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Adult education

Date post: 13-Jan-2017
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ADULT EDUCATION Prepared By : SONDARVA AGNES M.sc.(Agri) Extension 1 st semester BACA, AAU, Anand
Page 1: Adult education


Prepared By :SONDARVA AGNES M.sc.(Agri) Extension1st semesterBACA, AAU, Anand

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• Introduction:-An adult is a human being who has attained the age of 21 (or say 18) years as specified by law.An adult is considered to be a developed and mature person

Adult education is the practice of teaching and educating adults. Adult education takes place in the workplace,through"extension“schools,communities colleges,folk high schools, and lifelong learning centers.. It has also been referred to as andragogy.

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• Agencies of Social (Adult) education may be categorized as under:

• (a) Teachers, Government servants, NSS and other volunteers, social education workers etc.

• (b) Regular educational institutions like schools, colleges, rural colleges, community centres, agriculture extension groups, worker's educational associations and voluntary organiza tions.

• (c) Informal educational devices like forums, study circles, group discussions, listening groups, camps.

• (d) Recreational, educational bodies like theatres, cinemas, clubs, societies, fairs, melas, nautanki etc.

• (e) Institutions whose primary aim is not education, such as religious bodies, the Army, Parents Associations, Co-operative Societies and other Government Departments.

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• According to Darkenwald and Merriam (1982),there is a change in time perspective as individuals mature from one of future application of knowledge to immediate application of knowledge.Thus an adult is more concerned with problem centred than subject centred learning.

• The central problem in getting adults to learn is motivation. Motivation largely determines the rate of learning.Desire to learn must be aroused by teachers adopting methods appropriate to the situation.To learn the adult must find meaning and significance in the subject matter to be learned.

• Lack of literacy need not stand in the way of one’s learning.Age is also not the hindering factor as many have supposed for tests have shown that throughtout life learning ability does not change significantly and there is no sex difference in learning power.

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Scope:• The scope of Adult education is very comprehensive.

Social education covers all those topics that are not touched by education in general at school. Topics like religion, politics and family plann ing can now be discussed with adults who have a mature under standing. Moreover, it aims at giving a new orientation to the out look of adults to suit the dynamic world. Then, the growth grooves of each individual are different from those of others. Social education harmonizes differences in growth and it also provides an opportunity for growth to those who have not been able to grow properly or completely earlier.

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• The Principles of Adult Learning as given by Knowles (1989)

• Learning of adults must be problem centered.• Learning of adults must be experience

centered.• Learning of adults must be meaningful to the

learner.• The learner must be free to examine the

experience.• The learner must have feedback about

progress towards goals.

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Adult Education in India• Adult Education in India has been acclaimed and processed by the

Government since Independence. Several schemes and campaigns have been launched to accelerate the process.

•  Adult education in India is the process to provide education to the adult and aged people who, somehow, had failed to receive the elementary education during their childhood.

• The effort of providing adult education in India has been in existence for the past several years, as it is one of the most important things in building an educated nation

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• Adult education in India is mainly provided at night schools. These are situated in almost all the Indian cities and villages. The provision for imparting education has been made at night because most of the people are engaged during the day. Apart from the night schools, the Government of India has also set up some libraries so that the adults can study more to become educated, not just literate.

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• Adult education is included among the most important responsibilities of the Government, as the eradication of illiteracy has been one of the major national concerns of the Government of India since independence. • The government launched the programme

of Social Education, under the Community Development Programme in 1952, as part of the first Five Year Plan.• In the recent times, the government has

launched the programme called National Literacy Mission (NLM) for spreading adult education in India. 

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Social Education Organizers` Training Centres (SEOTCs)., comprising male and female Social Education Organisers at grass-roots level have also been created.

The government has also established model community centres, rural libraries, Janata Colleges, youth clubs, mahila mandals and folk schools, for spreading adult education.

• The Council for Rural Higher Education was established and a Standing Committee of the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) on Social Education was also constituted in 1956. The government also started a National Fundamental Education Centre for providing high-level training facilities to the adults. 

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Programs:-• Social Education: The main objects of this programme are literacy,

extension, general education and social consciousness. It was in the period 1951-1956. 

• Gram Shikshan Mohim: This movement was started in the year 1959 in Maharashtra. This programme was launched on an experimental basis into 25 districts of the state. The duration of the movement was very short as there was not any systematic setting due to which there was large scale relapse of neo-literates into illiterate. 

• Farmer`s functional literacy project: This project was accelerated as part of the Green Revolution with the objective of making farmers functionally literate in high yielding cultivation areas. 

• Worker`s education: This programme is initiated through the Central Board of Workers` Education and its institutes. However, the steps under this scheme could not be linked to the literacy schemes/projects being funded under the departments of Education of the states or by the Govt. of India. 

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• The functional literacy of adult women project : was started in the year 1975-1976. This scheme targeted at illiterate adult women to acquire functional skills along with literacy, to promote better awareness of health, hygiene, child-care practices and to bring about attitudinal changes. 

A massive programme of Adult Education called the National Adult Education Programme (NAEP) for removal of illiteracy in the 15-35 age group was introduced by the Government of India on 2nd October, 1978. The aim of this programme was to educate 100 million adults within a time frame of five years.

•However, apart from the Indian government, a large number of NGOs have also been working to spread adult education in India and they have done a tremendous job so far. 

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Conclusion• Unless the adults realize the

importance of education they would never understand the need to educate their own children. Education is one of the stepping stones for building a strong nation. Hence there is a need for promoting adult education on a large scale in the country as a whole.

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