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alpha-fetoprotein(AFP)assay allele amniotic fluid...

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  • alpha-fetoprotein(AFP)assay allele

    Chapter 2 Chapter 2

    amniotic fluid amniocentesis

    Chapter 2 Chapter 2

    androgens amniotic sac

    Chapter 2 Chapter 2

    autism artificial insemination

    Chapter 2 Chapter 2

    blastocyst autosome

    Chapter 2 Chapter 2

  • a member of a pair of genes.

    a blood test that assesses the mother’s blood level of alpha-fetoprotein, a substance that is linked with fetal neural tube defects.

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    a procedure for drawing and examining fetal cells sloughed off into amniotic fluid to determine the presence of various disorders.

    fluid within the amniotic sac that suspends and protects the fetus.

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    the sac containing the fetus. male sex hormones.

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    injection of sperm into the uterus to fertilize an ovum.

    a developmental disorder characterized by failure to relate to others, communication problems, intolerance of change, and ritualistic behavior.

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    a member of a pair of chromosomes (with the exception of sex chromosomes).

    a stage within the germinal period of prenatal development in which the zygote has the form of a sphere of cells surrounding a cavity of fluid

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  • cephalocaudal carrier

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    chromosomes chorionic villus sampling

    (CVS)

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    congenital conception

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    cystic fibrosis critical period

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    DES diethylstilbestrol deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

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  • a person who carries and transmits characteristics but does not exhibit them.

    from head to tail.

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    a method for the prenatal detection of genetic abnormalities that samples the membrane enveloping the amniotic sac and fetus.

    rod-shaped structures composed of genes that are found within the nuclei of cells.

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    the union of a sperm cell and an ovum that occurs when the chromosomes of each of these cells combine to form 23 new pairs.

    present at birth and resulting from genetic or chromosomal abnormalities or from exposure to the prenatal environment

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    in this usage, a period during which an embryo is particularly vulnerable to a certain teratogen.

    a fatal genetic disorder in which mucus obstructs the lungs and pancreas.

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    genetic material that takes the form of a double helix composed of phosphates, sugars, and bases.

    a synthetic estrogen that has been linked to cancer in the reproductive organs of children of women who used it when pregnant.

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  • dominant trait dizygotic (DZ) twins

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    Down's syndrome donor IVF

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    embryonic disk ectoderm

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    embryonic stage embryonic disk

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    endometriosis inflammation endoderm

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  • twins that derive from two zygotes; fraternal twins.

    a trait that is expressed.

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    the transfer of a donor’s ovum, fertilized in a laboratory dish, to the uterus of another woman.

    a chromosomal abnormality characterized by mental retardation and caused by an extra chromosome in the 21st pair.

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    the outermost cell layer of the newly formed embryo from which the skin and nervous system develop.

    part of the blastocyst that differentiates into the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm of the embryo.

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    the platelike inner part of the blastocyst that differentiates into the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm of the embryo.

    the stage of prenatal development that lasts from implantation through the eighth week of pregnancy; it is characterized by the development of the major organ systems.

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    the inner layer of the embryo from which the lungs and digestive system develop.

    inflammation of endometrial tissue sloughed off into the abdominal cavity rather than out of the body during menstruation; the condition is characterized by abdominal pain and sometimes infertility.

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  • estrogen endometrium

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    fetal stage fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

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    genetic counselors gene

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    genotype genetics

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    hemophilia germinal stage

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  • the inner lining of the uterus. a female sex hormone produced mainly by the ovaries.

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    a cluster of symptoms shown by children of women who drank heavily during pregnancy, including characteristic facial features and mental retardation.

    the stage of development that lasts from the beginning of the ninth week of pregnancy through birth; it is characterized by gains in size and weight and by maturation of the organ systems.

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    the basic unit of heredity. Genes are composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

    health workers who compile information about a couple’s genetic heritage to advise them as to whether their children might develop genetic abnormalities.

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    the branch of biology that studies heredity.

    the genetic form or constitution of a person as determined by heredity.

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    the period of development between conception and the implantation of the embryo.

    a genetic disorder in which blood does not clot properly.

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  • HIV/AIDS heterozygous

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    Huntington’s disease (HD) homozygous

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    Klinefelter syndrome invitro fertilization (IVF)

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    mesoderm meiosis

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    mitosis miscarriage

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  • having two different alleles.

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus which cripples the body’s immune system. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, a condition in which the immune system is weakened such that it is vulnerable to diseases it would otherwise fight off.

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    having two identical alleles. a fatal genetic neurologic disorder whose onset is in middle age.

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    fertilization of an ovum in a laboratory dish.

    a chromosomal disorder found among males that is caused by an extra X sex chromosome and that is characterized by infertility and mild mental retardation.

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    the form of cell division in which each pair of chromosomes splits so that one member of each pair moves to the new cell. As a result, each new cell has 23 chromosomes.

    the central layer of the embryo from which the bones and muscles develop.

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    the expulsion of an embryo or fetus before it can sustain life on its own, most often due to defective development.

    the form of cell division in which each chromosome splits lengthwise to double in number. Half of each chromosome combines with chemicals to retake its original form and then moves to the new cell.

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  • motility monozygotic (MZ) twins

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    muscular dystrophy multifactorial problems

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    neural tube mutation

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    pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

    ovulation

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    phenylketonuria (PKU) phenotype

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  • twins that derive from a single zygote that has split into two; identical twins. Each MZ twin carries the same genetic code.

    self-propulsion.

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    problems that stem from the interaction of heredity and environmental factors.

    a chronic disease characterized by a progressive wasting away of the muscles.

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    a sudden variation in a heritable characteristic, as by an accident that affects the composition of genes.

    a hollowed-out area in the blastocyst from which the nervous system develops.

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    the releasing of an ovum from an ovary.

    an infection of the abdominal region that may have various causes and that may impair fertility.

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    the actual form or constitution of a person as determined by heredity and environmental factors.

    a genetic abnormality in which phenylalanine builds up and causes mental retardation.

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  • placenta placenta

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    premature polygenic

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    progestin prenatal

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    recessive trait proximodistal

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    rubella Rh incompatibility

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  • an organ connected to the uterine wall and to the fetus by the umbilical cord. The placenta serves as a relay station between mother and fetus for the exchange of nutrients and wastes.

    the organ formed in the lining of the uterus that provides nourishment for the fetus and elimination of its waste products.

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    resulting from many genes. born before the full term of gestation. Also referred to as preterm.

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    before birth.

    a synthetic hormone used to maintain pregnancy that can cause masculinization of the fetus.

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    from the inner part (or axis) of the body outward.

    a trait that is not expressed when the gene or genes involved have been paired with dominant genes.

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    a condition in which antibodies produced by the mother are transmitted to the child, possibly causing brain damage or death.

    a viral infection that can cause retardation and heart disease in the embryo. Also called German measles.

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  • sex-linked chromosomal abnormalities

    sex chromosome

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    sickle-cell anemia sex-linked genetic

    abnormalities

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    stillbirth sonogram

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    Tay-Sachs disease syphilis

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    testosterone teratogens

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  • a chromosome in the shape of a Y (male) or X (female) that determines the sex of the child.

    abnormalities that are transmitted from generation to generation and carried by a sex chromosome.

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    abnormalities resulting from genes that are found on the X sex chromosome. They are more likely to be shown by male off spring (who do not have an opposing gene from a second X chromosome) than by female off spring.

    a genetic disorder that decreases the blood’s capacity to carry oxygen.

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    a procedure for using ultrasonic sound waves to create a picture of an embryo or fetus.

    the birth of a dead fetus.

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    a sexually transmitted infection that, in advanced stages, can attack major organ systems.

    a fatal genetic neurological disorder.

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    environmental influences or agents that can damage the embryo or fetus.

    a male sex hormone produced mainly by the testes.

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  • toxemia (or pre-eclampsia) thalidomide

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    ultrasound Turner syndrome

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    uterus umbilical cord

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  • a sedative used in the 1960s that has been linked to birth defects, especially deformed or absent limbs

    a life threatening disease that can afflict pregnant women; it is characterized by high blood pressure.

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    a chromosomal disorder found among females that is caused by having a single X sex chromosome and is characterized by infertility.

    sound waves too high in pitch to be sensed by the human ear.

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    a tube that connects the fetus to the placenta.

    the hollow organ within females in which the embryo and fetus develop.

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alpha-fetoprotein(AFP)assay allele Chapter 2 Chapter 2 amniotic fluid amniocentesis Chapter 2 Chapter 2 androgens amniotic sac Chapter 2 Chapter 2 autism artificial insemination Chapter 2 Chapter 2 blastocyst autosome Chapter 2 Chapter 2
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