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  • EPA Assessment of Contaminated Sediments in Slip C Duluth Harbor, Minnesota

    United States Great Lakes National Program Office EPA-905-R-99-007 Environmental Protection 77 West Jackson Boulevard September 1999 Agency Chicago, Illinois 60604

    Judy L. Crane Environmental Outcomes Division

    Minnesota Pollution Control Agency 520 Lafayette Road

    St. Paul, Minnesota 55155-4194 Email: [email protected]

  • ASSESSMENT OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN SLIP C,

    DULUTH HARBOR, MINNESOTA

    Submitted to

    Scott Cieniawski, Project Officer Great Lakes National Program Office U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    77 West Jackson Boulevard Chicago, Illinois 60604-3590

    [email protected]

    by

    Judy L. Crane Environmental Outcomes Division

    Minnesota Pollution Control Agency 520 Lafayette Road

    St. Paul, Minnesota 55155-4194 [email protected]

  • ii

    DISCLAIMER

    The information in this document has been funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Great Lakes National Program Office. It has been subject to the Agency’s peer and administrative review, and it has been approved for publication as an EPA document. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  • iii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS Page

    DISCLAIMER.............................................................................................................................. ii LIST OF TABLES ....................................................................................................................... v LIST OF FIGURES..................................................................................................................... vi LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ...................................................................vii

    ABSTRACT................................................................................................................................. 1

    INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................ 1

    DESCRIPTION OF STUDY SITE .............................................................................................. 3

    PREVIOUS SEDIMENT INVESTIGATIONS AT SLIP C ........................................................ 5

    METHODS................................................................................................................................... 6 Field Sampling ................................................................................................................. 6 Laboratory Analytical Procedures .................................................................................... 7 Quality Assurance/Quality Control .................................................................................. 7 Data Analysis ................................................................................................................... 8 Data Archival ................................................................................................................... 9

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION................................................................................................... 9 Field Sampling Information ............................................................................................. 9 Particle Size...................................................................................................................... 9 TOC................................................................................................................................ 10 General Contaminant Results......................................................................................... 10 Distribution of PAH Compounds................................................................................... 11 Distribution of PCB Congeners...................................................................................... 12 Chemical-Physical Relationships ................................................................................... 13 Sediment Kriging Graphics ............................................................................................ 15 Volume of Contaminated Sediments.............................................................................. 16 Preliminary Remediation Options .................................................................................. 17 Sediment Management Plan........................................................................................... 18

    RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................................................................... 18

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.......................................................................................................... 19

    REFERENCES........................................................................................................................... 20

  • iv

    TABLE OF CONTENTS Page

    TABLES..................................................................................................................................... 25

    FIGURES ................................................................................................................................... 47

    APPENDIX A: Regression Analyses of Total PCBs with other Variables APPENDIX B: Regression Analyses of PAHs, Mercury, and TOC with Particle Size Classes

  • v

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table Page

    1 Description of field results .................................................................................... 26 2 Particle size distribution of sediment samples ...................................................... 30 3 Comparison of contaminant data with low/threshold effect level and

    probable effect concentration sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) ...................... 31 4 Summary of relative contamination factors (RCFs) for contaminant

    concentrations normalized to low level effect sediment quality guidelines.......... 33 5 Summary of relative contamination factors (RCFs) for contaminant

    concentrations normalized to probable effect level sediment quality guidelines .............................................................................................................. 35

    6 Summary of PAH concentrations for selected sediment samples ......................... 37 7 Percentage composition of PAH compounds in sediment samples ...................... 40 8 Distribution of PCB congeners in selected samples from Slip C.......................... 42 9 Nomenclature of predominant PCB congeners in Slip C...................................... 45

    10 Results of regression analyses of chemical parameters with particle size classes............................................................................................................. 46

  • vi

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure Page

    1 Map of the St. Louis River AOC showing locations of contaminated areas plus a reference area at Kimball’s Bay...................................................... 48

    2 Historical map of Slip C showing Slip numbers 5-8.......................................... 49 3 Map of the Georgia-Pacific plant in Duluth, MN circa 1993............................. 50 4 Map of the 1993 sediment sampling sites in Slip C........................................... 51 5 Map of the 1994 sediment sampling sites in Slip C........................................... 52 6 Map of the 1995 sediment sampling sites in Slip C as part of the

    R-EMAP project................................................................................................. 53 7 Location of the 1997 sediment sampling sites in Slip C and the slip

    southeast of it ..................................................................................................... 54 8 Close-up map of the 1997 sediment sampling sites in Slip C............................ 55 9 Linear regression analysis of total PAHs versus lead......................................... 56

    10 Linear regression analysis of total PAHs versus mercury.................................. 57 11 Linear regression analysis of mercury versus lead ............................................. 58 12 Linear regression analysis of total PAHs versus TOC values less than 10%..... 59 13 Linear regression analysis of total PAHs versus the logarithm of TOC ............ 60 14 Linear regression analysis of lead versus the logarithm of TOC........................ 61 15 Linear regression analysis of mercury versus the logarithm of TOC................. 62 16 Linear regression analysis of lead versus percentage of sand and gravel

    (>53 µm)............................................................................................................. 63 17 Linear regression analysis of lead versus percentage of silt (52 - 2 µm) ........... 64 18 Linear regression analysis of lead versus percentage of coarse silt

    (53 - 20 µm)........................................................................................................ 65 19 Linear regression analysis of lead versus percentage of medium silt

    (20 - 5 µm).......................................................................................................... 66 20 Linear regression analysis of lead versus percentage of fine silt

    (5 - 2 µm)............................................................................................................ 67 21 Linear regression analys