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ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF THE GRADUATES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON

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456 quence of the deprivation of their natural sustenance, of which he had seen numerous instances among the out-patients of St. Mary’s Hospital. In very many cases it arose from the unna- tural fashion among the higher circles of employing wet-nurses without the slightest necessity, these wet-nurses forsaking their own children for the sake of the profit, a habit which could not be too frequently exposed and condemned. After thanking Dr. Webster for his valuable paper, Mr. Brown said that his presence at St. Mary’s Hospital would be welcomed, where a careful registry was kept, not only of the patients’ cases, but of the state of the thermometer, barometer, and other meteorological changes. Mr. DENDY hoped Mr. Brown would explain what he meant by attention to the throat, and in what the successful treatment consisted. Mr. BROWN replied, that the treatment consisted in applying nitrate of silver to the throat, in the first instance ; vinegar and water externally and internally, with port wine and nourish- ment. Dr. MuRPHY still placed unshaken confidence in proper vacci- nation, and hoped that the attention of Government would soon be directed to the subject. He coincided with Mr. Brown in his strictures on the evil consequences of mothers refusing to nourish their own children. It was productive of much infantine disease and mortality among the poor, and was often injurious to the children of the higher classes. It could not be too often or too severely reprobated. Mr. HARRisoN wished to inquire whether the author of this paper had not observed that indications for treatment might be more accurately gathered from the type of the disease as modified by atmospherical phenomena, than from the name and nature of I the disease itself. Mr. DENDY said, so far from participating in the doubts of the efficacy of vaccination which had been expressed in some quarters, he was more than ever convinced, that when properly and successfully performed, it afforded as good a security from small-pox as small-pox itself. He and his colleague had met with many cases of abscess in children. Mr. CHIPPENDALE thought that the discrepancy apparent be- tween the experience of Mr. Hunt and Mr. Dendy, and that of Mr. Hancock, on the frequency of purulent diseases, might be - explained by the fact, that abscesses occurred chiefly among children, who composed the cases in Mr. Dendy’s dispensary, and who were rarely admitted into hospitals, carbuncles occurring only in adults. Dr. BAUER said that in Prussia and Germanv the custom not to admit children into schools until they had been vaccinated had so nearly extirminated the natural small-pox, that the Govern- ment had withdrawn the enactment of compulsory vaccination; and that although modified small-pox would occur after it, it was so rare for the disease to run its usual course, that out of six hund2-ed cases of small-pox which he had seen when he was ap- pointed a public vaccinator, only five observed the natural pro- gress of the disease, all the rest being modified and generally very mild attacks. But this he attributed to the vigilance of itinerant vaccinators appointed by Government, who first vac- cinated all the children in a village or district, and then re- visited the locality to observe the results on the following week. Dr. WEBSTER, in his reply, said that he should not regret the trouble he had taken in preparing his paper, if it were only for the interesting and important report which it had elicited from Mr. Hunt, in reference to the results of his visit to the Small-pox Hospital. He fully coincided in the opinion of all who had spoken on the subject, as to the protective power of vaccination properly performed and satisfactorily watched to its progress and maturity. He was glad to hear Mr. Brown and Dr. Murphy express their disapprobation of what he believed to be an in- creasing evil and a disgrace to our age and country-the habit so common among ladies of fashion of refusing to their offspring the food which nature had provided for them. It was the source of an unexampled and unknown amount of infantine mortality, especially among the poor, who necessarily neglected their own children to supply the wants of others. He fully admitted the value of the indication alluded to by Mr. Harrison, and referred the general healthiness of the last quarter to the prevalence of a dry easterly ind, which, though unpleasant to the feelings, was less productive of disease than a south-west wind, which was always moist; and he particularly noticed the salutary tendency of the uniform temperature, which, though cold, had been but a few degrees colder during the night than in the day. METROPOLITAN FREE HoSPITAL.-Last year this hospital relieved 13,462 sick persons, which number, during the last few months, increased at the rate of 18,000 a year. ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF THE GRADU- ATES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON. THE large number of graduates who attended this meeting at Freemason’s Tavern on Tuesday, bore ample testimony to the unflagging interest maintained in the objects of this important movement. Among the graduates we observed Drs. Storrar, Mackenzie, Barnes, Hassall, Sibson, Gull, Habershon, Heaton, of Leeds, Snow; Messrs. Thorneby, Martineau, P. E. Barnes, Rev. A. Creak, M.A., and many others from distant parts of the country. Jacob Waley, Esq., M.A., having taken the chair, the Secre- tary, M. Shaen, read a letter from C. J. Hargreave, Esq., LL.B., Q.C., F.R.S., one of the Commissioners under the Act for the Sale of Encumbered Estates in Ireland, in reply to Dr. Foster, the Hon. Secretary, expressing his regret that the great amount of business in his office rendered his present absence from Dublin impossible; at the same time conveying his thanks to the Committee for their exertions, and the satisfaction it would give him to take a more active part in promoting the objects of the associated graduates. Mr. Waley, in opening the business of the evening in a very able address, observed that the move- ment begun by a few ardent minds had been joined by every graduate; the Colleges had favoured it by sending petitions; the leading officers of the state had admitted the reasonableness of their demands. He hoped no one would infer that the graduates were seeking a personal end; they were seeking a popular system of representation, as distinct from that of government nominees. Government on a small basis was stagnant. The solidity of the structure depended upon the extent of the basis. He referred to the danger in which the University had several times been placed for want of organization. He commented on the recent appointment of the committee by the Senate-a Com- mittee including Mr. Grote, the historian of Greece, who had so often recorded his admiration for the democracy of Athens; Mr. Macaulay, and Mr. Hallam, who had both expressed their un- bounded faith in popular institutions. They were surely not rash in counting upon their aid. Mr. Waley touched upon the claim to Parliamentary Representation, and the bearing of the Charitable Trusts Bill. He finally observed that the graduates had accorded their confidence to the Committee throughout a long struggle when their path was often uncertain; they were now in sight of land; he himself gave his sincere tribute of praise to those who had been the unvarying promoters of the move- ment. , Mr. S]AAEN read the report, and financial statement. The Chairman announced the unanimous re-election of the retiring twenty-seven members of the Committee, and the nine new members nominated. The announcement was received with the most marked expressions of satisfaction. Dr. STORRAR moved the adoption of the report. He traced the history of the efforts of the Committee; he expressed his con. viction that this movement could only be carried to a successful conclusion in the same way as all other great movements were conducted. It was not a question whether or not the graduates should exercise any influence in University affairs : an influence they certainly would exercise-they had already done so. The real question was, whether they should exercise that influence within the pale of the University or without. He alluded to the great public interest now engaged in the University question. He observed that the graduates had their hands upon the knocker of the House of Commons at the very moment when the Senate appointed their Committee. He congratulated the meeting upon the presence of Lord Monteagle upon that Com- mittee, observing that he had been the official organ of the Government in making the promise that the graduates of the University of London should have privileges equal to those of Oxford and Cambridge. His lordship had now an opportunity of redeeming that promise. Mr. OSLER, LL.B., seconded the motion, which was carried unanimously. C. J. FOSTER, M.A., LL.D. proposed the second resolution,- That this meeting earnestly trusts that the appointment by the Senate of the Committee of the 21st ult. will result, at no distant period, in the acceptance by the Senate of a Charter, incorpo- a t. n the graduates into the University, with power and privi- leges calculated to raise the status of the graduates, and to benefit the University itself, and authorizes the Committee to act in their best discretion during the year now ensuing, with reference to any plan that may be proposed for that purpose. He observed that this resolution expressed neither. confidence in the Senate nor yet distrust; it called for great confidence in their Committee. He referred to Mr. Grote and the Vice-Chan- cellor as having expressed opinions decidedly favourable to the movement of the graduates. Sir James Graham had pledged
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quence of the deprivation of their natural sustenance, of whichhe had seen numerous instances among the out-patients of St.Mary’s Hospital. In very many cases it arose from the unna-tural fashion among the higher circles of employing wet-nurseswithout the slightest necessity, these wet-nurses forsaking theirown children for the sake of the profit, a habit which could notbe too frequently exposed and condemned. After thanking Dr.Webster for his valuable paper, Mr. Brown said that his presenceat St. Mary’s Hospital would be welcomed, where a carefulregistry was kept, not only of the patients’ cases, but of thestate of the thermometer, barometer, and other meteorologicalchanges.

Mr. DENDY hoped Mr. Brown would explain what he meantby attention to the throat, and in what the successful treatmentconsisted.

Mr. BROWN replied, that the treatment consisted in applyingnitrate of silver to the throat, in the first instance ; vinegar andwater externally and internally, with port wine and nourish-ment.

Dr. MuRPHY still placed unshaken confidence in proper vacci-nation, and hoped that the attention of Government would soonbe directed to the subject. He coincided with Mr. Brown in hisstrictures on the evil consequences of mothers refusing to nourishtheir own children. It was productive of much infantine diseaseand mortality among the poor, and was often injurious to thechildren of the higher classes. It could not be too often or tooseverely reprobated.Mr. HARRisoN wished to inquire whether the author of this

paper had not observed that indications for treatment might bemore accurately gathered from the type of the disease as modifiedby atmospherical phenomena, than from the name and nature of Ithe disease itself.Mr. DENDY said, so far from participating in the doubts of

the efficacy of vaccination which had been expressed in somequarters, he was more than ever convinced, that when properlyand successfully performed, it afforded as good a security fromsmall-pox as small-pox itself. He and his colleague had metwith many cases of abscess in children.

Mr. CHIPPENDALE thought that the discrepancy apparent be-tween the experience of Mr. Hunt and Mr. Dendy, and that ofMr. Hancock, on the frequency of purulent diseases, might be- explained by the fact, that abscesses occurred chiefly amongchildren, who composed the cases in Mr. Dendy’s dispensary,and who were rarely admitted into hospitals, carbuncles occurringonly in adults.

Dr. BAUER said that in Prussia and Germanv the custom notto admit children into schools until they had been vaccinated hadso nearly extirminated the natural small-pox, that the Govern-ment had withdrawn the enactment of compulsory vaccination;and that although modified small-pox would occur after it, it wasso rare for the disease to run its usual course, that out of sixhund2-ed cases of small-pox which he had seen when he was ap-pointed a public vaccinator, only five observed the natural pro-gress of the disease, all the rest being modified and generallyvery mild attacks. But this he attributed to the vigilance ofitinerant vaccinators appointed by Government, who first vac-cinated all the children in a village or district, and then re-

visited the locality to observe the results on the following week.Dr. WEBSTER, in his reply, said that he should not regret the

trouble he had taken in preparing his paper, if it were only forthe interesting and important report which it had elicited fromMr. Hunt, in reference to the results of his visit to the Small-poxHospital. He fully coincided in the opinion of all who hadspoken on the subject, as to the protective power of vaccinationproperly performed and satisfactorily watched to its progress andmaturity. He was glad to hear Mr. Brown and Dr. Murphyexpress their disapprobation of what he believed to be an in-creasing evil and a disgrace to our age and country-the habit socommon among ladies of fashion of refusing to their offspring thefood which nature had provided for them. It was the source ofan unexampled and unknown amount of infantine mortality,especially among the poor, who necessarily neglected their ownchildren to supply the wants of others. He fully admitted thevalue of the indication alluded to by Mr. Harrison, and referredthe general healthiness of the last quarter to the prevalence of adry easterly ind, which, though unpleasant to the feelings, wasless productive of disease than a south-west wind, which wasalways moist; and he particularly noticed the salutary tendencyof the uniform temperature, which, though cold, had been but afew degrees colder during the night than in the day.

METROPOLITAN FREE HoSPITAL.-Last year thishospital relieved 13,462 sick persons, which number, during thelast few months, increased at the rate of 18,000 a year.

ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF THE GRADU-ATES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON.

THE large number of graduates who attended this meeting atFreemason’s Tavern on Tuesday, bore ample testimony to theunflagging interest maintained in the objects of this importantmovement. Among the graduates we observed Drs. Storrar,Mackenzie, Barnes, Hassall, Sibson, Gull, Habershon, Heaton,of Leeds, Snow; Messrs. Thorneby, Martineau, P. E. Barnes,Rev. A. Creak, M.A., and many others from distant parts of thecountry.Jacob Waley, Esq., M.A., having taken the chair, the Secre-

tary, M. Shaen, read a letter from C. J. Hargreave, Esq.,LL.B., Q.C., F.R.S., one of the Commissioners under the Actfor the Sale of Encumbered Estates in Ireland, in reply to Dr.Foster, the Hon. Secretary, expressing his regret that the greatamount of business in his office rendered his present absence fromDublin impossible; at the same time conveying his thanks tothe Committee for their exertions, and the satisfaction it wouldgive him to take a more active part in promoting the objects ofthe associated graduates. Mr. Waley, in opening the businessof the evening in a very able address, observed that the move-ment begun by a few ardent minds had been joined by everygraduate; the Colleges had favoured it by sending petitions; theleading officers of the state had admitted the reasonableness oftheir demands. He hoped no one would infer that the graduateswere seeking a personal end; they were seeking a popularsystem of representation, as distinct from that of governmentnominees. Government on a small basis was stagnant. Thesolidity of the structure depended upon the extent of the basis.He referred to the danger in which the University had severaltimes been placed for want of organization. He commented onthe recent appointment of the committee by the Senate-a Com-mittee including Mr. Grote, the historian of Greece, who had sooften recorded his admiration for the democracy of Athens; Mr.Macaulay, and Mr. Hallam, who had both expressed their un-bounded faith in popular institutions. They were surely notrash in counting upon their aid. Mr. Waley touched upon theclaim to Parliamentary Representation, and the bearing of theCharitable Trusts Bill. He finally observed that the graduateshad accorded their confidence to the Committee throughout along struggle when their path was often uncertain; they werenow in sight of land; he himself gave his sincere tribute of praiseto those who had been the unvarying promoters of the move-ment.

, Mr. S]AAEN read the report, and financial statement. The

Chairman announced the unanimous re-election of the retiringtwenty-seven members of the Committee, and the nine newmembers nominated. The announcement was received with themost marked expressions of satisfaction.

Dr. STORRAR moved the adoption of the report. He tracedthe history of the efforts of the Committee; he expressed his con.viction that this movement could only be carried to a successfulconclusion in the same way as all other great movements wereconducted. It was not a question whether or not the graduatesshould exercise any influence in University affairs : an influencethey certainly would exercise-they had already done so. Thereal question was, whether they should exercise that influencewithin the pale of the University or without. He alluded to thegreat public interest now engaged in the University question.He observed that the graduates had their hands upon theknocker of the House of Commons at the very moment whenthe Senate appointed their Committee. He congratulated themeeting upon the presence of Lord Monteagle upon that Com-mittee, observing that he had been the official organ of theGovernment in making the promise that the graduates of theUniversity of London should have privileges equal to those ofOxford and Cambridge. His lordship had now an opportunityof redeeming that promise.

Mr. OSLER, LL.B., seconded the motion, which was carriedunanimously.

C. J. FOSTER, M.A., LL.D. proposed the second resolution,-That this meeting earnestly trusts that the appointment by the

Senate of the Committee of the 21st ult. will result, at no distantperiod, in the acceptance by the Senate of a Charter, incorpo-a t. n the graduates into the University, with power and privi-leges calculated to raise the status of the graduates, and to benefitthe University itself, and authorizes the Committee to act intheir best discretion during the year now ensuing, with referenceto any plan that may be proposed for that purpose.He observed that this resolution expressed neither. confidencein the Senate nor yet distrust; it called for great confidence intheir Committee. He referred to Mr. Grote and the Vice-Chan-cellor as having expressed opinions decidedly favourable to themovement of the graduates. Sir James Graham had pledged

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himself to their demands. Lord Monteagle had himself laid downthe principle upon which they were proceeding. At the sametime there were members of Senate upon that Committee whowere very doubtful as to the propriety of acceding to the wishesof the graduates. The Committee was a fair one. If their deci-sion should be for the graduates he would support it; should itbe against them he would oppose it. The graduates held allthe strength of the question; the Senate none. The Senate hadfour times rejected the propositions of the graduates, and eachtime had assigned a different reason ; theirs was an untenableposition. Mr. Foster illustrated the important services organ-ization of the graduates could render, by showing that theGraduates’ Committee was constantly referred to by the affiliatedColleges, to aid them in obtaining exemption from the provisionsof the Charitable Trusts Bill. The Committee, an unrecognisedbody in the University, had, in fact, to defend the University. Herepudiated the absurd imputation that any sectarian designs werecovered by this movement. He believed that the great bulwarkagainst sectarianism in the University would be to admit thegraduates. The enthusiastic concord exhibited at this meetingdisproved the notion of any sectarian policy. In conclusion Mr.Foster referred to the distinguished position the medical graduateshad acquired in almost every hospital in the metropolis.Mr. JESSEL seconded the motion.Mr. GREEK, in supporting it, complimented the Committee

upon their successful exertions, and urged that, should the Senateevince hostility, the case should be carried into Parliament. Dr.Ayres also congratulated the graduates, and expressed his thanksto the Committee, but thought that the graduates should have anopportunity of meeting to discuss the provisions of any newCharter before it was finally accepted.

Several graduates concurred in this view, and an amendmentto append a provision to that effect, to the resolution, was pro-posed by Mr. HARRISON and seconded by Mr. ROBSON. It wascontended by the Committee that it might be difficult to giveeffect to this provision, and that it might endanger the prospectof present success. The original motion was carried by a verylarge majority.

Mr. QUAIN LL.B., moved the third resolution, which wasseconded by Mr. Butterworth, and carried unanimously,-That the meeting requests the Committee to continue then

exertions for the erection of the graduates into a parliamentaryconstituency, and calls upon all graduates to use their personalinfluence in aid of this important object.Mr. SPENCER, B.A., moved the fourth resolution, empowering

the Committee to appoint corresponding members residing withintwenty miles of the Post-office. Dr. ROBERT BARNES secondedthe motion, which was carried unanimously.A vote of thanks having been given to the Chairman, thE

meeting was adjourned.

Correspondence.

THE PHARMACY BILL.

"Audi alteram partem."

To the Editor of THE LANCET.

SiR,-" Audi alteram partem," being your motto, may I cravea portion of your valuable space for a reply to the remarks ofDr. Webster on the Pharmacy Bill," in THE LANCET of the24th April.Your learned correspondent commences with an expression of

"surprise at the apathy pervading the ranks of the generalpractitioners respecting the Pharmacy Bill." Allow me toinform him, that the medical profession are not so apathetic inthis matter as his circumscribed sources of information have ledhim to infer, but that petitions in favour of this measure haveemanated from the President and Censors of the RoyalCollege of Physicians; from the President and Council of theRoyal College of Surgeons ; from upwards of 150 physicians,surgeons, and medical practitioners residing in the metropolis ;and also from the members of the medical profession practisingin some forty or fifty of the principal provincial towns, includinga petition signed by three physicians and several general practi-tioners residing in this town, the majority of whom have, incourse of conversation upon the merits of this measure, expressedtheir entire approval of the compulsory system of education con-templated therein. In one case a physician of many years’standing expressed his opinion that the educational provision didnot go far enough, but ought to include Egyptian hieroglyphics,from the style in which many of his brethren wrote their pre-scriptions. I introduce this remark in the hope that those who

deprecate a higher standard of education for the dispensingchemist, will individually, as far as in them lies, remedy thenecessity for his being stored with antiquarian lore. From theentire bearing of Dr. Webster’s letter, he.is evidently one of thestand-still, anti-knowledge school, who would not allow the poor,uneducated, and unrecognised chemist to purchase a single copyof THE LANCET for his perusal ; fearing that when he had con-cluded the invaluable article by your sanitary commissioner, hemight turn to some strictly medical subject, perchance theerudite lecture of Dr. Marshall Hall, and glean sufficient infor-mation therefrom to enable him, in case of emergency, to distin-guish the vomition sometimes accompanying apoplexy from thatof English cholera, and thus by promptitude in securing theattendance of some one whose legitimate 11 function" is the treat-ment of disease, become the indirect agent in prolonging a fellow-creature’s life.Your learned correspondent, after an attempt at sarcasm upon

the educational clause of the Bill, says : I would not object tothe education of chemists under proper regulations--I simplyobject to their assumption of functions for which they are noteducated." In this objection there is no difference of opinion!whatever between himself and the promoters of the measure.It is objected, on all hands, that chemists should assume func-tions for which they are not educated ; and if the more highlyeducated and leading members of their own profession are notthe most competent parties to frame regulations for their propereducation, I am at a loss to conceive who can be. Havingremoved the dressing, we will now proceed to examine whatappears to be the Doctor’s principal sore-viz., " a firm convic-tion that by the passing of the Pharmacy Bill, counter practiceand the treatment of diseases by chemists will increase ten-fold.’." I do not," he continues, "mean to charge the more respectablehouses in London and the larger towns with resorting to suchdangerous practices." This charge is therefore levelled at thoseless fortunate members of our craft, who, from their isolatedposition in some small country town or village, have not thesources of education so easily available to them. But what isthere, I would ask, in the constitution of the country chemistthat would render him, if equally educated with " the proprietorof the more respectable London house, or larger country town,"less alive to the fearful consequences of counter practice anddomiciliary visits" than his more fortunate contemporary.The debasing practices of quackery, in all its Protean shapes,

pursued by some members, have long been a source of regret toothers of our body, who look forward with hope to a more ele-vated standard of education as the beacon to warn our brethrenof the error, disgrace, and danger of such pursuits, and to opento them more legitimate channels for the exercise of their timeand talents. That such a desirable result would ensue, Dr.Webster’s own letter affords reasonable grounds for inference,seeing that it is not the more respectable, or, in other words, themore highly educated, who are parties to the practices againstwhich he complains. I may perhaps be allowed to introduce myown individual case in further illustration of this position, having,at the expiration of a long term of apprenticeship to a chemist ina small country town, devoted the two succeeding years to sundrycourses of lectures on human and comparative anatomy, che-mistry, and medicine, in the metropolitan hospitals. I have, how-ever, yet to learn that I thereby imbibed auy increased taste forcounter practice; on the contrary, I learned to set a much lowerestimate on my qualifications for this and other addenda, and wasinduced to discontinue entirely the practice of bleeding, cupping,and tooth-drawing, which formed no inconsiderable portion ofthe business in which I had been educated; and found that amore extended knowledge of chemistry and allied science gainedfor me far more consonant and profitable employment in thelegitimate exercise of my calling.The objection raised against toxicology forming a portion of

the chemist’s education, I take it, has arisen from the circum-stance of the medical practitioner being accustomed to the use ofthe word in a more extended sense than the chemist; and I doubtnot, were the latter generally better skilled in the principles andpractice of toxicological chemistry, very many members of themedical profession would gladly avail themselves of their jointassistance to unravel the mystery with which sudden death isfrequently surrounded.The objection to the Bill as creating a "new corporation," is

not valid, seeing that the Pharmaceutical Society, in whose handsit is proposed to invest its powers, is already incorporated; andthe concluding opinion, that chemists " ought to be joined to theSociety of Apothecaries, whose present functions must soonnecessarily cease," savours too highly of a disposition to entombthe living with the dying, to require any comment.

I am, Sir, truly yours,A. BOTTLE.Dover, April, 1852.


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