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Anatomy & Physiology 2

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Anatomy & Physiology 2. Study of the Body’s Systems. Are you in the right class?  Anatomy and Physiology 2 Tues 9:00 am – 1:00 pm. Cailin Lawler, LMT 860-508-3336 [email protected] www.BalanceMassageCT.com Facebook : Balance Massage CT. Logistics. Come prepared to class Memmler’s - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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Anatomy & Physiology 2 Study of the Body’s Systems
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Anatomy & Physiology 2Study of the Body’s Systems

Are you in the right class? Anatomy and Physiology 2

Tues 9:00 am – 1:00 pm

Cailin Lawler, LMT860-508-3336

[email protected]

Facebook: Balance Massage CT

Logistics

• Come prepared to class– Memmler’s– Course Manual– Completed week’s

reading– Completed week’s

feedback sheet

• BE ON TIME!!• BE ON TIME!!

(yes, it’s listed twice)• Follow dress code

– WEAR YOUR SHIRTS

• No food/drink in classroom

• NO CELL PHONES!!!!!– Trust me, no cell phones

• You MUST contact me. By text, by voice mail, by phone, by smoke signal, by carrier pigeon, by Morse Code, by whatever means necessary.

• Best alternative is sitting in with another section. Coordinate with Nancy in Student Services.

•Get the notes and handouts that you missed. Do this ASAP. DO NOT wait until it gets closer to the exam.

It is HIGHLY recommended that you do NOT miss a class, but if you MUST….

Speaking of Exams….

• This class has 3 exams, structured mostly as multiple choice, T/F, matching, and some short answer.

• Dates:_2/12, 3/12, 4/9___________

Class 1

Homeostasis

Body Cavities and Membranes

Introduction to the Nervous System

and…… what the “heck” do we need to know the systems of the

body for?!

Knowing human anatomy will help you understand how the body reacts to the massage you will

administer to your client.

It will help you prepare for Pathology class, which will allow you to alter your massage to accommodate your client’s special needs

and maximize the benefits of massage.

Homeostasis

• Homeostasis is one of the fundamental characteristics of living things.

• Maintenance of the internal environment so as to maintain a stable, constant condition.

Homeostasis

• The Body is all about balance. • In balance = runs perfectly. • Out of balance = Dis-ease.

• Bodies are constantly fine tuning , releasing and inhibiting things, all to keep balance with the internal environment.

The main process that our bodies use to achieve this is something that’s called:Negative Feedback

• A feedback in which the system responds in an opposite direction of the current biological reaction.

• It is a self-regulatory system where the goal is to re-establish equilibrium, or homeostasis within the system.

Example of Negative FeedbackBody Temperature Regulation

Negative Feedback

Ex) Blood Sugar Levels

Positive Feedback• A feedback in which the system responds in the

same direction of the current biological reaction. • It is a self-regulatory system where the goal is to

amplify the reaction to create a bigger change.

• Ex) Blood Clot, Uterine Contractions, Allergic Reactions, Lactation

Example of Positive FeedbackUterine Contractions

Body Cavities

Thoracic Cavity MembranesPleural membranes

Pericardial membranes

Peritoneal Membranes

The Communication System

Endocrine System Nervous system (hormones)

Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System (Brain & Spinal Cord) (Spinal & Cranial Nerves)

Sensory/Afferent Division Motor/Efferent Division(Impulses from receptors to CNS) (Impulses from CNS toward effector organ)

Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System(Voluntary, skeletal muscles) (Involuntary, glands/cardiac muscle/smooth muscle)

Sympathetic Division Parasympathetic Division (fight & flight) (rest & digest)

Cells of the Nervous System

The Neuron

Neuroglial Cells

(A) Schwann cells wrap around the axon, creating a myelin coating.

(B) The outermost layer of the Schwann cell forms the neurilemma.

Space between each myelin sheath is the nodes (of Ranvier).

Formation of a Myelin SheathFormation of a Myelin Sheath

Se

ns

or

y

Mo

to

rGeneral Functions of the Nervous System

•Receiving the information (sensory/afferent)•Coordinating the information (Integrate)•Respond to information (motor/efferent)

1. Sensory Receptors hear phone ring

2. Sensory neurons transmit impulse toward spinal cord & brain

3. Interneurons process information

4. Brain interprets sound

5. Motor neurons transmit impulse to effector organ

6. Arm/hand picks up ringing phone

Neuron Impulses

Resting Membrane Potential

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

Notes:

•The sodium pump, during RMP, pumps sodium out and pulls potassium in.

•Potassium can flow back and forth, but sodium is too big to diffuse back inside.

•Large negative ions (usually proteins) are too large to diffuse, so the overall charge is negative inside (-70mv); this is called polarized.

Notes:

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Outside the Cell

Inside the Cell

Depolarization

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

Notes:

•When another neuron stimulates this neuron enough to bring it’s charge from -70mv to -40mv, it reaches it’s Threshold Potential.

•At that time, the sodium gates open up, allowing sodium to rush IN (remember SIN).

•This swings the overall inside charge from negative to positive (+30mv).

Notes:

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+ Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Outside the Cell

Inside the Cell

Repolarization

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+

K+K+

K+

K+

K+

Notes:

•When the neuron’s charge reaches +30mv, the sodium gates swing closed and the potassium gates swing open.

•This causes the potassium ions to rush out (remember POUT).

•This brings the overall charge of the neuron more negative (just below -70mv).

•The time directly after these events (Action Potential) is called the Refractory Period and the neuron can not be stimulated again until the sodium pump gets the charge back to -70mv.

Notes:

Na+

Na+Na+

Na+

Na+ Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Outside the Cell

Inside the Cell

K+

K+

K+

K+

-70mv

-40mv

0mv

+30mv

Resting Membrane Potential (Polarized)

Resting Membrane Potential (Polarized)

Ready to accept another stimulation

Sub-

thre

shol

d

Stim

ulati

on

Threshold Potential

Sodium gates

open, sodium

rushes IN

Sodium gates close

Potassium

gates open,

potassium

rushes OUT

Depo

lariz

ation Repolarization

Pota

ssiu

m ga

tes c

lose

Refractory Period

Action Potential = 1/1000 sec

Neural Synapse

Junction between two neurons

Synapse

Convergence“from many to one”

Divergence“from one to many”

Amplifies Impulse Ex) creating a stronger muscle contraction

Allows nervous system to collect a variety of information, process it, and respond to it in a special way.

Acetylcholine - voluntary movement of the skeletal muscles (via the sympathetic pathways) and movement of the viscera (via the parasympathetic pathways) EXCITATORY & INHIBITORYNorepinephrine - wakefulness or arousal - via the sympathetic pathways EXCITATORYEpinephrine - similar to nor-epinephrine. Large amounts of it are produced and are released by the adrenal glands. Also called adrenaline. EXCITATORYDopamine - voluntary movement and motivation, "wanting", pleasure, associated with addiction and love EXCITATORYSerotonin - memory, emotion, wakefulness, sleep and temperature regulation EXCITATORYGlutamate - the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system EXCITATORY GABA - the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. INHIBITORYGlycine - spinal reflexes and motor behavour INHIBITORY

NeurotransmittersJust a few….

Thank goodness!!!


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