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Vicenza, A.A. 2011 - 2012 Modelli e metodologie per l’Analisi Strategica GDR Strategia Elaborazione del Progetto Strategico 1° Parte
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Vicenza, A.A. 2011 - 2012

Modelli e metodologie per l’Analisi Strategica

GD

R S

trat

egia

Elaborazione del Progetto Strategico 1° Parte

GDR Strategia Follow us on www.gdrstrategia.com

Scheme

2

VISION

ANALYSIS

STRATEGIC PROJECT

IMPLEMENTATIONAND

CONTROL

STRATEGICDESIGN

result of vision and strategic project

interaction.

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Strategic Design Vs Business Plan

3

= operating instrument used to handle and shape over time the competitive structure.The essence of strategic design is: giving direction to the dynamics of competitive structure and being able to control it over time.

STRATEGIC DESIGN BUSINESS PLAN

= instrument used to evaluate the economic and financial profile of an investment project or of a lasting economic initiative.

Vs

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Vision

4

VISION

ANALYSIS

STRATEGIC PROJECT

IMPLEMENTATIONAND

CONTROL

STRATEGICDESIGN

result of vision and strategic planning

interaction.

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5

Competitive Vision

The competitive vision is the “macro” competitive

goal that an organization wants to achieve along a

specific timeframe. It has implications in terms of

value.

Value = Enterprise value

V0 =R

ke

It is the link between the analysis and the strategic

planning process.

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6

The Vision Statement

Competitive vision statements can vary a lot,

depending on the organization’s specific philosophy

and culture.

The vision statement is the communicative

espression of the vision, it provides the insight into

the aspiration of the organization.

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7

We believe an organization will stand out

only if it is willing to take on seemingly impossible tasks. (...). Those who set

out to do what others say cannot be done

are the ones who make the discoveries, produce the inventions, and move the

world ahead.

Thomas J. Watson Jr., Chairman of IBM, 1962.

Vision - Philosophical

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8

“Affordable solutions for

better living.”

Vision - Philosophical

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9

Vision - Aspirational

We choose to go to the moon. We choose

to go to the moon in this decade and

do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because

that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one

that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win, and the others, too. 

John F. Kennedy, "Moon Speech", Rice Stadium, Houston, Texas, Sept

12, 1962

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10

"To bring inspiration and innovation to every

athlete* in the world"

* If you have a body, you are an athlete.

Vision - Aspirational

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11

Vision - Competitive

“Toyota will lead the way to the future of mobility, enriching lives around the world

with the safest and most responsible ways of moving people. Through our

commitment to quality, constant innovation

and respect for the planet, we aim to exceed expectations and be rewarded with a

smile. We will meet challenging goals by

engaging the talent and passion of people, who believe there is always a better

way.”

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12

"McDonald's vision is to be the world's best quick

service restaurant experience. Being the best means

providing outstanding quality, service, cleanliness, and

value, so that we make every customer in every

restaurant smile."

Vision - Competitive

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13

Vision - Pragmatic

Our vision serves as the framework for our Roadmap

and guides every aspect of our business by describing what we need to accomplish in order to continue

achieving sustainable, quality growth.

People: Be a great place to work where people are inspired to be the best they can be.Portfolio: Bring to the world a portfolio of quality beverage brands that anticipate and satisfy people's desires and needs.Partners: Nurture a winning network of customers and suppliers, together we create mutual, enduring value.Planet: Be a responsible citizen that makes a difference by helping build and support sustainable communities.Profit: Maximize long-term return to shareowners while being mindful of our overall responsibilities.Productivity: Be a highly effective, lean and fast-moving organization.

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14

"Through all of our products, services and

relationships, we will add to life's enjoyment.

Enrich and entertain a global audience.

Deliver superior returns to our shareholders."

Vision - Pragmatic

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15

Vision - Iconic

Imagine how tennis will be played 75 years from now.In 2083.

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16

Because it affects each and every strategic

behavior, choice, or action: it defines the pathway of

the company’s strategic behavior.

Why is the Competitive Vision Important?

No Vision? => inertial and unaware competitive

goals’ definition process

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17

Where Does the Competitive Vision Come from?

ANALYSIS(general assumptions)

EMBRYONIC COMPETITIVE

VISION

VISION

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18

The embryonic competitive vision is an early form

of strategic vision, arising from past experiences,

organizational ideologies and the beliefs of

individual managers.

The Embryonic Competitive Vision

It is composed by:

1. the basic cultural orientation;

2. the implicit vision of the future;

3. the competitive philosphy.

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19

The Embryonic Competitive Vision: Ingredients

BASIC CULTURAL ORIENTATION

IMPLICIT VISION OF THE FUTURE

COMPETITIVEPHILOSOPHY

EMBRYONIC COMPETITIVE VISION

Values rooted in the key players (core ideology), related to the role and purpose of the company (role of profit, growth orientation, etc.), the scope of company’s operations (diversified,

focused, etc), the management philosophy (leadership style, organizational culture, etc)

Expectations regarding the future (not limited to the company’s future)

Attitude regarding competition: how to govern competition? (aggressively or conservatively,

focusing on a country or dealing with globalization, attitude towards risk, etc.)

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20

The Embryonic Competitive Vision: Example

BASIC CULTURAL ORIENTATION

IMPLICIT VISION OF THE FUTURE

COMPETITIVEPHILOSOPHY

A B

Thanks to tablets and cloud computing in 10y contents will be totally

dematerialized

Newspapers and books won’t be replaced by

digital contents, especially in some areas

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21

Along the analytical process the embryonic competitive

vision can change a lot from its initial embryonic form, due to

the results of the analysis, the experiences, the behaviors of

people, etc.

It is therefore important to evaluate the level of consistency

between the embryonic vision and the one that results at the

end of the process.

In fact, the lack of consistency introduces, coeteris paribus,

higher risks for the implementation of the startegic project.

Consistency Check

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22

ANALYSIS,EXPERIENCES,

BEHAVIORS

EMBRYONIC COMPETITIVE

VISION

COMPETITIVEVISION

CHECKOF

CONSISTENCY

From Embryonic to “Grown-Up”

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23

The Competitive Vision: a Matter of Balance

VISION

LEVEL OF “AMBITION”

INNOVATIONAPPROACH

LOW - MEDIUM - HIGH LOW - MEDIUM - HIGH

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24

The Competitive VisionLE

VE

L O

F “A

MB

ITIO

N”

INNOVATION APPROACH

High

Low

Medium

HighLow Medium

V0 =R

ke

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25

The Competitive Vision: Polar CategoriesLE

VE

L O

F “A

MB

ITIO

N”

INNOVATION APPROACH

High

Low

Medium

HighLow Medium

REACTIONARY

DISRUPTIVE

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26

The Link Between Competitive Vision and Innovation

Even the most “reactionary” vision brings about

something novel within the company: strategic goals,

management philosophy, attitude towards competition,

etc.

Therefore, whatever competit ive

vision, it deals with innovation

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27

What is Innovation

is the noun form of innovare, stemming from

in + novusInnovatus

Innovation is a PROCESS that leads INTO NEW

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28

What Does New Mean

BETTER

Adding on a SUBSTAINTIAL POSITIVE CHANGE in PRODUCTS/SERVICES, PROCESSES,

TECHNOLOGIES, IDEAS, SOCIAL RELATIONS

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29

More and More Interdependent

SOCIAL RELATIONS

IDEAS

TECH

PROCESSESPRODUCTSSERVICES

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30

What is Innovation Today

Innovation occurs when corporations open up to new influences and enter into a dialogue with

diverse stakeholders in their surrounding

environment – including competitors and consumers.

Chesbrough, H. W.: Open Innovation. The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology, 2003

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31

Most Innovative Companies (Rankings)

Innovation All-Stars - Fast Company

Most Innovative Companies - BusinessWeek

World’s Most Innovative Companies - Forbes

Global 1000 Top Innovators - Booz & Company

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Facebook Apple Salesforces.com Apple

Amazon Google Amazon Google

Apple Microsoft Intuitive Surgical 3M

Google IBM Tencent Holdings GE

Huawei Toyota Apple Toyota

First Solar Amazon Hindustan Unilever Microsoft

PG&E LG Electronics Google P&G

Novartis BYD Natura Cosmeticos IBM

Walmart GE Bharat Heavy Electricals Samsung

HP Sony Monsanto Intel

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32

Most Innovative Companies (Taxonomy)

Tyros, young companies (start-ups) built around “eccentric” new business models. Growing rapidly, refining the business model. Serendipity domain (vs. systematic innovation). Talented founder. Game-changing strategies. A test history suggests many of them will fail ...

G. Hamel “Who Is Really Innovative?”, MLab, November 2010

Nobel Laureates: consistently innovative, albeit in a narrow, technologically oriented, sphere. They spend billions each year on R&D, and dominate the rankings of most patents won. If you want to learn something about maximizing R&D productivity or managing a patent portfolio, the laureates have plenty to teach.

Artistes: companies that are in the creativity business—innovation is their product. Everything about these firms—the way they hire, develop talent, manage workflows and organize their workspaces—has been designed to incite lateral leaps of genius.

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33

Most Innovative Companies (Taxonomy)

Cyborgs are able to achieve super-human feats of innovation. These companies have been built around principles like freedom, meritocracy, transparency and experimentation. They are endlessly inventive (and innovative in all kind of ways) and strategically flexible. Their visionary leaders haven’t allowed themselves to become hostage to one particular strategy.

G. Hamel “Who Is Really Innovative?”, MLab, November 2010

Born Again: companies that have experienced deep crisis, but were able to reorder their priorities and reassess their lifelong habits. At P&G, A.G. Lafley, who stepped down as chairman in 2010, launched a major initiative aimed at opening up the company’s innovation pipeline to ideas from across the world. 

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34

What Do These Companies Have in Common?

A pro-innovation design (or re-design) of the company’s management process:

- the way it plans

- budgets

- allocates resources

- hires

- measures performance

- and compensates.

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35

QUESTION

Is Innovation Really Worthwhile?

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36

Does Innovation Payoff?

Source: Business Week & BCG, The Most Innovative Companies, 2006

+3.4% annual profit

margin growth vs. 0.4% S&P

1200

+14.3% annual stock

return = +3pp better

than the S&P 1200

1995

2005

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37

Does Innovation Payoff?

Source: JARUZELSKI, B and DEHOFF, D. “How the Top Innovators Keep Winning”, Booz & Company, 2010

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38

Let’s See It in Another Way, Then: What is the Payoff if Your Company Does Not Innovate?

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39

Let’s See It in Another Way, Then: What is the Payoff if Your Country Does Not Innovate?

A further imperative driving business-model innovation is the rebalancing of the global economy (...).  Companies wishing to expand their business to the rising emerging economies will find that the business models that succeeded in the already-developed economies will not succeed in these new markets.

In turn, the rise of multinational companies from the BRIC economies that successfully enter the advanced economy markets in the West with new and different business models will further advance this trend. - Henry Chesbrough

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40

What Major Barriers to Innovation? (1/2)

• Not enough good idea• Lack of customer involvement• Lack of senior management support• Weak process to select good ideas• Development time too long • Risk-averse culture• Lack of coordination• Weak Marketing and Communication• Lack of funding

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41

What Major Barriers to Innovation? (2/2)

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42

Your Company is Good At ... (1/2)

• Generating ideas inside• Generating ideas outside• Cross-pollinating ideas inside• Selecting promising ideas• Developing ideas into products/services• Diffusing proven ideas across the company

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43

Your Company is Good At ... (2/2)

Source: Julian Birkinshaw, Cyril Bouquet and J.-L. Barsoux “5 Myths of Innovation”, Sloan Management Review, Winter, 2010

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44

Major Hurdle?

Ideas vs. Implementation

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From Myth to Reality

45

Source: Charles Leadbeater, Leading Innovation

Myth RealityFlash of insight Comes from immersionIndividualistic Collaborative Invention Mostly developmentOriginality BorrowingLook to the future Look sideways and backwardsInternal R&D Networked, open innovationProduct pipeline Consumers as innovators

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46

A Mix of Art and Science

D. Edwards, Creativity in the Post Google Generation, 2008.

ART SCIENCE

Contemporary creators achieve breakthroughs in the arts and sciences by developing their ideas in an intermediate zone of human creativity where neither art nor

science is easily defined.

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47

Open, Networked, Lateral

Communication skills, cross-disciplinary management, aesthetic skills and an

understanding of the social and cultural processes in an organisation are as important to

stimulating innovation as technological breakthroughs or market power

Pott, J. and Morrison, K., Journal of Cultural Economy, 2008

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A Great Partner: the Internet

48

Business leaders should play a significant role in the spread of the Internet

and systematically review how the Internet allows them to innovate more aggressively and even reinvent their

business models to boost growth, performance, and

productivity.In particular, businesses should constantly try to identify up-and-coming Internet trends such as distributed co-creation and networks. The Internet is also spawning innovative business models such as innovation from the bottom of the pyramid.

Source: McKinsey Global Institute, “Internet matters: The Net’s sweeping impact on growth, jobs, and prosperity”, 2011

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How to Innovate

49

1.From the Outside-In

2.Involve Clients (Stakeholders)3.Encourage Diverse Thinking

4.Accept Failure5.Set Time&Money Aside6.Don’t Be Afraid to Ask Questions

7.Fall in Love with Execution8.Be Ready to Fight

9.Focus10.Engage Early Adopters

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50

1. From the Outside-In

• Companies are not self-sufficient• An Ecosystem drives innovation

• Universities• Companies• Government (esp. in case of technology driven innovation)

“Ideas that transform industries almost never come from inside those industries.” - Gary Hamel

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51

2. Involve Clients (Stakeholders)

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52

3. Encourage Diverse Thinking

“If I had asked people what they wanted, they would have said faster horses”. Henry Ford

One of the most difficult tasks for innovators is to learn how to unlearn the legacy business models they have perfected.

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53

4. Accept Failure

1962, Mc Donald’s Hula Burger.

Founder Ray Kroc tested this cheese-topped grilled pineapple (for people who avoided eating meat on Fridays). A FLOP.

The company learned meatless didn’t have to mean wacky, and the next year a franchise owner came up with a tastier alternative for hamburger-free Fridays: the Filet-O-Fish, now a McDonald’s classic.

1957, Ford Edsel.

An overhyped, oversized, and overpriced car. The Edsel never gained popularity and sold poorly, and its name has since become synonymous with failure.

Ford lost millions of dollars on the Edsel's development, manufacture, and marketing. Ford continued to do its research and tuned into customers’ call for stylish affordability, launching the legendary Ford Mustang in 1964.

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54

5. Set Time&Money Aside

“70-20-10” Rule

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55

7. Fall in Love with Execution

Most innovation efforts fail not because of a lack of bright ideas, but because of a

lack of careful and thoughtful follow-up.

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56

10. Engage Early Adopters

Source: Rogers, Everett M., Diffusion of Innovations, 1962


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