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ADULT EDUCATORS IN CO OPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT AGENTS · PDF fileADULT EDUCATORS IN CO-OPERATIVE...

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  • AD U L T ED U C A T O R S I N CO-O P E R A T I V E DE V E L O P M E N T: AG E N T S O F CH A N G E

  • AD U L T ED U C A T O R S I N CO-O P E R A T I V E DE V E L O P M E N T

    AG E N T S O F CH A N G E

    Brenda Gai l Ste fanson

    This paper was originally a thesis submitted to the College of Graduate Studies and Research in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Agricultural Extension at the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon.

    Centre for the Study of Co-operat ives

    Univers i ty of Saskatchewan

  • Copyright © 2002 Brenda Gail Stefanson

    Centre for the Study of Co-operatives University of Saskatchewan

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the publisher. In the case of photocopying or other forms of re- prographic reproduction, please consult CANCOPY, the Canadian Copyright Licensing Agency, at 1–800–893–5777.

    Cover and logo design by Byron Henderson Editing, interior layout, and design by Nora Russell

    C A N A D I A N C A T A L O G U I N G I N P U B L I C A T I O N D A T A Stefanson, Brenda.

    Adult educators in co-operative development

    (Occasional paper series ; 02.02) Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0–88880–462–8

    1. Cooperative societies—Study and teaching. 2. Adult education— Social aspects. I. University of Saskatchewan. Centre for the Study of Co-operatives. II. Title. III. Series: Occasional papers (University of Saskatchewan. Centre for the Study of Co-operatives) ; 02.02.

    HD2955.S83 2002 334’.07 C2002-910511-0

    Printed in Canada 02 03 04 05 06 / 5 4 3 2 1

    Centre for the Study of Co-operatives 101 Diefenbaker Place University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon SK Canada S7N 5B8 Phone: (306) 966–8509 / Fax: (306) 966–8517 E-mail: [email protected] Website: http://coop-studies.usask.ca

  • TH I S IS DE D I C A T E D T O MY SO N S

    Torin Kent Debs

    Erik Sven

    Wilson Jay Stefan

  • CE N T R E F O R T H E ST U D Y O F CO-O P E R A T I V E S

    TH E C E N T R E F O R T H E S T U D Y O F C O - O P E R A T I V E S is an interdisciplinaryteaching and research institution located on the University of Saskatchewan campus in Saskatoon. It is supported financially by the co-operative sector—Credit Union Central of Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan Wheat Pool, Federated Co-operatives Ltd., Co-operative Trust, The Co-operators, and the CUMIS Group—the Government of Saskatchewan, and the University of Saskatchewan. The university not only houses our offices but provides in-kind contributions from a number of departments and units—Agricul- tural Economics, History, Management and Marketing, Political Studies, and Sociology—as well as financial assistance with operations and nonsalary expenditures. We acknowledge with gratitude the ongoing support of all our sponsoring organizations.

    The objectives of the Centre are:

    • to develop and offer university courses that provide an understanding of co-operative theory, principles, developments, structures, and legislation;

    • to undertake original research into co-operatives;

    • to publish co-operative research, both that of the Centre staff and of other researchers; and

    • to maintain a resource centre of materials that support the Centre’s teaching and research functions.

    For more information about the Centre, please contact: Centre for the Study of Co-operatives 101 Diefenbaker Place University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon SK S7N 5B8 Phone: (306) 966–8509 / Fax: (306) 966–8517 E-mail: [email protected] / Website: http://coop-studies.usask.ca

    Our publications are designed to disseminate and encourage the discussion of research conducted at, or under the auspices of, the Centre for the Study of Co-operatives. The views expressed constitute the opinions of the author, to whom any comments should be addressed.

  • CO N T E N T S

    LI S T O F TA B L E S x

    AC K N O W L E D G E M E N T S xi

    AB S T R A C T xiii

    CH A P T E R 1: IN T R O D U C T I O N

    Background 1

    Research Questions 3

    Methodology 4

    CH A P T E R 2: TH E RO L E O F T H E AD U L T ED U C A T O R I N CO-O P E R A T I V E DE V E L O P M E N T

    Introduction 6

    The Process of Change 7

    The Work of Alan Rogers 8

    A Perspective on Adult Education 9

    Rogers’s Five-Step Model for Development 10

    A Closer Look at the Model 11

    Surveying the Existing State 11

    Awareness Enhancement 12

    Improving Knowledge and Skills 12

    Decision Making 13

    Action towards Change 13

    The Work of Paulo Freire 14

    O C C A S I O N A L P A P E R S E R I E S # 0 2 – 0 2

  • The Work of Moses Coady 16

    Introduction and Background 16

    The Antigonish Movement 17

    The Leader 19

    The Methods 21

    The Mass Meeting 21

    The Study Clubs 22

    The School for Leaders 22

    The Impact 23

    Summary 24

    CH A P T E R 3: TH E DE C I S I O N T O FO R M CO-O P E R A T I V E S

    Introduction 26

    Overview 26

    Transaction Costs 28

    Bounded Rationality and Opportunism 29

    Prisoners’ Dilemma, Expectations, and Assurances 29

    Free Riding versus Playing Fair 32

    The Role of Emotions 33

    Critical Mass 33

    Adult Education’s Contribution to the Decision to Form Co-operatives 35

    Collectivity 36

    Experience-Knowledge Base 37

    Summary 38

    CH A P T E R 4: CA S E ST U D Y: A MO D E R N CO-O P E R A T I V E MO V E M E N T

    Introduction 40

    Background 40

    The Changes in Agriculture and the Impact on Farmers 41

    V I I I C O N T E N T S

    C E N T R E F O R T H E S T U D Y O F C O - O P E R A T I V E S

  • New Generation Co-operatives 45

    Characteristics of New Generation Co-operatives 48

    A Community of Co-operatives 49

    Vertical Integration through Co-operation 50

    The Development Strategy 51

    The Network of Support 53

    Cooperative Development Centers 54

    The Partners in Cooperative Development 56

    Minnesota Association of Cooperatives 56

    The Cooperative Foundation 57

    North Dakota State Agriculture Department 57

    United States Department of Agriculture 57

    The Quentin N. Burdick Center for Cooperatives 58

    North Dakota State University Extension Service 59

    Farm Credit System 59

    The St. Paul Bank for Cooperatives 59

    The Change Agents 61

    The Methods 66

    Summary 70

    CH A P T E R 5: SU M M A R Y A N D

    CO N C L U D I N G TH O U G H T S

    Summary 72

    Concluding Thoughts 75

    RE F E R E N C E S 78

    AP P E N D I X: IN T E R V I E W S CO N D U C T E D 83

    LI S T O F PU B L I C A T I O N S 85

    O C C A S I O N A L P A P E R S E R I E S # 0 2 – 0 2

    C O N T E N T S I X

  • LI S T O F TA B L E S

    1. The Principles of the Antigonish Movement 18

    2. Alternative Explanations for Collective Action 37

    3. Concepts in Agriculture 42

    4. Perceptions in Agriculture 43

    5. New Generation Co-operatives in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota 46–47

    6. The Ten Cooperative Development Centers 55

    7. North Dakota Programmes Supporting Development 58

    8. Six Phases of Co-operative Development 68

    X L I S T O F T A B L E S

    C E N T R E F O R T H E S T U D Y O F C O - O P E R A T I V E S

  • AC K N O W L E D G E M E N T S

    IA M G R A T E F U L F O R T H E A D V I C E A N D G U I D A N C E of my research su-pervisor, Murray Fulton, my committee, Richard Gray, Gordon Thompson, and Scott McLean, and external examiner Janice MacKinnon. Your insightful suggestions and challenging questions made this an invaluable learning experience. Thank you Gwenna Moss for thoughtful assistance.

    I wish to acknowledge the contribution of the co-operators and educators who are part of this study. Thank you for sharing your experience and knowledge.

    I thank my colleagues at the Centre for the Study of Co-operatives, the Department of Agricultural Economics, and the Extension Division. A special thank you to Marianne for help and encouragement at every stage. Thank you to my friends and mentors Nancy, Pauline, and Brenda.

    Thank you Mom, Dad, Barry, and Rick for a lifetime of love and encouragement. Thank you Torin, Erik, and Wilson; I am so proud of you. Thank you Teri for help in many ways. Thank you Don for reality checks (and escapes) and for being my best friend.

    O C C A S I O N A L P A P E R S E R I E S # 0 2 – 0 2

  • AB S T R A C T

    TH I S W O R K A T T E M P T S T O C O N T R I B U T E to our understanding of therole of the external agent and, in particular, the adult educator, in co-oper- ative development. By focussing on the role of adult education in co-operative movements, we can better understand how education contributes to a change in attitude, to building trust and cohesion in groups, and to encouraging people to work together to make improve- ments in their economic situations and in their communities.

    The objective of this work is to describe the role of adult educators and extension agents in the co-operative development process. To accomplish this objective, information is com- piled from literature dealing with adul

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