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APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS 2003 EVALUATING MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS IN MPAs
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Page 1: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPAMANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS

ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES

MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARKTANZANIA

JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO

WORLD PARKS CONGRESS 2003

EVALUATING MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS IN MPAs

Page 2: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.
Page 3: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

MPA GOALS & OBJECTIVES

GOAL: to conserve the diversity, abundance and function of all physical and biological resources, in order that they may continue to be enjoyed and productively utilised by present and future generations.

OBJECTIVES:

1.   Protect biodiversity and ecosystem processes;

2.   Promote sustainable resource use;

3.   Ensure local residents are involved & share benefits

4.   Develop under-utilised natural resources;

5.   Promote community environmental awareness-raising

6.   Facilitate research and monitoring of resources

7.   Conserve historic monuments & ruins

8. Facilitate development of appropriate tourism.

Page 4: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

WHY ASSESS MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS IN MAFIA?

3. Fulfil accountability to:

• Tanzanian Govt• Donors • Local communities • Fee-paying visitors

2. Strengthen MPA monitoring programme

1. Improve performance of the MPA

Page 5: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

1 Focal species abundance

3 Composition & Structure of the community

8 Type & level of fishing effort & fish catch

10 Area under reduced human use/ impacts

3 Material style of life of households

5 Household occupational structure

11 Local use patterns

12 Local attitudes & beliefs regarding marine resources

14 Community knowledge of natural history

15 Understanding of human impacts on marine resources

16 Distribution of scientific knowledge to the community

17 Income distribution by source by household

2 Community understanding of MPA rules & regulations

6 Level of satisfaction of stakeholders with participation

8 Amnt community training to participate in management

10 Available resources & equipment for surveillance

12 No. patrols per time period /no. infringements per patrol14 Regular meeting of MPA staff with stakeholders

15 Number of people trained in sustainable resources use

16 Number of stakeholders involved in surveillance etc

18 Availability of funding & resources (inc. personnel)

N Trend in numbers of paying visitors

MPA OBJECTIVES

1.   Conserve biodiversity

2.   Sustainable resource use

3.   Community participation

4.   Under-utilised resource

5.   Raise awareness

6.   Research & monitoring

7.   Historic monuments

8. Facilitate tourism

Page 6: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

3

5

11

12

14

15

16

17

2

6

8

10

12 No. patrols per time period /no. infringements per patrol14

15

16

18 Availability of funding & resources (inc. personnel)

N

MPA OBJECTIVES

1.   CONSERVE BIODIVERSITY

2.   Sustainable resource use

3.   Community participation

4.   Under-utilised resources

5.   Raise awareness

6.   Research & monitoring

7.   Historic monuments

8. Facilitate tourism

1 Focal species abundance

3 Composition & Structure of the community

8 Type & level of fishing effort & fish catch

10

Page 7: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

1

3

8 Type & level of fishing effort & fish catch

10 Area under reduced human use/ impacts

3

5 Household occupational structure

11 Local use patterns

12

14

15

16

17

2

6

8

10 Available resources & equipment for surveillance

12 No. patrols per time period /no. infringements/ patrol/

14

15 Number of people trained in sustainable resources use

16 Number of stakeholders involved in surveillance etc

18 Availability of funding & resources (inc. personnel)

N

MPA OBJECTIVES:

1.   Conserve biodiversity

2.  SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE USE

3.   Community participation

4.   Under-utilised resources

5.   Raise awareness

6.   Research & monitoring

7.   Historic monuments

8. Facilitate tourism

Page 8: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

1

3

8

10

3 Material style of life of households

5 Household occupational structure

11 Local use patterns

12

14

15

16

17 Income distribution by source by household

2 Community understanding of MPA rules & regulations

6 Level of satisfaction of stakeholders with participation

8 Amnt community training to participate in management

10

12

14 Regular meeting of MPA staff with stakeholders

15 Number of people trained in sustainable resources use

16 Number of stakeholders involved in surveillance etc

18 Availability of funding & resources (inc. personnel)

N

MPA OBJECTIVES:

1.   Conserve biodiversity

2.   Sustainable resource use

3.   COMMUNITY BENEFITS

4.   Under-utilised resources

5.   Raise awareness

6.   Research & monitoring

7.   Historic monuments

8. Facilitate tourism

Type & level of fishing effort & fish catch

Page 9: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

1

3

8

10

3

5 Household occupational structure

11 Local use patterns

12

14

15

16

17 Income distribution by source by household

2

6

8

10

12

14

15 Number of people trained in sustainable resources use

16

18 Availability of funding & resources (inc. personnel)

N

MPA OBJECTIVES:

1.   Conserve biodiversity

2.   Sustainable resource use

3.   Community participation

4.   UNDER-UTILISED RESOURCES

5.   Raise awareness

6.   Research & monitoring

7.   Historic monuments

8. Facilitate tourism

Type & level of fishing effort & fish catch

Page 10: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

1

3

8

10

3

5

11

12 Local attitudes & beliefs regarding marine resources

14 Community knowledge of natural history

15 Understanding of human impacts on marine resources

16 Distribution of scientific knowledge to the community

17

2 Community understanding of MPA rules & regulations

6

8

10

12

14

15

16

18 Availability of funding & resources (inc. personnel)

N

MPA OBJECTIVES:

1.   Conserve biodiversity

2.   Sustainable resource use

3.   Community participation

4.   Under-utilised resources

5.   RAISE AWARENESS

6.   Research & monitoring

7.   Historic monuments

8. Facilitate tourism

Page 11: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

1 Focal species abundance

3 Composition & Structure of the community

8 Type & level of fishing effort & fish catch

10 Area under reduced human use/ impacts

3 Material style of life of households

5 Household occupational structure

11 Local use patterns

12 Local attitudes & beliefs regarding marine resources

14 Community knowledge of natural history

15 Understanding of human impacts on marine resources

16 Distribution of scientific knowledge to the community

17 Income distribution by source by household

2 Community understanding of MPA rules & regulations

6 Level of satisfaction of stakeholders with participation

8 Amnt community training to participate in management

10 Available resources & equipment for surveillance

12 No. patrols per time period /no. infringements/ patrol/

14 Regular meeting of MPA staff with stakeholders

15 Number of people trained in sustainable resources use

16 Number of stakeholders involved in surveillance etc

18 Availability of funding & resources (inc. personnel)

N Trend in numbers of paying visitors

MPA OBJECTIVES:

1.   Conserve biodiversity

2.   Sustainable resource use

3.   Community participation

4.   Under-utilised resources

5.   Raise awareness

6.   RESEARCH & MONITORING

7.   Historic monuments

8. Facilitate tourism

Page 12: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

1

3

8

10

3

5

11

12

14

15

16

17

2

6

8

10

12

14

15

16

18

N

MPA OBJECTIVES:

1.   Conserve biodiversity

2.   Sustainable resource use

3.   Community participation

4.   Under-utilised resources

5.   Raise awareness

6.   Research & monitoring

7.   HISTORIC MONUMENTS

8. Facilitate tourism

Page 13: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

1

3

8

10

3

5

11

12

14

15

16

17

2

6

8

10

12

14

15

16

18

N

MPA OBJECTIVES:

1.   Conserve biodiversity

2.   Sustainable resource use

3.   Community participation

4.   Under-utilised resources

5.   Raise awareness

6.   Research & monitoring

7.   Historic monuments

8. FACILITATE TOURISM

Trend in numbers of paying visitors

Page 14: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

Personnel No.Effort

(man/days)

MPA managers 2 150

Professional researchers 6 150

Technicians (MPA / non-MPA) 17 832

Volunteers 0 -

Village officers (paid) 15 637

MPA support staff 5 225

Local dive Instructors 2 15 mins /day

PERSONNEL EFFORT

Page 15: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

Main Outputs1. Benthic survey report2. Reef fish report3. Mangrove inventory4. (Turtle status report)5. (Dugong status report)

6. Household economics status7. Community knowledge, understanding & attitudes

8. Fish catch data report9. Fishing gear census10. Fisheries activity in demarcated zone

11. MIMP - community interactions12. Patrolling & enforcement report13. Community training assessment14. Resources & visitor numbers

Page 16: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

Main Outputs1. Benthic survey report2. Reef fish report3. Mangrove inventory4. (Turtle status report)5. (Dugong status report)

6. Household economics status7. Community knowledge, understanding & attitudes

8. Fish catch data report9. Fishing gear census10. Fisheries activity in demarcated zone

11. MIMP - community interactions12. Patrolling & enforcement report13. Community training assessment14. Resources & visitor numbers

Page 17: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

Main Outputs1. Benthic survey report2. Reef fish report3. Mangrove inventory4. (Turtle status report)5. (Dugong status report)

6. Household economics status7. Community knowledge, understanding & attitudes

8. Fish catch data report9. Fishing gear census10. Fisheries activity in demarcated zone

11. MIMP - community interactions12. Patrolling & enforcement report13. Community training assessment14. Resources & visitor numbers

Page 18: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

Main Outputs1. Benthic survey report2. Reef fish report3. Mangrove inventory4. (Turtle status report)5. (Dugong status report)

6. Household economics status report7. Community knowledge, understanding & attitudes

8. Fish catch data report9. Fishing gear census10. Fisheries activity in demarcated zone

11. MIMP - community interactions12. Patrolling & enforcement report13. Community training assessment14. Resources & visitor numbers

Page 19: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

Main Outputs1. Benthic survey report2. Reef fish report3. Mangrove inventory4. (Turtle status report)5. (Dugong status report)

6. Household economics status7. Community knowledge, understanding & attitudes

8. Fish catch data report9. Fishing gear census10. Fisheries activity in demarcated zone

11. MIMP - community interactions12. Patrolling & enforcement report13. Community training assessment14. Resources & visitor numbers

Page 20: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

Main Outputs1. Benthic survey report2. Reef fish report3. Mangrove inventory4. (Turtle status report)5. (Dugong status report)

6. Household economics status7. Community knowledge, understanding & attitudes

8. Fish catch data report9. Fishing gear census10. Fisheries activity in demarcated zone

11. MIMP - community interactions12. Patrolling & enforcement report13. Community training assessment14. Resources & visitor numbers

Page 21: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

Main Outputs1. Benthic survey report2. Reef fish report3. Mangrove inventory4. (Turtle status report)5. (Dugong status report)

6. Household economics status7. Community knowledge, understanding & attitudes

8. Fish catch data report9. Fishing gear census10. Fisheries activity in demarcated zone

11. MIMP - community interactions12. Patrolling & enforcement report13. Community training assessment14. Resources & visitor numbers

Page 22: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

Species with low natural abundance require very high sampling effort

Major Challenges & Lessons Learned

Many ‘focal species’ are not good measures of management effectiveness

Species that range outside of the MPA (turtles, sharks).

Species prone to impacts beyond control of MPA management (corals)

Page 23: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

For representative sampling, be prepared to do a lot of replicates

Major Challenges & Lessons Learned

Tropical marine communities have very high spatial and temporal variability

• benthic survey• fish communities• mangroves• socio-economic studies

Essential to measure sensitivity of sampling techniques.

Page 24: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

Major Challenges & Lessons Learned

Develop local / internalcapacity in sampling

techniques

Hiring external researchers costs a lot

Park rangers and locals can do:

• benthic transects• fish transects• mangrove plots• etc

Page 25: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

Important that MPA staff routinely maintain

disciplined & accuratereporting / record-keeping

eg:• Patrol reports• Reports of village meetings• Training reports• Daily interaction recordsetc.

Many things can’t be measured episodically

Major Challenges & Lessons Learned

Page 26: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

The MPA needs a permanent, dedicatedmonitoring officer

Major Challenges & Lessons Learned

• Preferably MSc level• Problem of multi-sectoral skills needed• Officer now recruited for Mafia

It took a lot of time to co-ordinate+ indicator monitoring is continuous.

Page 27: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

APPLYING RESULTS

Data on state / trends of MPA goals

Complementary guidelines / case studies on innovative solutions to management problems etc. ?

Use results to start refining quantitative targets defining what constitutes success for given objectives.

Adaptive management review

Analysis of MPA management processes

Page 28: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

WAS IT WORTH IT?

ME assessment was extremely worthwhile

Quantifying ‘state of play’ is highly valuable even when broad trends already

recognised(Communities, MPA staff, Govt, donors)

Especially human dimensions of MPA (participation, understanding, livelihoods)

Page 29: APPLYING WCPA/WWF MPA MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES MAFIA ISLAND MARINE PARK TANZANIA JASON RUBENS & SYLVESTER KAZIMOTO WORLD PARKS CONGRESS.

THANKS TO:

WCPA/ WWF MEI Core Team(Lani, John, Miguel, Gonzalo, Bob, Bud, Simon et al)

IUCNWWF

Colleagues at Mafia Island Marine Park


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