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Archaeological Excavation Report - E2445 Mackney, Co. Galway

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Excavation Report of archaeological site at Mackney, Co. Galway. A group of Bronze Age pits, post-holes and stake-holes.
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  • 1. Issue 2[ISSN 2009-2237]Archaeological Excavation Report E2445 - Mackney, Co. GalwayGroup of Bronze Age pits, post-holes and stake-holes

2. Archaeological Excavation Report, Mackney, Co. GalwayGroup of Bronze Age pits, post-holes and stake-holesJune 2009 Client:Roads Design Office,Galway County Council E No.: E2445 Ministerial Order: A024/32 Licensee:John Tierney Contact details:The Forge,Innishannon, Co. Cork. Written by:David FallonTel.: 021 470 16 16John TierneyFax: 021 470 16 28E-mail: [email protected] Site: www.eachtra.ie 3. E2445 | A024/32Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237Table of ContentsiSummary ............................................................................................................ iv ii Acknowledgements ............................................................................................. iv 1Introduction ........................................................................................................1 2Site Location, Topography and Soils ....................................................................1 3Background to the Development .........................................................................1 4Archaeological and Historical Background .........................................................24.1 Prehistoric period ...............................................................................................2 5Results of Excavation ...........................................................................................45.1 Hearth ...............................................................................................................45.2 Post-holes ...........................................................................................................55.3 Burnt soil spread ................................................................................................55.4 The pits ..............................................................................................................55.5 Isolated pits ........................................................................................................65.6 Lithics ................................................................................................................65.7 Charred plant remains .......................................................................................65.8 Charcoal ...........................................................................................................65.9 Radiocarbon dates..............................................................................................7 6Interpretation ......................................................................................................7 7Bibliography ........................................................................................................97.1 Websites ............................................................................................................10 8Figures ................................................................................................................11 9Plates .................................................................................................................. 15 10 Appendices .........................................................................................................1810.1 Appendix 1: Stratigraphic Register ...................................................................1910.2 Appendix 2: Stratigraphic Matrix .....................................................................2610.3 Appendix 3: Groups and sub-groups text .........................................................27 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ iii 4. E2445 | A024/32Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237Table of contents cont. 10.4 Appendix 4: Lithics Finds Report for E2445 Mackney .....................................32 10.5 Appendix 5: Plant remains analysis .................................................................34 10.6 Appendix 6: Charcoal analysis ........................................................................36List of FiguresFigure 1: Discovery series OS map showing the route of the new N6 Galway to Ballinasloe road(Contract 4) and the location of all excavation sites .............................................................. 11Figure 2: The route of the new N6 Galway to Ballinasloe road (Contract 4) overlaid on the 1stedition OS map..................................................................................................................... 12Figure 3: The route of the new N6 Galway to Ballinasloe road (Contract 4) overlaid on theRMP map ............................................................................................................................. 13Figure 4: Figure 4: Post-excavation plan of the Bronze Age site at Mackney.......................... 14 List of PlatesPlate 1: Working shot of site, facing W ................................................................................ 15Plate 2: Post-excavation of hearth (C001), facing NE ........................................................... 15Plate 3: Post-excavation of Bronze Age rubbish pit (C019), facing N ................................... 16Plate 4: Mid-excavation of stone-lined post hole (C034), showing in-situ lining, Facing E .. 16Figure 5: Saddle quern from the fill of pit C.93 (E2445:92:1) Photo: John Sunderland. ........ 17 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ iv 5. E2445 | A024/32Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237iSummaryThe site excavated at Mackney E2445 represented the remains of Middle to late Bronze Ageoccupation, with potential evidence for a structure made from timber uprights. The excavatedfeatures included a hearth, post-holes and pits. There were no artefacts from the site to com-plement the interpretation of the archaeological features. This is one of five sites dating to theBronze Age that were found by Eachtra Archaeological Projects during work on Contract 4of the N6 Galway to Ballinasloe new road. Their existence indicates widespread settlementin the area during the Bronze Age, with a potential focus of local activity in the catchmentarea of the river Suck. Townland MackneyCivil Parish ClontuskertBarony ClonmacnowenCounty GalwayMinisterial Order no.A024/32E no.E2445OS Map Sheet GA 87National Grid Reference183704 229507Elevation50 m ODSite type Bronze Age settlementii AcknowledgementsThe excavation director was John Tierney and the senior supervisor was Mick Drumm. Fieldcrew included Lesley Davidson, Joanna Pilszyk, Amanda Boechler, Rafal Wolanski and LukeRyalls. Illustrations are by Ben Blakeman, Lesley Davidson, Enda OMahony and RobinTurk. Report compilation was by Anluan Dunne. Specialist analysis was carried out by MaryDillon, Farina Sternke and the 14 Chrono Centre at Queens University Belfast. The projectwas commissioned by Galway County Council and was funded the National Roads Author-ity under the National Development Plan (2000-2006). The project archaeologist was JerryOSullivan and the assistant project archaeologist was Martin Jones. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/v 6. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-22371 IntroductionThis report comprises the final excavation report for a prehistoric settlement site found atMackney, Co. Galway during archaeological testing within the lands acquired for the newN6 Galway to Ballinasloe dual carriageway road scheme (ODonoghue et al. 2006, Figure 1).The site comprised a large hearth, a spread of burnt soil, 13 pits and five post-holes. Charcoalfrom the site yielded two Middle to Late Bronze Age radiocarbon dates.2 Site Location, Topography and SoilsThe site was located in the townland of Mackney at NGR 183704 229507 on the westernoutskirts of modern day Ballinsaloe. The site is situated within a gently undulating glaciallandscape overlooking the valley of the River Suck c. 4 km to the east. The land is used asopen pastureland and there are isolated areas of peat. The solid bedrock is Middle to UpperCarboniferous Limestones, with Calp Limestones predominating in the area of this site. TheQuaternary deposits in the region are undulating glacial drift with some post-glacial peat andalluvial deposits. Trial pitting for the Environmental Impact Assessment report indicated thatthe subsoil in the area of this site at Mackney was sandy till.Much of the site was located in land that was relatively low-lying and prone to flooding (Plate1). It was located on soils classified as grey brown podzolics, with associated brown earths,gleys and basin peat. These soils have a moderately wide use range and are good for cereal,fruit and vegetable cultivation (Gardiner & Radford 1980). At the time of excavation the landwas in pasture enclosed by drystone field boundaries of 18th or 19th century date.3 Background to the DevelopmentThe excavation was undertaken by Eachtra Archaeological Projects for Galway CountyCouncil and the National Roads Authority and forms part of wider archaeological excavationprogramme undertaken by Eachtra within approximately 15 km of the proposed N6 Galwayto Ballinasloe dual carriageway scheme (Contract 4, Figures 1-3). Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/1 7. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-22374 Archaeological and Historical Background 4.1 Prehistoric period Mesolithic material has now been identified from a small number of sites in western Con-nacht and in particular material has been identified on the major river and lake systems.Lough Corrib stands out as a centre of outstanding importance for looking at both Mesolith-ic settlement and the Mesolithic/Neolithic transition (Gibbons et al. 2004). The artefactuallocation bias suggests that the Lough Corrib catchment area was a population centre in thelater Mesolithic period. The finding of a Bann flake at Oranmore confirms that there was ahuman presence to the east of the Corrib in the late Mesolithic. No definite Mesolithc sitehas as yet been identified in east Galway but there are flint artefacts that probably date to theMesolithic from burnt mound sites excavated by Eachtra Archaeological Projects at Barnac-ragh (E2446) and Urraghry (E2449).The Neolithic or new stone age began around 4000 BC when the first farmers came in searchof pasture for their livestock and arable land in which to grow their grain. Ireland was thenheavily forested so it was necessary for these farmers to engage in forest clearance. This theydid with polished stone axeheads hafted in wooden handles. A number of stone axes havebeen recovered from along the valley of the river Suck and around the Ballinasloe area ingeneral (Henry 1992, 37-38), indicating activity in the area during the Neolithic.The Neolithic period also saw new developments in ritual activity, in particular the build-ing of megalithic tombs. Only seven Neolithic tombs are recorded for the whole of northGalway (as defined by Vol 2 of the Archaeological inventory of Co. Galway), which includesthe barony of Clonmacowen, and these are limited to court tombs and wedge tombs (Alcocket al. 1999, 1). There is no published inventory for south Galway. No megalithic tombs arerecorded from the area around Balinasloe and Aughrim; the closest concentration is a groupof four tombs identified around the limestone plains of Monivea. The erection of large more or less unhewn stones, often in prominent locations, was a wide-spread custom in prehistoric Ireland and elsewhere in western Europe. These take the formof stone circles, stone rows, stone pairs and single or isolated standing stones. Single standingstones may have had a wide variety of uses ranging from route or boundary markers to burialmemorials. Two standing stones (RMP GA098:031 and GA087:023) are located aroundAughrim, one of which is reputed to be associated with a stone axehead (Alcock et al. 1999, Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/2 8. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-223717). During the Bronze Age metal was extracted and worked for the first time. Bronze Age axesand a dagger have been found in the area round Ballinasloe and a bronze spear head (NMI1986:19) and dirk (NMI 1986:16) were recovered from the river Suck during drainage opera-tions in the 1880s (information from the National Museum of Ireland Topographical files).Underwater investigation of the site of Correen Ford, on the river Suck, identified a LateBronze Age sword which was found close to a portion of a pottery vessel, perhaps of the sameage (Kelly 1989). Coreen Ford was probably one of the main crossing points on the Suck inprehistory and early history.A variety of burial monuments date to the Bronze Age period, including cairns, tumuli andbarrows. A cairn is a mound of stone often used to cover burials, and a tumulus is a moundof earth used for the same purpose. Barrows are burial monuments which usually consist ofa circular central area, which may be flat or slightly dished (a ring ditch), or domed (a ringbarrow), and which is enclosed by a ditch and occasionally by an external bank. ExcavatedBronze Age burials include interments in cists, in pits lined with stone flags, and in simplepits, some of which were accompanied by pottery or other grave goods. These can be placedin tumuli, cairns or barrows, but can also be set within natural monuments, such as sandridges, or can appear in flat cemeteries, with no above ground marker at all (Waddell 1990,1).A total of 22 cairns and tumuli, 10 isolated cist and pit graves and 31 barrows are knownfrom north Galway (Alcock et al. 1999, 4 & 12). A significant concentration of Early BronzeAge features can be recognised in the area between Athenry, Tuam and Headford; however,very few burials or cairns have been identified in the areas around Ballinasloe and Aughrim.The most common Bronze Age monuments are burnt mounds. They are represented by smallmounds of burnt stone, which were fired in order to heat water in a pit dug into a marshyarea, the stones being discarded once they had cooled. The function of these monuments hasbeen the source of much debate with various theories being expounded including cooking,washing and relaxation. Three burnt mounds have been excavated by Eachtra Archaeologi-cal Projects during the course of the present excavation programme: at Barnacragh (E2446),Cooltymurraghy (E2448) and Urraghry (E2449). Bronze Age dates were retrieved from apossible settlement site in Mackney townland (E2443) and this present site, again in Mack- Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/3 9. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237ney townland (E2445), also revealed evidence associated with Bronze Age settlement. Theseare important additions to the recorded prehistoric landscape in east Galway.We know almost nothing of Irish Iron Age settlement and burial outside the major complexesof royal ritual sites and a small number of burial sites that may be Iron Age in date. Deficien-cies in our knowledge of the settlements and habitations of ordinary people are so markedthat Raftery referred to the majority of the population as the invisible people (1994, 112).The majority of the evidence for the Iron Age period consists of finds of La Tne decoratedmetalwork and some pieces of stone sculpture. Examples of La Tne artefacts/monumentsfrom east Galway include the Turoe Stone located close to Loughrea and a Late La Tnemetal artefact found at. Rahally hillfort. This hillfort was excavated along the route of thenew N6 Galway to Ballinalsoe road (Contract 3) and the evidence indicates settlement inprehistoric and medieval times (Mullins in progress). Iron Age radiocarbon dates were ob-tained from excavations at an enclosure site at Loughbown 2, also excavated along the routeof the new N6 Galway to Ballinasloe road (Contract 4). However, medieval dates were alsoobtained from Loughbown 2 and the exact nature of occupation at the site during the IronAge is uncertain.5 Results of ExcavationThis site comprised a large hearth, a spread of burnt soil, 13 pits, three large stone-linedpost-holes and two smaller post-holes. These were found within an area of excavation thatmeasured 571 sq m (Figure 4). An un-stratified chert chunk was originally interpreted as anartefact but specialist examination indicated that it was natural. There were no artefacts fromthe site. Archaeological activity was concentrated to the west, north-west and south-westof the large hearth. Detailed results are available in the context register (Appendix 1), thestratigraphic matrix (Appendix 2), the groups and sub-groups text (Appendix 3), the findsregister (Appendix 4) and specialist results (Appendices 5-7). The following is an interpreta-tive summary. 5.1 Hearth The hearth (C.1) was found within a large pit that measured 2.5 m long, 2.0 m wide and0.45 m deep (Plate 2). It had moderately sloping sides and a shallow concave base. The basal Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/4 10. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237fill (C.79) was confined to the eastern half of the pit and was overlain by a charcoal-fleckeddeposit (C.71) that was 0.1 m deep. The main fill (C.2) was 0.2 m deep and it contained oc-casional charcoal flecks. Hazel charcoal from this context yielded a Middle to Late BronzeAge radiocarbon date of cal BC 1117-915 (UB-7355). There was evidence for in situ scorchingof the edges of the pit. 5.2 Post-holes A total of five post-holes (C.5, C.34, C.39, C.42 and C.49) were found in the area around thehearth. On average these measured 0.73 m long, 0.55 m wide and 0.24 m deep. There wasevidence for stone packing in three of the post-holes; C.34, C.39 and C.42 (see Plate 4). Thefact that stone packing was still in place indicates that these posts must have rotted in situ,as removal of the posts would have disturbed the packing. Three post-holes (C.5, C.42 andC.34) were positioned in a straight line to the south-west of the hearth. These may form thepartial remains of a wall or structure that surrounded or shielded the hearth. 5.3 Burnt soil spread A spread of burnt soil (C.12/C.83) was found 2.5 m to the west of the hearth, outside theline of post-holes. It was characterized by evidence for scorching, a concentration of charcoalflecks and very small fragments of burnt stone. This was interpreted as hearth rake-out and itmeasured 4.4 m north to south and 2.6 m east to west.5.4 The pits A total of 10 pits (C.3, C.13, C.15, C.17, C.19, C.32, C.39, C.47, C.49 and C.90) were foundin the area around the hearth (see Plate 3 for an example). On average these measured 1.07m long, 0.87 m wide and 0.35 m deep. There were no finds from these pits and there waslittle indication of their original use. The fill of one of the pits (pit C.13, fill C.14) producedhazel charcoal which yielded a Middle to Late Bronze Age radiocarbon date cal BC 1114-919(UB-7356), demonstrating that use of the pits was contemporary with use of the hearth.Some of the pits may represent disturbed post-holes. For example the pits C.3 and C.32 werefound along the same line as the post-holes by the hearth (C.5, C.34 and C.42) and they mayhave formed part of a wall or structure. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/5 11. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237Three pits (C.39, C.49 and C.90) were found in close proximity to the hearth. These may alsohave originally been post-holes, perhaps acting as internal supports in a structure. Alterna-tively, they may simply represent hearth furniture. There were five external pits (C.13, C.15, C.17, C.19 and C.47) located c. 1 m outside thewall, to the south-west. These may have been associated with any external activities arisingduring occupation of the possible structure. Two of the pits (C.13 and C.19) cut the occupa-tion surface (C.12/C.83).5.5 Isolated pits A total of three pits (C.85, C.86 and C.88) were located in the north-west corner, c. 5 m fromthe main area of activity. There was no evidence for a relationship between these pits andthe other archaeological features discovered at the site. The function of these pits is obscure,although the retrieval of 100% oak charcoal from one of the pits (C.88) suggests that this isthe remains of an oak post that burnt in situ (see Appendix 7). 5.6 Lithics One lithic find from the site was examined by Farina Sternke (Appendix 5). Although origi-nally interpreted as a flint blade, this was in fact one natural chunk of chert, retrieved fromthe topsoil, and of no archaeological significance. A stone fragment identified as part of asaddle quern was also retrieved (Plate 5).5.7 Charred plant remains A total of 29 samples from this site were examined by Mary Dillon (Appendix 6). Only onesample produced charred plant remains, an indeterminate nut shell fragment.5.8 Charcoal Charcoal from this site was identified by Mary Dillon (Appendix 7). A total of 10 sampleswere examined and the most frequent charcoal type was oak followed in descending fre- Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/6 12. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237quency by hazel, apple type, ash, sloe/cherry/plum, alder, yew and willow/aspen. 5.9 Radiocarbon dates Radiocarbon analysis was carried out by the 14 Chrono Centre in Queens University Belfast.Dates were calibrated using Calib Rev5.0.2 (1986-2005 M. Stuiver & P.J. Reimer) and inconjunction with Stuiver & Reimer 1993 and using calibration data set Intcal04.14c (Reimeret al. 2004). Lab.Context SampleMaterialYears BP 131 sigma2 sigmaPeriodcode(charcoal) C calibrated calibrated date dateUB- 2 (hearth)27Hazel,2842 -27.0cal BC Middle73557 frags,35 BPcal BC 1117-915 - Late0.58g1048-971Bronze 960-934 AgeUB- 14 (pit)16Hazel,2844 -25.0cal BC Middle735622 frags, 32 BPcal BC 1114-919 - Late1.8g 1048-972Bronze 959-937 Age6 InterpretationThis site comprised a cluster of prehistoric features, including a hearth, a burnt soil spread,pits and post-holes. The features represented the partial remains of a Bronze Age occupationsite. A line of posts (C.5, C.42 and C.34) may have formed a wall and another two pits (C.3and C.32) also found along this line may represent disturbed post-holes. If these featuresformed part of a wall they were located c. 1 m from the edge of the hearth. It is possible thatthe structural features around the hearth represent the partial remains of a building and radi-ocarbon dates indicate a period of occupation in the Middle to Late Bronze Age. As the post-holes are set in a straight line it appears that they could form part of a rectangular building.This is relatively unusual because circular structures were the norm by the Middle BronzeAge (Doody 2000, 137; Doody 2007, 91). However, some examples of rectilinear houses areknown and Doody (2007, 92) estimates that these account for 16% of the excavated MiddleBronze Age house sites. Alternatively, the features define a roughly circular occupation space,and this is a more common floor plan for domestic structures in the Irish Bronze Age. Theenclosing elements may not have survived because they did not cut the subsoil. For example,they could have been made from sod or from canvas. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/7 13. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237Recent excavations along the new N6 Galway to Ballinasloe road (Contracts 1-4) indicatethat Bronze Age activity in the area was widespread. Burnt mounds were found in all sectorsof the new road, but ritual sites such as cremations and burials were only found in the middlesectors of the road (including Newford, Deerpark, Curragh More, Carrowkeel, Ballykeeran,Cross, Rathglass, Treanbaun I and Treanbaun III). Evidence for domestic occupation wasrare and this site at Mackney E2445 is one of the few examples. In this respect the patternfrom the N6 Galway to Ballinasloe mirrors the general record of the Irish Bronze Age, whereritual sites are more widely recognised than domestic sites (Doody 2007, 97). There are rela-tively few excavated Bronze Age occupation sites in County Galway. A search of the onlineexcavations database for 1970-2003 (www.excavations.ie) revealed a few potential sites suchas the two Bronze Age midden sites excavated at Omey Island and False Bay, Truska, stoneremains of structures possibly dating to the Early Bronze Age at Lettershea and Late BronzeAge stone hut sites excavated at Dn Aonghasa. The excavations database suggests thereforethat Mackney E2445 is the first record of a Bronze Age building made from timber uprightsin the county. This site is one of five Bronze Age sites excavated by Eachtra Archaeological Projects within6.5 km along the route of the new road covered by Contract 4. These included burnt moundsites at Urraghry, Cooltymurraghy and Barnacragh and another site with ephemeral tracesof Bronze Age occupation at Mackney E2443. These sites are broadly within the catchmentzone of the river Suck and they indicate widespread use of this part of the landscape duringthe Bronze Age. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/8 14. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-22377 BibliographyAlcock, O., de hOra, K. and Gosling, P. 1999 Archaeological Inventory of County Galway, Vol. 2 North Galway. Dublin, The Stationery Office. Bennett, I. (ed.) 2006 Excavations 2003. Bray, Wordwell. Doody, M. 2007 Excavations at Curraghatoor, Co. Tipperary. Cork, UCC Department ofArchaeology Archaeological Monograph. Doody, M. 2000 Bronze Age houses in Ireland, in Desmond, A., Johnson, G., McCarthy,M., Sheehan, J. and Shee Twohig, E. New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Bray, Wordwell. Gardiner, M.J. and Radford, T. 1980 Soil Associations of Ireland and Their Land Use Potential. Dublin, An Foras Talntais. Gibbons, M., Gibbons, M. and Higgins, J. 2004 Mapping the Mesolithic in western Connacht, IQUA Newsletter 32, 4-7. Henry, M. 1992 Prehistoric Life in Co. Galway: A Distributional Analysis, Journal of the Galway Hist and Archaeol Society, Vol. 44 (1992), 29-46. Kelly, E.P. 1989 Ford, in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 1989. Bray, Wordwell. Mullins, G. In progress Rahally, in Bennett, I. (ed.) Excavations 2006. ODonoghue, J., Tierney, J. and Doolan, A. 2006 N6 Galway to Ballinasloe test excavationsreport, Centreline testing 4.0, Contract 4 Cloghagalla Eighter Co. Galway to Beagh,Co. Roscommon. Unpublished report for Eachtra Archaeological Projects submittedto the Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government. Raftery, B. 1994 Pagan Celtic Ireland: the enigma of the Irish Iron Age. London, Thames andHudson. Reimer, P.J., Baillie, M.G.L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Bertrand, C., Blackwell, P.G., Buck, C.E., Burr, G., Cutler, K.B., Damon, P.E., Edwards, R.L., Fairbanks, R.G., Friedrich, M., Guilderson, T.P., Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac, F.G., Manning, S., Bronk Ramsey, C., Reimer, R.W., Remmele, S., Southon, J.R., Stuiver, M., Talamo, S., Taylor, F.W., van der Plicht, J. and Weyhenmeyer, C.E. 2004 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/9 15. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237IntCal04 Terrestrial Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 026 Cal Kyr BP, Radiocarbon46, 1029-1058. Waddell, J. 1990 The Bronze Age Burials of Ireland. Galway. Stuiver, M., and Reimer, P.J. 1993 Extended (super 14) C data base and revised CALIB 3.0(super 14) C age calibration program, Radiocarbon 35, 215-230.7.1 Websites Database of Irish excavations www.excavations.ie Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 10 16. 8 E2445 | A024/32Figures Mackney, Co. GalwayMackney Masonry, pits & ditchesCoololla Aughrim battlefield 1691: Luttrels PassUrraghryBurnt mound Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ Loughbown IRingfort (site of ) & forge CoolollaLime kiln & Linen millMackney Ringfort with skeletal remainsCooltymurraghy Burnt moundMackneyPits & saddle quern Loughbown II Barnacragh Ringfort (site of )Burnt moundPollboy & TulrushUnderwater survey at Suck crossing Figure 1: Discovery series OS map showing the route of the new N6 Galway to Ballinasloe road (Contract 4) and the location of all excavation sites ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 11 17. E2445 | A024/32 E2449 A024/36 Urraghy Burnt mound Mackney, Co. Galway E2442 A024/09 Loughbown I Ringfort & forgeE2447 A024/34 Coololla Lime kiln & forge Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/E2448 A024/35CooltymurraghyBurnt moundE2054 A024/21 Loughbown II E2446 A024/33 Ringfort Barnacragh Burnt mound Figure 2: The route of the new N6 Galway to Ballinasloe road (Contract 4) overlaid on the 1st edition OS map ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 12 18. E2442 A024/09 E2445 | A024/32Loughbown IRingfort & forgeE2443 A024/31MackneyE2447 A024/34Pits & ditchesCoolollaLime kiln & forgeE2449 A024/36UrraghyBurnt moundE2444 A024/10 E2448 A024/35Mackney Mackney, Co. Galway Cooltymurraghy Ringfort with skeletal remains Burnt mound E2445 A024/32 E2054 A024/21 Mackney Loughbown IIPits RingfortE2446 A024/33BarnacraghBurnt mound Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ Legend Canal Folly Togher Earthwork Field system Burial Ground/Graveyard Ecclesiastical Site/Holy well Castle/Tower Stone Group/Inscibed Stone Ringfort Enclosure Motte Monument0 Km 2 Km Figure 3: The route of the new N6 Galway to Ballinasloe road (Contract 4) overlaid on the RMP map ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 13 19. NE2445 | A024/32 Limit of excavationMackney, Co. GalwayC.86 C.85 C.34 C.88C.32 C.39C.42 C.93 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/C.13C.1 C.3 C.19 C.49C.90C.17C.5 C.15KeyPit Hearth1m 0 5mPost-hole Burnt Soil SpreadFigure 4: Figure 4: Post-excavation plan of the Bronze Age site at MackneyISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 14 20. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 9 Plates Plate 1: Working shot of site, facing WPlate 2: Post-excavation of hearth (C001), facing NE Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 15 21. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. GalwayISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Plate 3: Post-excavation of Bronze Age rubbish pit (C019), facing NPlate 4: Mid-excavation of stone-lined post hole (C034), showing in-situ lining, FacingE Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/16 22. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. GalwayISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Figure 5: Saddle quern from the fill of pit C.93 (E2445:92:1) Photo: John Sunderland. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/17 23. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-223710 Appendices Appendix 1 Stratigraphic indexAppendix 2 Stratigraphic matrixAppendix 3 Groups and sub groups textAppendix 4 Lithics reportAppendix 5 Plant remainsAppendix 6 Charcoal Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 18 24. 10.1 Appendix 1: Stratigraphic RegisterE2445 | A024/32 Context GridContext Fill of Filled Basic DescriptionFinds no. SampleDrawing No. type with No. No. 001 110/105 Hearth-002Hearth, irregular shape in plan, shallow concave profile, 2.50m N/S by 2.0m by 0.41m 002 110/105 Hearth001-Fill of hearth [001]mid grey brown clay silt. Occasional sub-027 deposit angular and sub -rounded stones and moderate medium peb- bles, 2.0m N/S by 1.81m by 0.19m 003 110/105 Pit -004, 025 Pit [003], U-shaped profile, circular in plan, 0.48m N/S byMackney, Co. Galway 0.44m by 0.12m 004 110/105 Pit fill003-Fill of pit [003]friable black clay silt 30 70 -- dump of burnt001 material, 0.48m N/S by 0.35m by 0.07m 005 110/100 Post-hole -006, 054 Cut of post-hole [005], square U-Shaped profile --over cut= 057, slightly so probably a shallow concave, rectangular with round-055=056ed corners in plan, 0.82m N/S by 0.56m by 0.20m 006 110/100 Post-hole 005-Fill of post-hole [005] friable dark greyish black clay silt occa- E2445:6:1 009, 010, Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ fillsional sub-rounded medium stones moderate small sub-angularpottery 011 stones occasional fragments of burnt stone occasional fragmentssherd of pottery 0.82m E/W by 0.42m by 0.04m 007 VOID 008 VOID 009 Extensive Top soil--Top Soil, mid brown clay silt 30 70E2445:9:1naturalchert chunk 010 Extensive Subsoil --Subsoil, whitish yellow sandy clay 40 60 011 VOID 012 105/105 Occu- 011-Surface--a concentration of charcoal flecks and very small 003 pationfragments of burnt stone 012 within a mid red brown sand silt surface 40 60 deposit 083 there was some scorching of the natural too. Probably a sub soil but possibly a prehistoric activity horizon- -cut by [013] and[019], 1.28m N/S by 1.12m by 0.06m, 012 = 083ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 19 25. Context Grid ContextFill of FilledBasic DescriptionFinds no. SampleDrawing No.typewithNo. No. E2445 | A024/32 013 105/105, Pit-014 Cut of pit [013], U-shaped profile with concave base, circular in 105/110plan, 1.60m E/W by 1.00 by 0.78m 014 105/105, Pit fill 013- Fill of pit [013], soft mid red brown clay silt 30 70, 1.60m E/W 016, 019, 105/110by 1.00m by 0.78m034 015 105/100Pit-016 Cut of pit [015], shallow concave profile--truncated through thecentre by an animal burrow, sub-circular in plan, 1.20m N/S by1.10m by 0.16m [015] = [017] Mackney, Co. Galway 016 105/100Pit fill 015=017- Fill of pit [015] = [017] soft dark greyish black clay silt 40 60, 0231.20m N/S by 1.10m by 0.16m, 016 = 018 017 105/100Pit-018, 028Cut of pit [015], shallow concave profile--truncated through thecentre by an animal burrow, sub-circular in plan, 1.20m N/S by1.10m by 0.16m [015] = [017] 018 105/100Pit fill 015=017- Fill of pit [015] = [017] soft dark greyish black clay silt 40 60, 0021.20m N/S by 1.10m by 0.16m, 016 = 018 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 019 105/105Pit-020, 044, Cut of pit [019] square U-shaped profile, circular in plan, 1.10m045,046,E/W by 1.02m by 0.64m. Cut by posthole [029]051, 053 020 105/105Pit fill 019- Fill of pit [019]friable dark reddish brown sand clay, 1.10m E/W 004by 1.02 m E/W by 1.02m by 0.22m, 020 = 051 021VOID 022VOID 023VOID 025 110/105Pit fill 003- Basal fill puddling? of [003] friable mid greyish black sandy silt30 70, 0.48m N/S by 0.44m by 0.05m 026 100/115Hearth pit 085- Fill of pit possible hearth [085]/Spread of scorched fill of pit 032fill[085] soft dark red brown clay silt 40 60 moderate medium sub-angular stones, 1.57 m N/S by 0.58m by 0.28m 027 95/110,Pit fill 088- area of concentrated burning debris fill of [088], soft mid grey 031 95/115 brown clay silt 25 75 occasional medium (lime?) stone frequentcharcoal flecks and medium charcoal fragments, 1.18m E/W by1.03m by 0.26m ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 20 26. Context Grid Context Fill of Filled Basic DescriptionFinds no. Sample Drawing No.type with No.No.E2445 | A024/32 028 105/100Pit fill017-basal fill of [017] 029 105/105Post-hole -030Post-hole [029] u-shaped profile, circular in plan, 0.24m N/S by0.24m by 0.08m. Cut upper fill of pit [019] 030 105/105Post-hole 029-Fill of posthole [029] firm mid greyish white clay silt 40 60--005fillfrequent large angular stones, 0.24m N/S by 0.24m by 0.08m 031VOID 032 110/110Pit -033Cut of pit [032] very shallow square U-shaped profile sub-circu-Mackney, Co. Galwaylar in plan,1.23m N/S by 0.82m by 0.23 033 110/110Pit fill032-Fill of pit [032], friable mid grey black silt clay occasional sub-angular stones, 1.23mN/S by 0.82m by 0.15m 034 110/110Post-hole -035, 036 Cut of post hole [034] square u-shaped profile, sub-circular inplan, 0.82m E/W by 0.60m by 0.35m 035 110/110Post-hole 034-Stone packing for a post hole [034], frequent sub-roundedstone stones, largest stone approx 0.45m, Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/packing 036 110/110Post-hole 034-Fill of post hole [034], soft dark black brown silt clay 30 70,fill0.85m E/W by 0.72m by 0.29m 037 110/110Post-hole -038, 080 Cut of post hole [037] concave in profile, circular in plan, 0.18mN/S by 0.12m 0.08m 038 110/110Post-hole -027Top fill of post hole [037], Dark greyish black friable clayey silt, 028fill0.18m N/S by 0.12m by 0.08m 039 110/110, Post-hole040, 041 Cut of post hole [039] square with vertical edges, sub-circular in 115/110plan, 0.80m E/W by 0.51m by 0.20m 040 110/110, Post-hole 039 Stone packing for post[039] 115/110stonepacking 041 110/110, Post-hole 039 Fill of stone lined post hole [039], mid brownish orange friable 115/110fillclayey silt with occasional sub-angular stones, 0.90m E/W by0.70m by 0.40m 042 105/110, Post-hole Cut of post hole [042] u-shaped profile, circular in plan, 0.80m 110/110E/W 0.73m by 0.28mISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 21 27. Context Grid Context Fill of Filled Basic DescriptionFinds no.Sample Drawing No.type withNo.No. E2445 | A024/32 043 105/110, Post-hole 084 Fill of post hole [084] very soft dark brownish black clay silt-- 008 110/110fillresult of post burning in-situ?, 0.58m N/S by 0.50m by 0.14m 044 105/105Pit fill019 Fill of pit [019] very soft light brownish yellow clay--secondaryE2445:44:1 013fill high water content, 110m E/W by 1.03m by 0.40mpottery 045 105/105Pit fill019 Lens of charcoal rich burnt material found in pit [019]very soft006black clay silt, 0.20m N/S by 0.17m. by 0.10m 046 105/100Pit fill019 Lens of charcoal rich burnt material found in pit [019]very soft007 Mackney, Co. Galwayblack clay silt, 0.14m N/S by 0.10m. by 0.7m 047 105/100Pit048, 078 Cut of pit [047] concave in profile, sub-circular in plan, trun-cated by pits [015] and [017]0.70 N/S by 0.62m by 0.36m 048 -Pit fill047 Fill of pit [048] light greyish white stiff friable clayey silt, 0.70m014, 017N/S by 0.62m by 0.36m 049 -Post-hole050Cut of post hole [049] concave profile, circular in plan, trun-cated by [074], 0.40m N/S by 0.35m by 0.15m Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 050 105/105Post-hole 049 Fill of post hole [049] friable mid grey black sand silt 40 60, 024fill0.40m N/S by 0.40m by 0.03m 051 110/105Pit fill019 Fill of pit [019]friable dark reddish brown sand clay, 1.10m E/Wby 1.02m by 0.22m, 020 = 051 053 110/100Pit fill019 Basal fill of [019] friable mid greyish clay silt, 1.10m E/W by 0151.02m by 0.10m 054 110/100Post-hole 005 Backfill of post-hole [005] soft mid brown orange clay silt oc- 011fillcasional small sub-angular and medium sub-rounded stones,0.47m E/W by 0.46m by 0.18m 055 110/100Post-hole 005 Primary fill of post hole [005] very soft mid brown orange sandfillsilt, 0.54m N/S by 0.45m by 0.13m 055=056 056 110/100Post-hole 005 Primary fill of post hole [005] very soft mid brown orange sandfillsilt, 0.81m E/W by 0.06m by 0.01m, 055=056 057 110/100Post-hole 005 Secondary fill of post hole [005]soft mid brownish orange clayfillsilt occasional small to medium sub-rounded stones, 0.81mE/W by 0.09m by 0.13m ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 22 28. Context Grid Context Fill of Filled Basic DescriptionFinds no. Sample Drawing No.type with No.No.E2445 | A024/32 059 110/100Post-pipe Fill of possible post pipe [089], light greyish white stiff silty clayfillwith frequent sub-rounded stones, moderately sorted, 0.81mE/W by 0.17m by 0.19 m, 059=006 060 110/105Possible--possible metalled surfacesurface 061VOID 062VOIDMackney, Co. Galway 063VOID 064VOID 065 105/110, Post-hole 042 Possible stone post pad of post hole [042], 0.36m E/W by 0.22 110/110stone pad m by 0.20m 066 105/110, Post-hole 042 Post packing of post hole [042] medium pebbles, 0.68m E/W 110/110fillby 0.30m by 0.17m 067 105/110, Post-hole 042 Possible post pad at base of post-pipe for post hole [042] me- Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 110/110stone pad dium sub-angular stone, 0.10M N/S by ?m by 0.06m 068 105/110, Post-hole 042 Backfill of post hole [042] soft mid yellow brown clay silt 30 70, 110/110fill0.80m E/W 0.55m by 0.10m 069 105/110, Post-hole 042 Primary fill of post hole [042]compact light grey brown coarse 110/110fillgravel sand, 0.09m N/S by ?m by 0.18m 070 105/110, Post-hole 042 Backfill of post hole [042] mid yellowish brown soft sandy silt, 110/110fill0.11mN/S by ?m by 0.11m 071 110/105Hearth001 Fill of hearth [001]very soft dark black clay silt, occasional large 018deposit sub-angular stones, well sorted occasional flecks of charcoal,moderate small fragments of charcoal very frequent fragmentsof heat affected stone--concentrated at bottom of deposit, 2.10mN/S by 2.00m by 0.09m 072VOID 073VOID 074 110/105Post-pipe075U-shaped post-pipe [074] for post hole [049], tapered bluntpoint in profile, circular in plan, 0.22m N/S by 0.12m by 0.15mISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 23 29. Context GridContext Fill of Filled Basic Description Finds no. Sample Drawing No. type withNo.No.E2445 | A024/32 075 110/105 Post-pipe 074 fill of post-pipe [074] post hole [049] friable mid brown orange021 fillclay silt occasional small angular stones, 0.22m by 0.10m by 0.10m 076 VOID 077 VOID 078 105/100 047 079 110/105 Hearth001 Fill of hearth [001] very soft mid brown sand clay, moder-030Mackney, Co. Galway deposit ate fine sub-angular and sub-rounded pebbles, 2.50m N/S by 2.00m by 0.15m 080 110/110 Post-hole 037 Bottom fill of post hole [037], mid brownish orange, friable029 fillclayey silt, 0.18m N/S by 0.12m by 0.05m 081 VOID 082 VOID 083 105/105 Occu- Surface--a concentration of charcoal flecks and very small Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ pationfragments of burnt stone 012 within a mid red brown sand silt Surface 40 60 deposit 083 there was some scorching of the natural too. Probably a sub soil but possibly a prehistoric activity horizon- -cut by [013] and[019], 1.28m N/S by 1.12m by 0.06m, 012 = 083 084 110/110 Post-pipe043Possible post-pipe left after post was removed/burnt? [084], square u-shaped profile, circular in plan, 0.24m N/S by ?m by0.18m 085 105/115 Pit -026Cut of pit [085] concave profile, oval in profile, truncated by [086], 1.57m N/S by 0.58m by 0.28m 086 105/115 Pit087Cut of pit [086] concave profile, oval in plan, truncates [085], 0.93m N/S by 0.62m by 0.31m 087 105/115 Pit fill086 Fill of pit [086] soft dark red brown clay silt 40 60 moderate033 medium sub-angular stones, 0.93m N/S by 0.62m by 0.31m 088 95/110Pit027Cut of pit [088] square U-shaped profile, circular in plan, 1.18m E/W by 1.03m by 0.26mISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 24 30. Context GridContext Fill of Filled Basic Description Finds no.Sample Drawing No. type with No.No. E2445 | A024/32 089 110/100 Post-pipe 005 Post packing to form post pipe [005] stiff light greyish white silt fillclay moderate sub-rounded stones, postpipe square U-shaped profile sides sloping steeply, 0.05m N/S by ?m by 0.03m 090 115/110 Post-hole091Possible post hole [090], shallow with vertical sides in profile, circular in plan, possibly used to form structure with [039] and [042] 091 115/110 Post-hole 090 Fill of possible post hole [090], friable mid yellow brown sandy Mackney, Co. Galway fillsilt, with frequent coarse gravel, and medium sub-angular stones, 0.085m E/W by 0.08 by 0.08m 092 Pit fill093 Fill of pit [093], mid brown silty clay with frequent charcoalE2445:92:1 flecks and occasional small stones. 0.4 m diameter and 0.2m deep 093 Pit092Pit with U-shaped profile, filled by 092, 0.4 m diameter and 0.2m deep Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ [] = Cut ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 25 31. 10.2 Appendix 2: Stratigraphic Matrix E2445 | A024/3292 1618 63375438730 Mackney, Co. Galway54/5 71 15283274848629 7 55/5 79 17 385920/51 6 14361 89 8089 44 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 13356059 37 45434 4841 694625 27 50 7840 6853388 49 4739 702619 8312 5678591 4290 10 cut deposit ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 26 32. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-223710.3 Appendix 3: Groups and sub-groups text 10.3.1 Group 1 Natural deposits This group describes the natural subsoil identified across the excavated area. 10.3.1.1 Natural subsoil Subsoil C10 Description: White yellow sand clay beneath topsoil C.9. Interpretation: This subgroup describes the natural subsoil which was a white yellow sandclay. This is natural subsoil.10.3.2 Group 2 Features around hearth This group describes a series of Bronze Age features identified across the excavated area.These include a possible occupation surface, a hearth, five post-holes and a number of pits.10.3.2.1 Possible occupation surface Spread C.12 Description: Oval shaped spread of red brown sand silt with frequent charcoal flecking andburnt stone inclusions. The spread measured 1.28 m north/south, 1.12 m east/west and wasquite shallow with an average depth of 0.06 m. The surface was cut by two large pits C.13and C.19 described in subgroup 2.4.Interpretation: The spread is probably associated with the large hearth {group 2.2} located2.5 m to the east. The spread is similar to the surrounding natural subsoil {group 1.1} how-ever the burnt stones and charcoal flecking suggest an anthropogenic formation. 10.3.2.2 Hearth Cut C.1, Fills C.2, C.71, C.79 Description: Large sub-circular hearth or fire pit. The pit C.1 containing the hearth meas-ured 2.5 m north/south by 2.0 m east/west and was 0.45 m deep. It had moderately slopingsides and a shallow concave base. The basal fill C.79 was confined to the eastern half of thepit and was a soft mid brown sand clay with moderate amounts of pebble inclusions. This Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 27 33. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237was covered by a 0.1 m deep band of dark black silt C.71 with moderate amounts of charcoalflecking and occasional large stones. The main fill was a 0.2 m deep mid grey brown clay siltC.2 with pebble and stone inclusions and occasional charcoal flecking. The hearth or fire pitis associated with a series of rubbish pits and post-holes {subgroup 2.3}.Interpretation: This pit contained a burnt fill and is interpreted as a hearth or fire-pit. 10.3.2.3 Post-holes Cuts C.5, C.34, C.37, C.39, C.42, C.49, Fills C.40, C.41, C.35, C.36, C.66, C.84, C.43, C.80,C.38, C.6, C.54/57, C.55/56, C.50.Description: A total of five post-holes were also found in the area around the hearth (C.5,C.34, C.39, C.42 and C.49). A shallow feature (C.37) was also a possible truncated post-hole.On average the post-holes measured 0.73 m long, 0.55 m wide and 0.24 m deep. There wasevidence for stone packing in three of the post-holes; C.34, C.39 and C.42. The fact thatstone packing was still in place indicates that these posts must have rotted in situ, as removalof the posts would have also disturbed the packing. Three (C.5, C.42 and C.34) were posi-tioned in a straight line to the south-west of the hearth. Post-hole cut C.5, filled with C.6, C.54/57, C.55/56. Post-pipe cut C.89 is filled withC.59. It had a square U-Shaped profile and was rectangular with rounded corners in plan.It measured 0.82m N/S by 0.56m by 0.20m. The fill of the post-hole C.6 was a friable darkgreyish black clay silt occasional sub-rounded medium stones moderate small sub-angularstones. Another fill C.54/57 and it was a soft mid brown orange clay silt occasional smallsub-angular and medium sub-rounded stones. The primary fill was C.55/56 a very soft midbrown orange sand silt.Post-hole C.39 was sub-circular in shape with smooth moderately sloping sides anda flat base. It measured 0.9 m by 0.7 m by 0.4 m deep. Filled with mid brown orange clay siltC.41 with occasional large sub-angular stones. The post-pipe was packed in place by stonepacking C.40. Post-hole C.34 was sub-circular in shape with smooth moderately sloping sides anda flat base. It measured 0.8 m by 0.6 m by 0.35 m deep. The sides of the post-hole were linedwith large sub-rounded stones C.35 which would have acted as packing stones for the post.The fill was mid brown orange silt clay C.36 which contained moderate amounts of small tolarge stones. Post-hole C.42 was sub-circular in shape with concave steep sides and a flat base. Itmeasured 0.8 m by 0.73 m by 0.28 m deep. The sides of the post-hole were lined with peb-bles, packing stones and a mid yellowish brown sandy silt C.66. A post-pipe C.84 located in Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 28 34. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237the southern half of the post-hole measuring 0.58 m by 0.5 m by 0.14 m was identified andwas filled with a very soft dark brown black silt C.43, it was also filled with C.70. There weretwo stone-pads in the base of the post-hole, C.65 and C.67. Post-hole cut C.49 filled with C.50. C.74 Post-pipe cut in post-hole C.49. C.75 Fillof post-pipe C.74. The post-hole C.49 had a concave profile, was circular in plan, and wastruncated by C.74 and measured 0.40m N/S by 0.35m by 0.15m. The fill C.50 was friable midgrey black sand silt.The shallow remains of possible small post-hole C.37 were identified to the east ofpost-hole C. 34. It had smooth steep sides and a flat base and measured 0.18 m by 0.12 m by0.08 m deep. The lowest fill was a mid brown orange clay silt C.80 with occasional mediumsized stone inclusions. The upper fill was dark grey black clay silt C.38 which possibly repre-sents the decayed remains of a small post. Post-hole cut C.29 was filled with C.30, a firm mid greyish white clay silt with fre-quent large angular stones. The post-hole was circular in plan and U-shaped in profile. Itmeasured 0.24 m in diameter and was 0.08 m deep. The post-hole cut the upper fill of pitC.19. Post-hole cut C.90 was filled with C.91, a friable mid yellow brown sandy silt, withfrequent coarse gravel, and medium sub-angular stones. The post-hole was shallow withvertical sides in profile. It was circular in plan and measured 0.085 m E/W by 0.08 m andit was 0.08 m deep.Interpretation: The occasional large sub-angular stones present in fill C.41 of post-holeC.39 are possibly the remains of packing material which were used to support a post andhave now mixed with the fill of the post-hole. This suggests that the post was removed fromthe post-hole and not left to rot in situ. The same appears to have been the case for post-holeC.34. However, post-holes C.42 and C.37 appear to have rotted in situ. Post-hole C.90 waspossibly used to form structure with post-holes C.39 and C.42. These post-holes are asso-ciated with the hearth C.1. Post-holes and stake-holes are often found in association withhearths. The post-holes may denote the presence of a screen or a structure to shield the firefrom the prevailing south-westerly wind. 10.3.2.4 Pits Cuts C.3, C.13, C.15, C.17, C.19, C.32, C.47, Fills C.4, C.25, C.14, C.16, C.28, C.18, C.20,C.51, C.44, C.45, C.56, C.53, C.33, C.78, C.48.Description: This subgroup describes a series of seven pits situated near the hearth C.1. Pit C.3 was circular in plan, and it measured 0.48 m N/S by 0.44 m by 0.12 m deep. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 29 35. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237The fills (C.4 and C.25) were friable black clay silt constituting a dump of burnt material andfriable mid grey black sand silt, possibly representing natural silting up of the base of thepit. Pit C.13 was circular in plan and measured 1.6 m E/W by 1.0 m by 0.78 m. It was filledby C.14 a soft mid red brown clay silt. Pit C.15 was sub-circular in plan and measured 1.2 mN/S by 1.1 m by 0.16 m deep. It was filled by C.16 a soft dark grey black clay silt. Pit C.17 wassub-circular in plan and measured 1.2 m N/S by 1.1 m by 0.16 m deep. It was filled by C.28,the basal fill and C.18, a soft dark grey black clay silt.Pit C.19 was circular in plan and measured 1.1 m E/W by 1.02 m by 0.64 m deep. Itwas filled by deposits of friable dark red brown sand clay, C.20 and C.51, light brown yellowclay C.44, two lenses of charcoal rich burnt material C.45 and C.46, very soft mid brownorange sand silt C.56 and a friable mid grey clay silt C.53. Pit C.32 was sub-circular in planand measured 1.23 m N/S by 0.82 m by 0.23 deep. It was filled by a friable mid grey black siltclay C.33. Pit C.47 was sub-circular in plan, truncated by pits C.15 and C.17. Despite trunca-tion it measured 0.7 m N/S by 0.62 m by 0.36 m deep. It was filled by light grey white stifffriable clayey silt C.48 and C.78.Interpretation: A total of seven pits (C.3, C.13, C.15, C.17, C.19, C.32 and C.47) were foundin the area around the hearth C.1. On average these measured 1.07 m long, 0.87 m wideand 0.35 m deep. There were no finds from these pits and there was no indication of theiroriginal use. The fill of one of the pits (C.13, fill C.14) produced hazel charcoal which yieldeda Middle to Late Bronze Age radiocarbon date cal BC 1114-919 (UB-7356), demonstratingthat use of the pits was contemporary with use of the hearth. These pits were interpreted aseither rubbish pits, or possible early structural features that have been truncated. 10.3.3 Group 3 Group of pits to the north-west This group describes three pits that were in the northwest corner of the site, c. 5 m from themain area of activity.10.3.3.1 Pits Cuts: C.85, C.86, C.88, Fills: C.26, C.87, C.27. Description: Pit C.85 was oval in plan. It was truncated by C.86. The remaining dimensionswere 1.57 m N/S by 0.58 m by 0.28 m deep. It was filled by C.26 a deposit with evidence forin situ burning. The deposit was a soft dark red brown clay silt with moderate small to me-dium sub-angular stones. Pit C.86 was oval in plan. It truncated C.85 and measured 0.93 mN/S by 0.62 m by 0.31 m deep. It was filled by C.87 a dark red brown clay silt. Pit C.88 wascircular in plan and measured 1.18 m E/W by 1.03 m by 0.26 m deep. It was filled by C.27 a Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 30 36. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237soft mid grey brown clay silt. Interpretation: A total of three pits (C.85, C.86 and C.88) were located in the northwestcorner, c. 5 m from the main area of activity. Fill C.26 of pit cut C.85 has evidence of in situburning. This may have been a hearth or a pit used for disposal of hearth waste. Pit C.86truncates pit C.85. There was no evidence for a relationship between these pits and the otherarchaeological features discovered at the site. These pits are possibly rubbish pits, with C.85interpreted as a possible hearth. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 31 37. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. GalwayISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-223710.4 Appendix 4: Lithics Finds Report for E2445 Mackney By: Dr. Farina Sternke, MA, PhD, Department of Archaeology, University College CorkIntroduction One lithic find from the archaeological investigations along the route of the N6 Galway-Ballinasloe Road at Mackney, Co. Galway, were presented for analysis. The find is associatedwith a possible Bronze Age habitation site.Thickn. (mm) Find Number Length (mm) Width (mm)Comment Complete CondionRetouchMaterialContextCortex Type E2445:9:91 9 Chert Natural Chunk Yes Slightly weathered 5 16 11 Yes No some edge damage Table 1 Composition of the lithic assemblage from Mackney (E2445) Methodology All lithic artefacts were examined visually and catalogued using Microsoft Excel. The follow-ing details were recorded for each artefact: context information, raw material type, artefacttype, the presence of cortex, artefact condition, length, with and thickness measurements,fragmentation and the type of retouch (where applicable). The technological criteria recordedare based on the terminology and technology presented in Inizan et al. 1999. The generaltypological and morphological classifications are based on Woodman et al. 2006.Quantification The lithics are one natural chunk of chert (Table 1). Provenance The find was recovered from the topsoil. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/32 38. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237Condition: The lithics survives in slightly weathered complete condition. Technology/Morphology: The lithic is a natural chunk of chert which displays some edge damage on its right edge. Conservation Lithics do not require specific conversation, but should be stored in a dry, stable environment.Preferably, each lithic should be bagged separately and contact with other lithics should beavoided, so as to prevent damage and breakage, in particular edge damage which could laterbe misinterpreted as retouch. Larger and heavier items are best kept in individual boxes toavoid crushing of smaller assemblage pieces. Discussion The lithic find from the archaeological investigations at Mackney, Co. Galway, along theroute of the N6 Galway - Ballinasloe Road is a natural chunk of chert which has no archaeo-logical significance. BibliographyInizan, M.-L., M. Reduron-Ballinger, H. Roche and J. Tixier 1999.Technology andTerminology of Knapped Stone 5. CREP, Nanterre. Woodman, P. C., Finlay, N. and E. Anderson 2006. The Archaeology of a Collection: TheKeiller-Knowles Collection of the National Museum of Ireland. National Museum ofIreland Monograph Series 2. Wordwell, Bray. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 33 39. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-223710.5 Appendix 5: Plant remains analysis By Mary Dillon 10.5.1 Introduction The site excavated at Mackney E2445 represented the remains of Middle to Late Bronze Ageoccupation. The site comprised a large hearth, nine pits, three large stone-lined post-holes,and two smaller post-holes. Charcoal from the site yielded two Middle to Late Bronze Ageradiocarbon dates.10.5.2 Methodology Bulk soil samples were collected on site and were processed post-excavation using a simpleflotation method. Each sample was saturated in water to allow the carbonised plant materialto float. This was then poured off into a series of sieves (1 mm and 250 m), trapping the flot(floating material), which was air-dried and stored in air-tight plastic bags. The flots were sort-ed and scanned for plant material and charcoal using a low-powered binocular microscope(magnification x 10 to x 40). Nomenclature and taxonomic orders follows Stace (1997).10.5.3 Results Only one sample out of 29 produced plant remains. S31 from pit fill C27 contained an inde-terminate nut shell fragment.10.5.4 Discussion It is interesting to compare this site to other Bronze Age sites. Haugheys Fort is a Late BronzeAge hillfort in Ulster. Here large amounts of uncontaminated charred barley was found inpits in the interior along with some hazel nut shells and, in the innermost ditch, weed seedsand an intact apple were found (Mallory 1995, 29). At False Bay in Co. Galway a BronzeAge midden was excavated. Small amounts of charred barley grain were identified here (Mc-Cormick 1995, 13). At Ballynattin in Co. Wicklow Bronze Age structures and associatedfeatures produced emmer wheat grains, barley grains (probably naked barley), and indeter-minate wheat grains, which were also probably emmer. Nine emmer wheat spikelets andknotgrass seeds were also identified (Dillon 2006a). Area 1 at Tawlaght in Co. Kerry datedto the Bronze Age. Plant remains came from a variety of features, including post holes, pits,a stakehole and a slot trench. They were dominated by barley grains, cereal grains that could Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 34 40. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. GalwayISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237not be identified to type and weed seeds including those from the knotgrass family (Dillon2006b). A burnt mound site at Doughiska E2052, Co. Galway produced one hazelnut shellfragment and one cereal grain cf. barley (Dillon 2007a). A similar site nearby, MackneyE2443, produced no plant remains (Dillon 2007b).The lack of plant remains from this site may indicate a non-domestic use for the site. As il-lustrated above many Bronze Age settlement sites do produce plant remains, while at burntmound sites plant remains are rare. 10.5.5 Summary Only one indeterminate nut shell fragment was recovered from the 29 soil samples taken atthis site. In comparison to Bronze Age settlement sites this is rare, although some Bronze Agesites, such as burnt mounds, rarely produce plant remains. The lack of plant remains mayindicate a non-domestic use for the site.10.5.6 ReferencesDillon, M. 2006a. Analysis of plant remains from Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow. Unpublishedtechnical report produced for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Dillon, M. 2006b. Analysis of plant remains from Tawlaght, Co. Kerry. Unpublishedtechnical report produced for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Dillon, M. 2007a. Analysis of plant remains from Doughiska E2052, Co. Galway.Unpublished technical report produced for Valerie J. Keeley ltd. Dillon, M. 2007b. Analysis of plant remains from Mackney E2443, Co. Galway.Unpublished technical report produced for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. McCormick, F. 1995. False Bay, Co. Galway, in the Bronze Age, Archaeology Ireland, 9 (1),12-13. Mallory, J. 1995. Haugheys Fort Machas other twin?, Archaeology Ireland, 9 (1), 28-30. Stace, C.A. 1997 New Flora in the British Isles (2nd edition), Cambridge, CambridgeUniversity Press. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/35 41. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-223710.6 Appendix 6: Charcoal analysis By Mary Dillon Introduction The site excavated at Mackney E2445 represented the remains of Middle to Late Bronze Ageoccupation. The site comprised a large hearth, nine pits, three large stone-lined post-holes,and two smaller post-holes. Twenty-nine samples were submitted for analysis and 10 samplescontained charcoal.Methodology Bulk soil samples were collected on site and were processed post-excavation using a simpleflotation method. Each sample was saturated in water to allow the carbonised plant materialto float, which was then poured off into a series of sieves (1 mm and 250 m), trapping theflot (floating material). This was air-dried and stored in air-tight plastic bags. The flots weresorted and scanned for plant material and charcoal using a low-powered binocular micro-scope (magnification x 10 to x 40). All charcoal fragments of 2 mm or greater were identified.Each fragment was prepared for microscopic examination by fracturing it by hand and there-by exposing a clean surface along transverse, radial and tangential planes. All three planeswere examined at a range of magnifications (x5 to x100) under a Nikon stereo microscope.For reference literature the website wood anatomy was consulted. The number and weightof fragments were recorded for each charcoal type. Results In all, 181 charcoal fragments were identified from 10 samples (Table 1). In Figs 1 and 2 percentage frequencies of the various charcoal types based on fragment countand dry weight, respectively, are shown. The most frequent charcoal type overall is oak at47% or 77% by weight. This is followed in descending frequency by hazel 28% / 14%, po-moideae 8% / 3%, ash 7%/ 2%, Prunus type 4% / 1%, alder 3% / 2%, yew 2%/ 0.5% andwillow/aspen 1% / 0.5%. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 36 42. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. GalwayISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237Discussion Oak (Quercus) was the most common wood type in the Mackney E2445 assemblage, mak-ing up 47% (or 77% by weight). It forms 100% of S31 from C27, which was recorded as apit, but given the charcoal evidence was probably a post-hole. The charcoal was from a largetrunk or branch of a slow-growing oak (indicated by the wide and also straight tree rings),and the wood was slightly vitrified, indicating that it was possibly charred while below thesoil. The indications are that this sample of oak charcoal was the remains of an oak post.Oak is a slow-burning wood and gives out substantial heat as it burns. Its dominance in anassemblage usually indicates the smelting of metals (which it was widely used for) or the re-mains of oak posts. There are two native species of oak in Ireland, namely Q. petraea and Q.robur. Unfortunately, it is difficult to distinguish these species on the basis of wood anatomy(Grosser 1977). Oak would have become widespread and common in the Bronze Age but notdominant according to a pollen diagram from Mongon Bog near Clonmacnoise, Co. Offaly(Parkes & Mitchell 2000).Fig. 1 Percentage fragment count of wood types from Mackney E2445 Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/37 43. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. GalwayISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237Fig. 2 Percentage weight of wood types from Mackney E2445 Hazel (Corylus avellana) formed 28% (or 14% by weight) of the assemblage. It was widelyexploited in both prehistory and historical times for its nutritious nuts and supple rods whichwere widely used for building. Its coppice-like growth form makes it relatively easy to cut andthere are normally substantial quantities of dead wood available near ground level for fuelwood. A pollen diagram from Mongon Bog (Parkes & Mitchell 2000, 35-40) indicates thatduring the Bronze Age hazel was one of the most prominent trees.Pomoideae type charcoal - including Sorbus (rowan/whitebeam), Crataegus (hawthorn) andMalus (crab apple) - formed 8% / 3% of the assemblage. Woodlands and woodland-relatedenvironments are the normal habitats for the various woody plants that may be representedin this wood type, although Sorbus includes trees with quite different ecological preferencessuch as rowan (S. aucuparia) and whitebeams (e.g. S. hibernica, S. aria and S. rupicola). Animportant habitat, especially for hawthorn (Crataegus), is the so-called Mantel or edge com-munities of woodlands (cf. Wilmanns & Brun-Hool 1982). The spines of hawthorn affordit a degree protection from grazing and enable it to establish and survive in the face of lightgrazing. Pomoideae was poorly represented in the pollen record from Mongon Bog (it is in-sect pollinated).Ash (Fraxinus excelsior), accounting for 7%/ 2% by weight, is present in small amounts inmany of the samples. Ash makes great fuel, burned green or dead, and this may have influ- Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/38 44. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. GalwayISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237enced its selection. According to the pollen diagram it was readily available in the locality. Prunus type charcoal - including P. avium (wild cherry), P. padus (bird cherry) and P. spinosa(blackthorn) - formed 4% / 1% of the assemblage. Blackthorn may have been common inMantel vegetation while wild cherry would be expected to occur in the woodlands. Birdcherry may also have been represented but today it is largely confined to the northern part ofIreland (Preston et al. 2002). Webb et al. (1996) regards it as introduced though this view isnot universally accepted. Prunus was poorly represented in the Mongon Bog pollen record (itis insect pollinated).Alder (Alnus glutinosa), yew (Taxus baccata) and willow/aspen (Salix/populus) were recordedat under 3% of the total assemblage.The charcoal came from the hearth, post-holes and pits. There was no notable differencebetween the hearth samples and samples from the post-holes and pits, implying perhaps thatthe charcoal from the post-holes and pits came from the hearth originally. The only exceptionto this was S31 from C27. This sample was 100% oak. The charcoal was from a large trunkor branch of a slow growing oak (indicated by the wide and also straight tree rings), andthe wood was slightly vitrified, indicating that it was possibly charred whilst below the soil.The indications are that this sample of oak charcoal was the remains of an oak post. Whilethis context was recorded as a pit, it was possibly a post-hole. It is almost unknown to find asample of 100% mature oak wood, unless it is the burnt remains of a structure or oak thatwas used to fire smelting works. Oak is a strong, durable wood. The anatomy of oak woodlends itself excellently to wood working. It is easily split into planks, as it has large multiseri-ate rays. Tyloses form in the vessels of heartwood, and along with tannin deposits, make thewood virtually impenetrable (cf. Wilson & White 1986). It has been widely used in construc-tion throughout prehistory and also in the historical period. The use of oak in Bronze Agestructures is widely documented e.g. at Ballinderry 2 (Hencken 1942, 8) and at Raffin Fort(Newman 1995, 175). However, it is suspected that many of the older excavations that claimto have wetland settlement sites built entirely of oak are biased. There is a danger that hardtimbers were automatically regarded as oak which, on account of its hardness, was also morelikely to be preserved under wet conditions. There was therefore a bias towards oak in bothsampling and identification.The rest of the assemblage is probably the remains of locally gathered wood used to fire small Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/39 45. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237fires, exploiting easily available hazel, ash, pomoideae type such as hawthorn, rowan, white-beam and Prunus species such as blackthorn and cherry which were growing around the site.Alder, yew and willow/aspen were probably also present in the immediate locality. The pres-ence of wet-loving trees such as willow/aspen and alder indicates that the site may have beensituated near damp ground.Comparative studies It is interesting to compare the charcoal from Mackney E2445 with that from other BronzeAge sites. For example, at Lough Gur, Co. Limerick, several Bronze Age structures have beenexcavated by R.M Cleary. Hazel, willow/aspen, ash, oak and alder charcoal were recoveredfrom the post-holes with blackthorn, birch and elm charcoal in smaller amounts (McKeown2003, 149-51; Cleary 2003, 109-47). While the ash and oak were evidently used as structuralposts, it is suggested that other woods, in particular hazel, are the burnt remains of wattles.Charcoal analysis from fulachta fiadh excavated along the Gas Pipeline to the West demon-strates that a range of trees were gathered as firewood, particularly alder, hazel, oak and ash(ODonnell, 2005). ODonnells studies suggest the same wood types were used as fuel inburnt mounds across the country, which suggest that a selection process of some kind was inplace. These trees were also common at Kiltoton Colinstown burnt mound in Co. Westmeath(Dillon, 2006) and nearby burnt mound sites at Cooltymurraghy, Urraghy and Barnacragh(Dillon 2007a, 2007b, 2007c). Situated only 300 m from this site, Mackney E2443 consisted of pits and a hearth and wasprobably contemporary with Mackney E2445. The most frequent charcoal type there is hazelat 63% followed in descending frequency by pomoideae 17%, Prunus 7%, hazel/alder 3%,oak 3%, ash 3%, willow/aspen 3%, holly 1%, birch 1% and alder 1% (Dillon 2007d). Theanalysis surmised that the charcoal assemblage from that site reflected the remains of locallygathered wood.Summary Oak dominated the assemblage, followed by hazel, pomoideae, ash and prunus. Alder, yewand willow were also recorded. The dominance of oak is largely due to one sample which wasthe remains of an oak structural timber and probably indicates a post-hole. It is likely the restof the assemblage reflects locally gathered wood used for small firings. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 40 46. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 Fragment Count Sample Context Oak HazelPomoideae AshWillow/aspen AlderYew Prunus 2722716a 146 22 3 39626 1 22 27 31 50 106 41 19 14 12 13 11 18 71 3 716b 149 11 1 13 44316 2 28312 121 85 5015 1325 38Weight in grams Sample Context Oak Hazel Pomoideae AshWillow/aspen Alder YewPrunus 27 20.130.5816a140.12 1.80.30.25 960.180.18 0.070.06 0.03 2731 14.21 10 6 0.18 0.18 19141.910.01 0.070.020.04 1871 0.050.1916b140.150.25 0.02 13440.070.14 0.14 0.14 0.08 830.010.08 0.050.030.04 Table 1 Fragment count and weight of charcoal Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 41 47. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. Galway ISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237ReferencesCleary, R.M. 2003. Enclosed late Bronze Age habitation site and boundary wall at LoughGur, Co. Limerick. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 103C, 109-47. Dillon, M. 2006. Analysis of charcoal from Kiltotan Colinstown, Co. Westmeath.Unpublished technical report produced for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Dillon, M. 2007a. Analysis of charcoal from Cooltymurraghy E2448, Co. Galway.Unpublished technical report produced for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Dillon, M. 2007b. Analysis of charcoal from Urraghry E2449, Co. Galway. Unpublishedtechnical report produced for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Dillon, M. 2007c. Analysis of charcoal from Barnacragh E2446, Co. Galway. Unpublishedtechnical report produced for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Dillon, M. 2007d. Analysis of charcoal from Macknety E2443, Co. Galway. Unpublishedtechnical report produced for Eachtra Archaeological Projects. Hencken, H. ON. 1942. Ballinderry cranng no. 2. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 47C, 1-76. Grosser, D., 1977. Die Holzer Mitteleuropas. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. McKeown, S. 2003. The charred wood. In: Cleary R.M. (2003) Enclosed late Bronze Agehabitation site and boundary wall at Lough Gur, Co. Limerick. Proceedings of theRoyal Irish Academy, 103C, 149-151. Newman, C. 1995. Raffin Fort, Co. Meath: Neolithic and Bronze Age activity. In: E.Grogan & C. Mount (eds.) Annus archaeologiae: proceedings of the OIA winterconference 1993. Organisation of Irish Archaeologists, Dublin, 55-65. ODonnell, L. 2005 Environmental Archaeology from the Gas Pipeline to the West. Onhttp://www.mglarc.com. Parkes H.M & Mitchell FJG 2000 Vegetation History at Clonmacnoise, Co. Offaly inProceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol. 100B, No. 1, 35-40 Preston, C.D., Pearman, D.A. & Dines, T.D. (eds.) 2002. New atlas of the British and Irishflora. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/ 42 48. E2445 | A024/32 Mackney, Co. GalwayISSUE 2: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237Webb, D.A., Parnell, J. & Doogue, D. 1996 An Irish flora, 7th edn. Dundalgan Press,Dundalk. Wilmanns, O. & Brun-Hool, J. 1982. Irish Mantel and Saum vegetation. In: J. White (ed.)Studies on Irish vegetation, Royal Dublin Society, Dublin, 167-174. Wilson, K. & White, D.J.B. 1986 The anatomy of wood: its diversity and variability. Stobart, London. Wood Anatomy at http//:www.woodanatomy.ch. Permalink: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2445-mackney-co-galway/43

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