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Aquatic Biomes Chapter 7. Aquatic Ecosystems Characteristics of aquatic ecosystems –Salinity...

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Aquatic Biomes Aquatic Biomes Chapter 7 Chapter 7
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Page 1: Aquatic Biomes Chapter 7. Aquatic Ecosystems  Characteristics of aquatic ecosystems –Salinity –Temperature –Sunlight –Oxygen –Nutrients.

Aquatic BiomesAquatic Biomes

Chapter 7Chapter 7

Page 2: Aquatic Biomes Chapter 7. Aquatic Ecosystems  Characteristics of aquatic ecosystems –Salinity –Temperature –Sunlight –Oxygen –Nutrients.

Aquatic EcosystemsAquatic Ecosystems

Characteristics of aquatic ecosystemsCharacteristics of aquatic ecosystems– SalinitySalinity– TemperatureTemperature– SunlightSunlight– OxygenOxygen– NutrientsNutrients

Page 3: Aquatic Biomes Chapter 7. Aquatic Ecosystems  Characteristics of aquatic ecosystems –Salinity –Temperature –Sunlight –Oxygen –Nutrients.

Aquatic EcosystemsAquatic Ecosystems

Types of organismsTypes of organisms– Plankton- organisms that float near the surfacePlankton- organisms that float near the surface

Phytoplankton- photosyntheticPhytoplankton- photosynthetic Zooplankton- heterotrophicZooplankton- heterotrophic

– Nekton- free swimming organismsNekton- free swimming organisms Fish, turtles, whalesFish, turtles, whales

– Benthos- bottom dwelling organismsBenthos- bottom dwelling organisms Mussels, worms, barnaclesMussels, worms, barnacles

Page 4: Aquatic Biomes Chapter 7. Aquatic Ecosystems  Characteristics of aquatic ecosystems –Salinity –Temperature –Sunlight –Oxygen –Nutrients.

FreshwaterFreshwater

Ponds and LakesPonds and Lakes– Life in a lakeLife in a lake

Littoral zone- nutrient rich area near the shoreLittoral zone- nutrient rich area near the shore– Life is abundantLife is abundant

Benthic zone- bottom of a pond or lakeBenthic zone- bottom of a pond or lake– Dead and decaying organisms are found hereDead and decaying organisms are found here

– Nutrients in a lakeNutrients in a lake Eutrophication- increase in the amount of nutrients in Eutrophication- increase in the amount of nutrients in

a lake or ponda lake or pond– Algal bloomAlgal bloom

Page 5: Aquatic Biomes Chapter 7. Aquatic Ecosystems  Characteristics of aquatic ecosystems –Salinity –Temperature –Sunlight –Oxygen –Nutrients.

FreshwaterFreshwater

Page 6: Aquatic Biomes Chapter 7. Aquatic Ecosystems  Characteristics of aquatic ecosystems –Salinity –Temperature –Sunlight –Oxygen –Nutrients.

FreshwaterFreshwater

Wetlands- areas saturated with water Wetlands- areas saturated with water during part of the year (growing season)during part of the year (growing season)

Page 7: Aquatic Biomes Chapter 7. Aquatic Ecosystems  Characteristics of aquatic ecosystems –Salinity –Temperature –Sunlight –Oxygen –Nutrients.

FreshwaterFreshwater

WetlandsWetlands

Page 8: Aquatic Biomes Chapter 7. Aquatic Ecosystems  Characteristics of aquatic ecosystems –Salinity –Temperature –Sunlight –Oxygen –Nutrients.

FreshwaterFreshwater

WetlandsWetlands– Marshes- Marshes-

low, flat lands with little or no water movementlow, flat lands with little or no water movement Dominated by non-woody plantsDominated by non-woody plants Bethic zone is very nutrient richBethic zone is very nutrient rich Characterized by salinityCharacterized by salinity

– Brackish marsh- slightly salty waterBrackish marsh- slightly salty water– Saltwater marsh- contains salty water Saltwater marsh- contains salty water

Page 9: Aquatic Biomes Chapter 7. Aquatic Ecosystems  Characteristics of aquatic ecosystems –Salinity –Temperature –Sunlight –Oxygen –Nutrients.

FreshwaterFreshwater

SwampsSwamps– Flat, poorly drained land , often near streamsFlat, poorly drained land , often near streams– Dominated by woody plants (trees and shrubs)Dominated by woody plants (trees and shrubs)– Types determined by lattitude and climateTypes determined by lattitude and climate

Mangrove swamp- warm climate, salty waterMangrove swamp- warm climate, salty water

Page 10: Aquatic Biomes Chapter 7. Aquatic Ecosystems  Characteristics of aquatic ecosystems –Salinity –Temperature –Sunlight –Oxygen –Nutrients.

FreshwaterFreshwater

Human impact on WetlandsHuman impact on Wetlands– Drained, filled, and cleared for farms, Drained, filled, and cleared for farms,

residential, or commercial usesresidential, or commercial uses Ex: Florida everglades covered 8 million acres in Ex: Florida everglades covered 8 million acres in

south florida but today cover less than 2 million.south florida but today cover less than 2 million.

– Today, protected by federal, state, and local Today, protected by federal, state, and local laws.laws.

Page 11: Aquatic Biomes Chapter 7. Aquatic Ecosystems  Characteristics of aquatic ecosystems –Salinity –Temperature –Sunlight –Oxygen –Nutrients.

FreshwaterFreshwater

Rivers and streamsRivers and streams– Headwaters- usually cold, rapidly moving water Headwaters- usually cold, rapidly moving water

at high elevation.at high elevation. High oxygen levelsHigh oxygen levels

– Lower Channel- warmer, slower moving waterLower Channel- warmer, slower moving water lower oxygen levelslower oxygen levels

– Delta- where the river meets a gulf, ocean, or Delta- where the river meets a gulf, ocean, or seasea

Page 12: Aquatic Biomes Chapter 7. Aquatic Ecosystems  Characteristics of aquatic ecosystems –Salinity –Temperature –Sunlight –Oxygen –Nutrients.

FreshwaterFreshwater

River or streamsRiver or streams– Life in a riverLife in a river

Headwaters- mosses, trout, minnowsHeadwaters- mosses, trout, minnows Lower Channel- plankton, fish, turtles, snakes, Lower Channel- plankton, fish, turtles, snakes,

alligators alligators

Page 13: Aquatic Biomes Chapter 7. Aquatic Ecosystems  Characteristics of aquatic ecosystems –Salinity –Temperature –Sunlight –Oxygen –Nutrients.

Marine EcosystemsMarine Ecosystems

Coastal wetlandsCoastal wetlands– EstuariesEstuaries

An area in which freshwater from a river mixesw with An area in which freshwater from a river mixesw with salt water from the oceansalt water from the ocean

Very productive ecosystemVery productive ecosystem Fresh nutrients enter from both the river and oceanFresh nutrients enter from both the river and ocean Area protected from harsh ocean waves because of Area protected from harsh ocean waves because of

land forms like a peninsulaland forms like a peninsula

Page 14: Aquatic Biomes Chapter 7. Aquatic Ecosystems  Characteristics of aquatic ecosystems –Salinity –Temperature –Sunlight –Oxygen –Nutrients.

Marine EcosystemMarine Ecosystem

EstuariesEstuaries

Page 15: Aquatic Biomes Chapter 7. Aquatic Ecosystems  Characteristics of aquatic ecosystems –Salinity –Temperature –Sunlight –Oxygen –Nutrients.

Marine EcosystemMarine Ecosystem

EstuariesEstuaries– PlantsPlants

Many rooted plants and planktonMany rooted plants and plankton

– AnimalsAnimals Many ocean dwelling animals move into estuaries to Many ocean dwelling animals move into estuaries to

lay eggslay eggs

– ThreatsThreats Urban growthUrban growth pollutionpollution

Page 16: Aquatic Biomes Chapter 7. Aquatic Ecosystems  Characteristics of aquatic ecosystems –Salinity –Temperature –Sunlight –Oxygen –Nutrients.

Marine EcosystemsMarine Ecosystems

Coastal wetlandsCoastal wetlands– Salt marshSalt marsh– Mangrove swampsMangrove swamps– Rocky and Sandy beachesRocky and Sandy beaches

Barrier islands- run parallel to the shore and protect it Barrier islands- run parallel to the shore and protect it from the oceanfrom the ocean

Page 17: Aquatic Biomes Chapter 7. Aquatic Ecosystems  Characteristics of aquatic ecosystems –Salinity –Temperature –Sunlight –Oxygen –Nutrients.

Marine EcosystemsMarine Ecosystems

Coral ReefsCoral Reefs– Built by of the limestone exoskeletons of coral Built by of the limestone exoskeletons of coral

polypspolyps– Occur in warm, shallow seasOccur in warm, shallow seas– Very biodiverseVery biodiverse– ThreatsThreats

Human activitiesHuman activities Water temperature changeWater temperature change Fresh water intrusionFresh water intrusion pollutionpollution

Page 18: Aquatic Biomes Chapter 7. Aquatic Ecosystems  Characteristics of aquatic ecosystems –Salinity –Temperature –Sunlight –Oxygen –Nutrients.

Marine EcosystemMarine Ecosystem

Coral ReefsCoral Reefs

Page 19: Aquatic Biomes Chapter 7. Aquatic Ecosystems  Characteristics of aquatic ecosystems –Salinity –Temperature –Sunlight –Oxygen –Nutrients.

Marine EcosystemsMarine Ecosystems

OceansOceans– Much of the life is concentrated in the shallow Much of the life is concentrated in the shallow

(less than 100m) warm water near the shore(less than 100m) warm water near the shore– Deep ocean water is very unproductive because Deep ocean water is very unproductive because

of a lack of light and nutrientsof a lack of light and nutrients– ThreatsThreats

PollutionPollution OverfishingOverfishing

– Artic and Antarctic ecosystems depend of the Artic and Antarctic ecosystems depend of the ocean ecosystem for survival ocean ecosystem for survival

Page 20: Aquatic Biomes Chapter 7. Aquatic Ecosystems  Characteristics of aquatic ecosystems –Salinity –Temperature –Sunlight –Oxygen –Nutrients.

Marine EcosystemMarine Ecosystem

OceanOcean


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