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AP Chemistry Introductory Material Chemical Foundations Chapter 1 Scientific Method Observations...

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Slide 2 AP Chemistry Introductory Material Slide 3 Chemical Foundations Chapter 1 Scientific Method Observations Hypotheses Predictions Theory Or Model Predictions Experiment Modify Theory Slide 4 Scientific Method You are given a computer and asked to make a graph. After booting the computer, opening excel and entering data, the screen goes blank. Oh Gees! Now What! Slide 5 Units of Measurement Expect you to know pico to giga And be able to convert Units used in science Kilograms, meters, seconds, kelvins, amps, moles Slide 6 Significant Figures There is more than one convention! AP Chemistry allows for some variation If you are within one sig fig, it is OK We will follow this Rules are on Pg 23 of your book We will use these for every calculation You lose a point for incorrect sig figs on test Slide 7 Calculations Adding and subtraction Answer has the same number of decimal places as the least precise measurement. 12.11 18.0 1.013 31.123 31.1 Multiplication and Division Answer has the same number of significant figures as the least precise measurement 4.56 x 1.4 = 6.38 pH The number to the left of the decimal is the exponent The number to the right of the decimal contains the correct number of sig figs. pH = 7.07 has 2 sig figs corrected 6.4 Slide 8 Dimensional Analysis Do I really have to? No, but it will cost you extra work explaining yourself Units written out in Dim Analysis are self explanatory Its way easier! Way, way easier!! Just Do it! Slide 9 Mercury poisoning is a debilitating disease that is often fatal. In the human body, mercury reacts with essential enzymes leading to irreversible inactivity of these enzymes. If the amount of mercury in a polluted lake is 00.4000 micrograms Hg per milliliter, what is the total mass in kilograms of mercury in the lake. The lake has a surface area of 0100. mi 2 and an average depth of 20.1 ft. (5280. ft in a mile, 12 in in a foot, 2.54 cm in an inch, 10 6 micrograms in a gram) Slide 10 Classification of Matter What is a mixture? Name two types How can we separate hetero? Homo? If I say something is a pure substance, what does that mean? What is the difference between an element and a compound? What is an element made up of? Slide 11 Its the Law Explain the following laws: Conservation of Mass Definite proportion Multiple proportion Name four parts of Daltons Atomic Theory Atoms All atoms of same element are identical Same compound always has same elements in same proportions Atoms themselves do not change in chemical reactions Slide 12 Famous Atomic Experiments Describe the Experiment JJ Thompson and CRTs Used CRT to determine charge to mass ratio Discovered electron Rutherfords Gold Foil Used alpha particles and gold foil Discovered a dense, positive nucleus Millakans Oil Droplet Discovered the charge of an electron Calculated the mass of an electron with JJs reults Slide 13 Modern Theory Subatomic particles are? Electron, neutron and proton Nucleus is composed of ? Neutron and proton Electrons are in clouds What does that mean? Slide 14 Symbol F 19 9 How many protons? How many neutrons? How many electrons? Slide 15 Periodic Table Describe the following: Period Metals Non-metals Semi-metals Alkali Metals Alkali Earth Metals Transition Metals Halogens Noble gases Slide 16 Modern periodic table H Li Na Cs Rb K TlHgAuHfLuBa Fr PtIrOsReWTa He RnAtPoBiPb Be Mg Sr Ca CdAgZrYPdRhRuTcMoNb LrRa ZnCuTiScNiCoFeMnCrV InXeITeSbSn GaKrBrSeAsGe AlArClSPSi BNeFONC 1 213 14 15 16 17 18 I A II A III A IV A V A VI A VIIA 0 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 III B IVB V B VIB VIIB VIII B IB IIB 12345671234567 Gd Cm Tb Bk Sm Pu Eu Am Nd U Pm Np Ce Th Pr Pa Yb No La Ac Er Fm Tm Md Dy Cf Ho Es * + + * Slide 17 Metals Li Na Cs Rb K TlHgAuHfLuBa Fr PtIrOsReWTaPoBiPb Be Mg Sr Ca CdAgZrYPdRhRuTcMoNb LrRa ZnCuTiScNiCoFeMnCrV InSn Ga Al Gd Cm Tb Bk Sm Pu Eu Am Nd U Pm Np Ce Th Pr Pa Yb No Er Fm Tm Md Dy Cf Ho Es AtRn B He NeFONC TeXe I Sb As Si KrBrSe ArClSP Ge La Ac * + * + H Slide 18 Nonmetals H Li Na Cs Rb K TlHgAuHfLyBa Fr PtIrOsReWTaPoBiPb Be Mg Sr Ca CdAgZrYPdRhRuTcMoNb LrRa ZnCuTiScNiCoFeMnCrV InSbSn GaGe Al Gd Cm Tb Bk Sm Pu Eu Am Nd U Pm Np Ce Th Pr Pa Yb No Er Fm Tm Md Dy Cf Ho Es At Te As Si B He Rn XeI KrBrSe ArClS NeFO P NC La Ac * + * + Slide 19 Semimetals or Metalloids He Rn Xe I KrBrSe ArClS NeFO P NC H Li Na Cs Rb K TlHgAuHfLuBa Fr PtIrOsReWTaPoBiPb Be Mg Sr Ca CdAgZrYPdRhRuTcMoNb LrRa ZnCuTiScNiCoFeMnCrV InSbSn GaGe Al Gd Cm Tb Bk Sm Pu Eu Am Nd U Pm Np Ce Th Pr Pa Yb No La Ac Er Fm Tm Md Dy Cf Ho Es At Te As Si B * + * + Slide 20 Bonds and Stuff Ion Cation and anion Ionic Bond Covalent Bond Molecule Formula Unit Chemical Formula Structural Formula Explain the following Slide 21 Important: note that there are no easily identified NaCl molecules in the ionic lattice. Therefore, we cannot use molecular formulas to describe ionic substances. Ions and Ionic Compounds Slide 22 Naming Compounds Memorize all polyatomic ions pg 63 and how to determine the rest Memorize names of elements s block, p block = all Transition metals Need to know common metals Charges on Al +3, Zn +2, Ag +1, Cd +2 Slide 23 Ions Ions are charged particles formed by the transfer of electrons between elements or combinations of elements. Cation Cation - a positively charged ion. Mg Mg 2+ + 2e - Anion Anion - a negatively charged ion. F 2 + 2e - 2F - Slide 24 Writing Formulas Al 3+ O 2- All compounds are electrically neutral. The sum of the positive and negative charges must add up to zero. Al 2 O 3 Use subscripts to indicate how many of each ion is used. 32 Slide 25 Naming inorganic compounds When an element forms only onecompound with a given anion. name the cation -ide name the anion using the ending (-ide) for monatomic ions NaClsodium chloride MgBr 2 magnesium bromide Al 2 O 3 aluminum oxide K 3 Npotassium nitride Slide 26 Naming ionic compounds Many metals form more than one compound with some anions. For these, Roman numerals are used in the name to indicate the charge on the metal. Cu 1+ + O 2- = Cu 2 O copper(I) oxide copper(I) oxide Cu 2+ + O 2- = CuO copper(II) oxide copper(II) oxide Slide 27 Naming ionic compounds Since the charge of some metal ions can vary, look at everything else first. What ever is left is the charge on the metal! FeBr 3 The three bromides are each 1- so iron must be 3+ for the compound to have zero net charge. Iron (III) bromideIron (III) bromide Slide 28 Examples FeCl 2 FeCl 3 SnS SnS 2 AgCl ZnS Note: Note: Some transition metals have only one oxidation state, so Roman numbers are omitted. iron (II) chloride iron (III) chloride tin (II) sulfide tin (IV) sulfide silver chloride zinc sulfide Slide 29 Metals with multiple charges Transition metals.Transition metals. Here it is easier to list some of the common elements that only have a single oxidation state. All Group 3B are 3+ Zn and Cd are 2+ Ag is 1+ Slide 30 Oxidation numbers and the P.T. Some observed trends in compounds.Some observed trends in compounds. Metals have positive oxidation numbers. Transition metals typically have more than one oxidation number. Nonmetals and semimetals have both positive and negative oxidation numbers. No element exists in a compound with an oxidation number greater than +8. The most negative oxidation numbers equals the group number - 8 Slide 31 Tl +3 +1 Hg +2 +1 Au +3 +1 Hf +4 Lu +3 Li +1 Na +1 Cs +1 Rb +1 K +1 Fr +1 Pt +4 +2 Ir +4 +3 Os +8 +6 Re +7 +6 +4 W +6 +4 Ta +5 H +1 He Rn At Po +2 Bi +5 +3 Pb +4 +2 Cd +2 Ag +1 Zr +4 Y +3 Pd +4 +2 Rh +4 +3 +2 Ru +8 +6 +4 +3 Tc +7 +6 +4 Mo +6 +4 +3 Nb +5 +4 Lr +3 Ba +2 Be +2 Mg +2 Sr +2 Ca +2 Ra +2 Zn +2 Cu +2 +1 Ti +4 +3 +2 Sc 3+ Ni +2 Co +3 +2 Fe +3 +2 Mn +7 +6 +4 +3 +2 Cr +6 +3 +2 V +5 +4 +3 +2 In +3 Xe +6 +4 +2 I +7 +5 +1 Te +6 +4 -2 Sb +5 +3 -3 Sn +4 +2 Ga +3 Kr +4 +2 Br +5 +1 Se 6+ 4+ 2- As 5+ 3+ 3- Ge +4 -4 Al +3 Ar Cl +7 +5 +3 +1 S +6 +4 +2 -2 P +5 +3 -3 Si +4 -4 B +3 Ne F O -2 N +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 -3 C +4 -2 -4 Common oxidation numbers Slide 32 Polyatomic ions A special class of ions where a group of atoms tend to stay together. NH 4 + ammonium NO 3 - nitrate SO 4 2- sulfate OH - hydroxide O 2 2- peroxide Your book contains a more complete list. NH 4 + ammonium NO 3 - nitrate SO 4 2- sulfate OH - hydroxide O 2 2- peroxide Your book contains a more complete list. Slide 33 Polyatomic ions For compounds that contain 1 or 2 polyatomic ions, base the formulas upon the given ion name(s). ammonium chloride NH 4 Cl sodium hydroxide NaOH potassium permanganate KMnO 4 ammonium sulfate (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 Slide 34 Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds Polyatomic anions containing oxygen with more than two members in the series are named as follows (in order of decreasing oxygen): per- . -ate ClO 4 1- . -ate ClO 3 1- . -ite ClO 2 1- hypo- . -ite ClO 1- Naming Inorganic Compounds Slide 35 Oxidation number and nomenclature Polyatomic anions containing oxygenPolyatomic anions containing oxygen rely on a modification of the name of the other element to indicate the oxidation number. Anions per________ate ________ate ________ite hypo________ite Increased #oxygen and Oxidation number Increased #oxygen and Oxidation number Slide 36 Oxidation number and nomenclature ExamplesExamples Cl oxidation numberFormulaName +7NaClO 4 sodium perchlorate +5NaClO 3 sodium chlorate +3NaClO 2 sodium chlorite +1NaClOsodium hypochlorite -1NaClsodium chloride Usually, the overall charges of all ions for a nonmetal are the same. Sometimes the -ates and -ites have a different charge than the -ide ions. Slide 37 H Li Na Cs Rb K TlHgAuHfLuBa Fr PtIrOsReWTa He RnAtPoBiPb Be Mg Sr Ca CdAgZrYPdRhRuTcMoNb LrRa ZnCuTiScNiCoFeMnCrV InXeITeSbSn GaKrBrSeAsGe AlArClSPSi BNeFONC 1 213 14 15 16 17 18 I A II A III A IV A VA VI A VIIA 0 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 III B IVB V B VIB VIIB VIII B IB IIB 12345671234567 Gd Cm Tb Bk Sm Pu Eu Am Nd U Pm Np Ce Th Pr Pa Yb No La Ac Er Fm Tm Md Dy Cf Ho Es * + + * Polyatomic Ions -ate has 3 Oxygens -ate has 4

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