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AMREF Communications Forum

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  • 1. Subdireccin de Investigacin y Extensin Extension BranchResearch andFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited NationsCommunication forDevelopment Mario Acunzo [email protected] Marzia Pafumi [email protected] AMREF Communications Forum Rome - March 29, 2012 1

2. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations Presentation OutlineWhat is ComDev?b. Definitionc. Key Principles and Functionsd. ComDev in FAOCommunication for Development Planningg. Steps in ComDev Planningh. Participator Rural Communication Appraisali. Participatory Communication Strategy Design Case study examples from FAO experiencel. Boliviam. Bangladesh 2 3. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited NationsCommunication Pathways What is your understanding of Communication forDevelopment and how would you describe the role ofcommunication in development programmes? What communication approaches do you currently use inyour projects? What do you think are the mostimportant communication activitiesand skills needed for your work?3 4. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations What is ComDev ?Type Purpose/DefinitionMain Functions Required Core CompetenciesUse media outputs and products toPublic relations, institutionalCommunicate the mission andCorporate promote the mission and values of communication, excellent writing activities of the organization,communication the institution; inform selectedskills, press releases, broad mediamostly for external audiences.audiences about relevant activities.network contacts Facilitate the flow of information Ensure timely and effective sharing within an institution/project. of relevant information within theInstitutional communication, Internal Sometimes this area can be staff and institution units. Itexcellent writing skills, web andcommunicationincluded in corporate enhances synergies and avoidsinternet skillscommunication.duplication.Raise awareness on hot Influence change at the public or development issues; use Public relations, marketing,Advocacypolicy level and promote issues communication methods and mediaexperience in media campaigns andcommunicationrelated to development.to influence specific audiences and advocacy campaignsupport the intended change.Communication research,Establish conducive environments;Support sustainable change inparticipatory approaches, adultCommunication assess risks and opportunities; development operations by education, communication methods for Development disseminate information; induce engaging key stakeholders. and media, consultations andbehavior and social change. facilitation skills4 5. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations What is ComDev ?Communication for Development (ComDev) is a socialprocess based on dialogue using a broad range of tools andmethods. ComDev is about seeking change at differentlevels including listening, establishing trust, sharingknowledge and skills, building policies, debating andlearning for sustained and meaningful change. World Congress on Communication for Development, Rome 2006 5 6. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations What is ComDev ?The ComDev process: goes beyond information dissemination involves the use of participatory methods and different tools (e.g.traditional & local media, rural radio, ICTs) facilitates active participation and stakeholder dialogue is different from public relations or corporate communication Special attention is given to the convergence of the media, thedevelopment of local contents and the enhancement of local capacitiesfor planning and implementing communication processes 6 7. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited NationsKey ComDev Principles Fostering dialogue and mediation7 8. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Key ComDev PrinciplesStrengthening local knowledge and communication processes8 9. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited NationsKey ComDev PrinciplesConvergence and local appropriation of technologies9 10. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations ComDev Functions Facilitate access to knowledge and information Promote peoples participation and collaborative action Strengthen peoples capability to share knowledge and managehorizontal communication processes Enhance mutual learningco-creation of knowledge Improve linkages and strengthen dialogue between policymakers, institutions and small farmers / local communities Bridge the gap between global information and local knowledge10 11. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsComDev in FAO - MandateDevelop and implement communication strategies to enhancecapacities of agricultural development programs, institutions,farmers and grass-roots organizations to access knowledge andinformation and actively make decisions on their livelihoods. Policy advice to member countries Technical assistance to governments, regional offices and field projects Capacity development of national staff and institutions Documentation of activities, including case studies, guidelines, videos andpublications Advocacy, training and knowledge sharing in ComDev11 12. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations ComDev in FAO Priority Areas1. Natural Resources Management, Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction2. Food and Nutrition Security3. Agricultural InnovationCapacity DevelopmentKnowledge and Info SharingGender and Equity Issuesembedded as crosscutting issues in all projects 12 13. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsComDev in FAO Methodologies 13 14. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsComDev in FAO Media Community Rural Radio Audiovisual Pedagogy andParticipatory Video Local appropriation of ICTs(Information andCommunication Technologies) Traditional and Local Media 14 15. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsCommunication for Sustainable Development Initiative (CSDI)Objectives Effective applications and management ofComDev strategies, tools and services for naturalresource management (NRM) and climate changeadaptation (CCA) Improved capacities and partnerships incommunication for sustainable NRM & CCAStrategy Knowledge sharing on ComDev methods andtools for NRM and CCA Capacity strengthening and networking Technical assistance to countries and field projects www.csdinitiative.org15 16. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited NationsCommunication for Sustainable Development Initiative (CSDI) 16 17. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited NationsCapacity Development Learning Kit on Communication for Rural Development for field agents, communication practitioners and community facilitators to learn how to plan and implement ComDev strategies in the agricultural and rural sector. Collaborative Change Communication Web platform for learning and knowledge sharing, aimed at: Strengthen professional capacities in ComDev Consolidate on-line and off-line knowledge networks Facilitate the creation of a global community of practice in ComDev www.cccomdev.org 17 18. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Knowledge Sharing in ComDev Platforms and online networks are atool used to foster knowledgeexchange and support localcommunication processes by:a. sharing practices in ComDev on aregional basisb. disseminating information andaggregating knowledge on specificthemesc. creating an interface with local andnational activities 18 19. Subdireccin de Investigacin y Extensin Extension Branch Research andFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited NationsCommunication forDevelopmentPlanning 19 20. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsStrategic ComDev Planning Communication for Development is about participation, dialogue and the sharing of knowledge and informationIn short, the pillars of ComDev are: Strategic participatory planning with all stakeholders Facilitation of exchanges among different knowledge bases Strategic use of appropriate media both traditional media and emerging ICT technologies Building of local capacity Strengthening of partnerships and best practices 20 21. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsSteps in ComDev PlanningTHE P - PROCESSPiotrow, et al. 1997. Health Communication: Lessons from Family Planning and Reproductive Health. 21 22. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsSteps in ComDev PlanningA participatory & audience-based methodology1. Situation analysis and problem assessment Participatory Rural Communication Appraisal (PRCA)2. Participatory Communication Strategy Design (PCSD)3. Communication materials development, pretesting and production4. Implementation and monitoring of participatory, targeted communication interventions5. Evaluation of outcomes/impacts in terms of changes in attitudes, knowledge levels and practices22 23. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsWhy doing PRCA Research is the corner stone of communication and makes program development a bottom-up process [] rather than the usual top-down approach (Kline,1999) LISTENING to your target group to find out their real needs and ensure local relevance and appropriation of communication efforts Producers and subject specialists who commission media campaigns have control over what information they distribute, but do not control what and how much is actually communicated the receiver does (Mody,1991) Understanding DIFFERENT PERCEPTIONS and avoiding assumptions 23 24. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations PRCA components Situation Analysis (including mapping of existing programs, policies and best practices) Stakeholder / Audience analysis Analysis of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) Social network analysis Analysis of communication resources24 25. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsKAP Analysis Pinpointing knowledge gaps, patterns of behavior, cultural beliefs and practices that may either hinder or facilitate a communitys understanding and action Investigating current levels of awareness and assessing the real information and knowledge needs of rural clients on the ground Learning what local practices may already apply and use them as a basis to identify workable, improved solutionsDATA are usually gathered through participatory methods 25 26. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsKAP Analysis Sample KAP Key Questions Climate ChangeKNOWLEDGE What is your current understanding of climate change? You may explain, illustrate or use examples and analogies. Why do you think this is happening? What information or knowledge about climate change have you heard or received from others which you think are not true ordoubtful? Why? How did you verify them? From whom or from what source did you get these information about climate change? Did you deliberately seek out for theseinformation or they were relayed to you without you asking for them?ATTITUDE Do you find it useful to learn more about climate change? Do you think it is an issue for you? Why or why not? Do you believe that people should intervene and adapt to climate change? Do you agree with the need to modify your farming practices because of changes occurring in the climate and the environment? Are you willing to work in groups in order to take collective actions to mitigate the causes of climate change and adapt to thesechanges? Why or why not?PRACTICE What activities do you undertake to cope with climate change? Do you think these are effective? Why or why not? What old practices do you still stick to and not modify despite the occurrence of climate change? Why? If given the necessary resources, what other activities do you plan to pursue in your farm and household to cope better with climatechange? Please specify the necessary resources for each planned activity. 26 27. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsPRCA tools Key Informant Interview Focus Group Discussion Problem Tree Time line/ seasonal calendar Social/ community mapping Matrix Ranking Participant Observation Venn Diagram TRIANGULATIONAlways use more than one tool or method to check and verify findings 27 28. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations PCSD steps Summarize findings of PRCA Set SMART stakeholder-oriented objectives Define the communication approach and key messages Select communication methods, channels and tools Define the communication workplan and budget Plan for monitoring and evaluation Plan for sustainability28 29. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ComDev Strategy MatrixComDev strategy matrixCommunication Method and tools Approach StakeholderKey message (Combine mass, group (Combine the strengthobjective& individual methods)of each approach)Policy makersLocal officialsService providersLocal communityOthers, specify29 30. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations ComDev Media Rural and community radio Folk media such as popular songs and community theatre Print media (cartoons, booklets, brochures, flyers, fact sheets) Video and multimedia materials (community TV, DVD, CD- Rom) Public service announcements Face-to-face interpersonal communication (e.g. farmer field days, extension visits, community meetings) 30 31. Subdireccin de Investigacin y Extensin Extension Branch Research andFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited NationsCommunication forDevelopmentEXAMPLES FROM FAO FIELD EXPERIENCE 31 32. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations Case Studies BOLIVIANational Communication Plan for Agricultural Innovationand Participatory Local Communication Planning BANGLADESHEnhancing Rural Communication Services forAgricultural Development through Community RuralRadio32 33. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations Bolivia: National ComDev PlanA ComDev National Plan designedand approved by the Ministry forRural Development and Land(MDRyT) is being implemented by theNational Institute for Agriculture andForestry Innovation (INIAF)Objectives Design, validate and implement ComDev strategies, systems andservices Strengthen national capacities in ComDev for agriculture and innovationat the local and national level 33 34. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bolivia: National ComDev PlanIn support to the consolidation of Local Innovation Systems (SILos) Local Innovationgovernment ManagersProductiveinnovationAcademic centres centers Innovation INIAF FacilitatorsProjects, GrassrootsLearningInstitutions,and IPscommunitiesNGOs, etc. organization34 35. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited NationsBolivia: National ComDev Plan At national level the ComDev strategy is developing: An information and knowledge management service for agriculture and forestry innovation (including TECA)TECA is an information and communication system with two main functions:- Repository of technology for small farmers- Exchange groups on technologies35 36. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited NationsBolivia: Local Communication Plans for Innovation (PLICs)And at local level the project implemented: Local information and communication plansfor agricultural innovation (PLICs), based onlocal knowledge and communication needs.Examples of PLICs Pasture management for dairy cattle(Yapacani) Direct sowing (Yacuiba) Water harvesting for diversified crops(Chiquitania) and Forage conservation (at the national level). 36 37. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsBolivia: Steps for PLICsimplementationa) Local Information dentify problems and communication needs, as well as and possible solutions. Communication nvolve local stakeholders, including farmers, grassroots Appraisal organizations, local institutions and the local government. Information andystematize the appraisal results Communicationa) Local Informationesign and agreement on strategic communicationServices in supportandinterventions to AgricultureCommunicationacilitate coordination and networking among local partners.Innovation and ProgramRural Development ontribute to a participatory monitoring of activitiesmplementation of priority communication activities at field levela) Local Informationrganize activities and defines responsibilities for localstakeholders and Communicationevelop communication products and tools (Knowledge andCommunication Modules - MCC) Planmplement training activities37 38. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations Bolivia: ResultsLocal Information and Communication Plansare implemented within the context ofEspacios locales de concertacin that arevenues for dialogue and informed decisionmaking.Training results: 8 intensive training-of-trainers courses to technical experts and workers on the audiovisualmethodology and the application of Knowledge and Communication Modules (MCC) 162 people trained as facilitators and on the use of MCC to train small producers Yapacan: 11 workshops attended by overall 320 small-scale producers, local extensionistsand field workers on establishing and managing pastures for dairy cows. 4 workshops in Chiquitania on rainwater harvesting, 8 in the Chaco area on direct seeding,and 3 on forage conservation in the Norte Integrado. In the four pilot areas, overall 489 producers have been trained, involving 52 institutions andorganizations in Bolivia.38 39. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations Bolivia: Results A ComDev National Plan institutionalized within the INIAF Improved agriculture innovation and communication services Increased participation of rural people in agriculture innovation Local knowledge documented and shared Technical information validated and disseminated Improved ComDev capacities of rural actors and extensionprofessionals Knowledge and communication training modules developed andvalidated with farmers 39 40. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsBangladesh: RuralCommunication Service (RCS) Background High vulnerability to climate change and its adverse impact Agriculture engages 74% of population Community Radio Installation, Broadcast and Operation Policy (2008)Project Objectives Improve access to and utilization of agricultural information, knowledge and services Enhance communication, knowledge sharing,lesson learning between and among stakeholdersin the agriculture sector 40 41. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bangladesh: Rural Communication Service (RCS)What is RCS? Network-like integration of demand-driven communication servicesusing ComDev strategies, methods and tools to support agriculturaldevelopment programs Platform for discussion and knowledge sharing among governmentinstitutions in collaboration with NGOs, academe, media groups,private sector, CBOs Maximize the resources of research and extension services (DAE/AIS)and strengthen the linkages with other public institutions, NGOs etc. todeliver farmer-centered agricultural advisory services41 42. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsBangladesh: RuralCommunication Service (RCS)Advantages Connecting geographically dispersedstakeholders Strengthening local communicationnetworks Broadening participation and enablinginformed decision-making Generating proactive stance and acollaborative environment Avoiding duplication and ensuring moretimely information provision42 43. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsBangladesh: steps to set up RCS 43 44. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsBangladesh: steps to set up CRR 44 45. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited NationsBangladesh: RCS and CRR Services provided Participatory rural communicationplanning Capacity Development training inComDev (workshops, study tour) Multi-stakeholder partnerships Provision of information, knowledge andcommunication productsEmergency Project Link with local and national mediaPRCA and ComDev Plan Mainstreaming of ComDev in agriculturalfor harvesting of saline-tolerant rive variety development programs45 46. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited NationsBangladesh: Krishi RadioMy Radio, My Voice - Krishi Radio FM 98.8 Daily programming in local languages on agriculture, livestock,fisheries, science, women, children, youth, indigenous communities 500 RCS-CRR posters and leaflets, folk song, station call sign,promotional jingle, program signature music, etc. 5 training workshops with CRR staffand volunteers (20 of 300 applicants) Over 100 local farmers belong to alistener club that regularly tunes inand participates in live discussions46 47. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bangladesh: Krishi RadioWe advice farmers on how best to use their land inthe face of increasing salinity causing hugeeconomic losses. Field visits and demonstrationscan now be reduced as we explain every aspectof cultivating a new crop during our livediscussions over radioZakia Sultana Baby, agriculture officerThe community radios growing popularity isowing to the fact that it really serves the needsof the rural poor peopleSalauddin Ahmed, Amtali union council chairman 47 48. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsKey References Participatory Rural Communication Appraisal. A handbook (FAO, 2004) Participatory Communication Strategy Design. A handbook (FAO, 2004) World Congress on Communication for Development. Lessons, challengesand way forward (WB-FAO-CI, 2007) Learning Kit on Communication for Rural Development (FAO,forthcoming) Communication for Development: meeting todays agriculture and ruraldevelopment challenges (FAO, 2011)www.cccomdev.org/index.php/learning-resources/learning-materials 48 49. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsRelated sites www.fao.org/oek/communication-for-develompent/en www.csdinitiative.org www.fsca-pisa.org www.cccomdev.org http://Km.fao.org/vercon49 50. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations Thank you! Mario Acunzo [email protected] Marzia Pafumi [email protected]

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