers to tap the European markets.


  • Difference Between ADR & GDR*

    ADRGDRAmerican depository receipt (ADR) is compulsory for non us companies to trade in stock market of USA.Global depository receipt (GDR) is compulsory for foreign company to access in any other countrys share market for dealing in stock.

    ADRs can get from level 1 to level III.GDRs are already equal to high preference receipt of level II and level III. ADRs up to level I need to accept only general condition of SEC of USA.GDRs can only be issued under rule 144 A after accepting strict rules of SEC of USA . ADR is only negotiable in USA . GDR is negotiable instrument all over the worldInvestors of USA can buy ADRs from New york stock exchange (NYSE) or NASDAQInvestors of UK can buy GDRs from London stock exchange and luxemberg stock exchange and invest in Indian companies without any extra responsibilities .

  • Which INDIAN companies have ADR & GDR*


  • INDIAN DEPOSITORY RECEIPTSThese are financial instrument that allows foreign companies to mobilize funds from Indian capital market.IDRs are the depository receipts dominated by Indian issued by the domestic depository receipt.Represents interest in the share of non-Indian companys equity.Like equity shares, these are unsecured instruments & negotiable from one to another investors.It provides chance to Indian investors to hold equity shares of foreign companys.*

  • Who can Invest?Any person who is resident in India as defined under FEMA.NRIs.SEBI registered foreign institutional investor including their sub accounts. *

  • Intermediaries involved in issuance of IDROverseas custodianDomestic depositoryMerchant bankerRegistrar and transfer agent*

  • Eligibility CriteriaAs per the companies IDR rules


    CriteriaRequirementsCapitalPre issue paid up capital and free reserve are at least US$ 50 million.Market capitalizationMinimum average market capitalization (during the last 3 years) in its parent country of at least US$ 100 million. Operation historyContinuous trading record or history on a stock exchange in its parent country at least 3 immediately preceding years.Track record of distributable profitsTrack record of distributable profits in terms of section 205 of the companies act. 1956 for at least 3 out of immediately preceding 5 years.Other requirementsFulfil such other eligibility criteria as may be laid down by SEBI from time to time in this behalf.

  • Allocation of the Issues Minimum 50% of the issue should be allotted qualified institutional buyers (QIB).30% of the issue should be offered to retail individual investors (RIB) including employees.Balance 20% to be appointed between Non-institutional investors (NII).

    Issue Size- Issue shall not be less then 50crore.

    Minimum application amount- Shall be 20,000.

    Extent of issue- The no. of underlying issue shares offered in a financial year through IDR offering shall not exceeds 25% of the post issue no. of equity share of the company.*

  • Limits of InvestmentRII- Minimum of 20,000 of and maximum of 1,00,000.

    NII- Above 1,00,000 and up to the issue size

    QIB-Above 1,00,000 and up to the issue size.


  • ProceduresPre- listingOffering processEligibility criteria & public offeringListing on stock Exchange*

  • Benefits to the Key Stack HoldersIssuing companies.Investors.Employees.Regulators.