Afar Ens Is

Date post:30-May-2018
View:218 times
Download:0 times
Share this document with a friend
  • 8/14/2019 Afar Ens Is


    Australopithecus afarensis

    Time Range4.2-2.5 million years before present

    GeographyEast Africa

    LocomotionBipedalism and arboreal climbing

    Cranial CapacityMean: 470 cc

    Range: 375-540 cc

    HeightFemale: 3.3-3.4 ftMale: 5 ft

    WeightFemale: 66 lbs

    Male: 99-154 lbs

    Other Facts

    This species was sexually dimorphic

    Named for the Afar region of Africa

    Most likely slept in trees

    Most of the data for this species is fromDonald Johanssons 1970s fieldwork

    Cranial features more apelike

  • 8/14/2019 Afar Ens Is


    Australopithecus africanus

    Time Range3.3-2.5 million years before present

    GeographySouth Africa

    LocomotionBipedalism and arboreal climbing

    Cranial CapacityMean: 454 cc

    Range: 405-515 cc

    HeightFemale: 3.8 ft averageMale: 4.5 ft average

    WeightFemale: 55-66 lbs

    Male: 90-132 lbs

    Other Facts

    This species was sexually dimorphic, anddeveloped fast like chimpanzees

    Name means southern ape of Africa

    Identified in 1924 by Ramond Dart

  • 8/14/2019 Afar Ens Is




    Time Range

    2.5 million years before present

    LocomotionBipedalism (assumed)

    Cranial Capacity410 cc



    Other Facts

    This species was very sexually dimorphic,

    and had a pronounced sagittal crest

    Paranthropus aethiopicus is anotherclassification for the species

    Paranthropus means parallel to man

    This species is the oldest robust form

  • 8/14/2019 Afar Ens Is


    Australopithecus boisei

    Time Range2.4-1.3 million years before present

    GeographyEast Africa


    Cranial CapacityMean: 465 ccRange: 390-500 cc

    HeightFemale: 4.1 ft

    Male: 4.5 ft

    WeightFemale: 75-88 lbsMale: 108-176 lbs

    Other Facts

    This species is more robust than A.

    robustus (hyperrobust)

    Discovered by Mary Leakey in OlduvaiGorge, Tanzania 1959

    Original classification was Zinjanthropus


    Zinj is Arabic for East-Africa

    Boisei comes from Charels Boise whofunded the dig that discovered A. boisei

  • 8/14/2019 Afar Ens Is


    Australopithecus robustus

    Time Range2.0-1.0 million years before present

    GeographySouth Africa


    Cranial Capacity530 cc


    Female: 36 ftMale: 4.3 ft

    WeightFemale: 71-88 lbsMale: 88-176 lbs

    Other Facts

    This was the first species placed in the

    genus Paranthropus

  • 8/14/2019 Afar Ens Is


    Homo habilis

    Time Range2.3-1.5 million years before present

    GeographyEast and South Africa


    Cranial CapacityMean: 612 cc

    Range: 509-674 cc

    HeightFemale: 3.3 ftMale: unknown

    WeightFemale: 71 lbs

    Male: 82 lbs

    Other Facts

    H. habilis means able man

    Louis Leakey and colleagues proposed H.habilis as a species in 1964

  • 8/14/2019 Afar Ens Is


    Homo erectus

    Time Range2.0-0.25 million years before present

    GeographyAfrica, Europe, Asia

    LocomotionFully modern bipedalism

    Cranial CapacityMean: 962 cc

    Range: 600-1,251 cc

    Height4.9-6.1 ft

    Weight101-150 lbs

    Other Facts

    Original classification Pithecanthropuserectus which means upright walking man

    This species is sometimes split into two

    species H. egaster(Africa) and H. erectus(Asia)

    egaster means work man

    Discovered by Eugene Dubois in Java



    species to run long distances, and use



    species out of Africa

    This species relied heavily on culture

  • 8/14/2019 Afar Ens Is


    Homo sapiens

    Time Range850,000-28,000 archaic Homo sapiens195,000-present modern Homo sapiens


    LocomotionFully modern bipedalism

    Cranial CapacityMean: 1,330 ccRange: 1,000-2,000 cc

    Other Facts

    Neanderthals possibly a subspecies or sidebranch ofH. sapiens

    Chins are a defining characteristic ofH.

    sapiens skulls

    Cultural changes since H. erectus:--Art (painting, figurines)

    --long distance trade--intentional burial


    culture changes rapidly

  • 8/14/2019 Afar Ens Is


    Lucy AL 288-1

    Discovered in Hadar, Ethiopia (1974) by

    D. Johansson and T. Gray

    Most complete A. afarensis specimen with40% of skeleton found

    36 tall adult female

    named after Beetles song Lucy in the sky

    with Diamonds

    Mrs. Ples Sts 5

    Discovered in Sterkfontein, Republic ofSouth Africa (1947) by John T. Robinson

    450 cc

    Most complete adult A. africanus cranium

    Stored at the Tranvaal Museum, South



    Discovered in Taung, Republic of South

    Africa (1924)

    It was the 1st

    australopithecine craniumfound

    The individual was approximately 3-4

    years old at death

  • 8/14/2019 Afar Ens Is


    Black Skull WT 17,000

    Discovered in Lake Turkana, Kenya by

    Alan Walker

    This specimen is known for its dark color

    from the minerals that make up the fossil

    One notable feature on this specimen is thepronounced sagittal crest

    Zinj OH 5

    Discovered in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania(1959) by Mary Leakey

    Named after the original genus name ofZinjanthropus

    This specimen has a notable sagittal crest

    and large molars

    SK 48

    Discovered in Swartkrans, Republic of

    South Africa by R. Broom and J. T.Robinson

    It was recovered during mining activities

    but was broken due to blasting

    This specimen has a notable sagittal crestand large teeth

  • 8/14/2019 Afar Ens Is


    OH 24

    Discovered in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania(1968) by P. Nzube

    This specimen was exposed and badlyweathered but was restored andreconstructed by R. J. Clarke

    600 cc

    ER 1813

    Discovered in Koobi Fora a, East Turkana,Kenya (1973) by K. Kimeu

    Discovered during the Koobi Fora aResearch Project

    Most of the cranium and part of the cranial

    base and dentition were recovered

    ER 1470

    Discovered in Koobi Fora, East Turkana,Kenya (1972) by B. Ngeneo

    B. Ngeneo was a member of a team lead

    by Richard Leakey

    775 cc

  • 8/14/2019 Afar Ens Is



    Discovered in the Republic of Georgia

    This specimen possibly represents a

    transition between H. habilis and H.erectus

    600 cc

    Nariokotome boy WT 15,000

    Discovered in Nariokotome III, WestTurkana, Kenya (1984) cranial fragments

    were found by Kamoya Kimeu the restwas discovered later by Alan Walker and

    Richard Leakey

    80% of body recovered (all except lefthumerus, both radii and most of hands and


    Was 11-15 years old at death

    880-900 cc

    ER 3733

    Discovered in Koobi Fora, East Turkana,Kenya (1975)

    Discovered during the Koobi Fora

    Research Project

    Was found in deposits similar to KNM-ER406 (A. boisei) and appears to be

    similar to H. erectus from Asia

  • 8/14/2019 Afar Ens Is


    Java Man

    Discovered near Trinil, Java on the SoloRiver (October 1891) by Dubois

    A skull cap and femur were all that wasfound at the site

    Originally named Pithecantropus erectus

    Pithecantropus means ape man

    In 1951 re-categorized as H. erectus

    Sangiran 4

    Discovered in Sangiran, Indonesia (1939)by R. von Koenigswald and F. Weidenrich

    Back 3/4th

    of cranial vault is all that was


    Steinheim Man

    Discovered in Steinheim an der Murr,Germany (1933) by K. Sigristin

    Was discovered in a gravel pit

    Most likely a transition between H. erectus

    and H. sapiens

    1100 cc

  • 8/14/2019 Afar Ens Is


    Atapuerca 5

    Discovered in Sierra de Atapuerca,Burgos, Spain by Juan Luis Arsuaga

    From a limestone cave Sima de los Huesospit of bones where at least 32individuals were recovered

    Most complete pre-modern cranium


    1125 cc

    Broken Hill 1

    Recovered during open cast mining in alimestone hill in 1921

    This specimen has both rugged and gracile


    Skhul 5

    Discovered in Wadiel-Mughara, Israel(1932) by T. D. McCown and H. Movius


    The specimen was restored by C. E. Snow

    This specimen possibly co-existed withNeanderthals

    There is evidence that this specimen was

    intentionally buried

  • 8/14/2019 Afar Ens Is


    La Ferrassie 1

    Discovered in Savignac du bugeu,Dordogne, France (1909) by D. Deyrony

    and L. Capitan

    This specimen is a nearly completeskeleton with typical Neandertal features

    La Chapelle aux Saints

    Discovered in La Chapelle-aux-Saints,

    France (1908) by A. and J. Bouysonie andL. Bardon

    The specimen has a small lower face most

    likely caused by tooth loss

    1600 cc

    Cro-magnon 1

    Discovered in Les Eyzies, Dordogne,

    France (1868) by workmen and removedby L. Lartet

    Was found with 3 other adults and 4children

    Nicknamed Old Man and had a smalllower face possibly due to old age

of 15

Embed Size (px)