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  • Lime Tree Village Cawston

    Warwickshire

    Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    June 2013

    for

    on behalf of

    CgMs Consulting Ltd

    Retirement Villages Ltd

    CA Project: 660121 CA Report: 13165

  • Lime Tree Village

    Cawston Warwickshire

    Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    CA Project: 660121 CA Report: 13165

    prepared by Charlotte Haines, Project Supervisor

    date 30 May 2013

    checked by Ian Barnes, Project Manager

    date 30 May 2013

    approved by Simon Cox, Head of Fieldwork

    signed

    date 5 June 2013

    issue 02

    This report is confidential to the client. Cotswold Archaeology accepts no responsibility or liability to any third party to whom this report, or any part of it, is made known. Any such party relies upon this report entirely

    at their own risk. No part of this report may be reproduced by any means without permission.

    Cotswold Archaeology

    Cirencester Milton Keynes Andover

    Building 11 Unit 4 Office 49

    Kemble Enterprise Park Cromwell Business Centre Basepoint Business Centre

    Kemble, Cirencester Howard Way, Newport Pagnell Caxton Close, Andover

    Gloucestershire, GL7 6BQ MK16 9QS Hampshire, SP10 3FG t. 01285 771022 t. 01908 218320 t. 01264 326549 f. 01285 771033

    e. [email protected]

  • Cotswold Archaeology

    1

    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    CONTENTS

    SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................... 2

    1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 3

    The site .............................................................................................................. 3

    Archaeological background ................................................................................ 4

    Archaeological objectives ................................................................................... 4

    Methodology....................................................................................................... 5

    2. RESULTS (FIGS 2-7) ......................................................................................... 6

    The finds and palaeoenvironmental evidence ..................................................... 11

    3. DISCUSSION ..................................................................................................... 12

    4. CA PROJECT TEAM .......................................................................................... 16

    5. REFERENCES ................................................................................................... 17

    APPENDIX A: CONTEXT DESCRIPTIONS ................................................................... 18

    APPENDIX B: CONTEXT GROUP CONCORDANCE .................................................... 24

    APPENDIX C: THE FINDS ............................................................................................. 25

    APPENDIX D: OASIS REPORT FORM .......................................................................... 26

    LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Fig. 1 Site location plan (1:25,000)

    Fig. 2 Excavation area plan showing archaeological features, cropmarks and geophysical

    survey results (1:1000)

    Fig. 3 Area 1; plan (1:250)

    Fig. 4 Area 2; plan (1:250)

    Fig. 5 Area 3; plan (1:250)

    Fig. 6 Area 1 & 2; sections (1:20)

    Fig. 7 Area 2; sections (1:20)

    Fig. 8 Area 3; sections (1:20)

  • Cotswold Archaeology

    2

    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    SUMMARY

    Project Name: Lime Tree Village

    Location: Cawston, Warwickshire

    NGR: SP 4474 2730

    Type: Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    Date: 9 23 April 2013

    Planning Reference: R11/2016

    Location of Archive: To be deposited with Rugby Art Gallery and Museum

    Accession Number: RTA.1019

    Site Code: LTV 13

    An archaeological strip, map and record excavation was undertaken by Cotswold

    Archaeology in April 2013 at Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire. Three areas were

    excavated.

    The excavation identified a number of undated shallow drainage gullies and boundary

    ditches which may be associated with the deserted medieval village of Cawston located

    immediately to the north-west of the site.

    Enclosure ditches and boundary ditches of post-medieval date were also identified and are

    likely to be associated with the post-medieval manor at Cawston.

    The function of a number of undated pits was not ascertained. However, a number of

    undated postholes are likely to represent early phases of a boundary depicted on late 19th-

    century Ordnance Survey maps and an extant boundary.

    A limited artefactual assemblage was recovered, but included a single sherd of Roman

    pottery, a small quantity of medieval pottery, an iron axe head of probable medieval date and

    a quantity of post-medieval ceramic building material and glass. The limited nature of the

    medieval artefactual assemblage suggests the site is likely to have lain in the agricultural

    hinterland of the adjacent area of medieval settlement. It appears to have continued in

    agriculture throughout the post-medieval period and into the modern era.

    http://www.planningportal.rugby.gov.uk/fulldetail.asp?AltRef=R11/2016&ApplicationNumber=&AddressPrefix=lime+tree+village+&submit3=Go

  • Cotswold Archaeology

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    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    1. INTRODUCTION

    1.1 In April 2013 Cotswold Archaeology (CA) carried out an archaeological strip, map

    and record excavation for CgMs Consulting on behalf of Retirement Villages Ltd at

    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire (centred on NGR: SP 4474 2730; Fig. 1).

    The strip map and record excavation was undertaken to fulfil a condition attached to

    a planning consent granted by Rugby Borough Council for the construction of

    residential housing forming an extension to Lime Tree Village centred around a care

    home and care suites at the site (Rugby Borough Council Planning Ref: R11/2016)

    Condition no. 13 stated:

    :

    13. No development shall take place, including the creation and formation of

    any associated builders compounds and/or construction access routes, until

    the applicant, or their agents or successors in title, has secured the

    implementation of a programme of archaeological work in accordance with a

    written scheme of investigation which has been submitted by the applicant and

    approved in writing by the Local Planning Authority.

    1.2 The strip, map and record excavation was carried out in accordance with a

    Specification for Archaeological Observation and Recording of Below-Ground Works

    (CgMs 2011) prepared by CgMs Consulting and approved by Anna Stocks, Planning

    Archaeologist at Warwickshire County Council (WCC) and archaeological advisor to

    Rugby Borough Council (RBC). The fieldwork also followed the Standard and

    Guidance for Archaeological Field Evaluation (IfA 2009), the Management of

    Archaeological Projects (English Heritage 1991) and the Management of Research

    Projects in the Historic Environment (MORPHE): Project Managers Guide (English

    Heritage 2006). It was monitored by Anna Stocks.

    The site

    1.3 The development area encloses an area of approximately 3.2ha, and comprises a

    field under rough pasture. A north-east/south-west aligned watercourse runs through

    the centre of the site. The site lies at approximately 110m AOD, with the ground

    dipping along the line of the watercourse.

    http://www.planningportal.rugby.gov.uk/fulldetail.asp?AltRef=R11/2016&ApplicationNumber=&AddressPrefix=lime+tree+village+&submit3=Go

  • Cotswold Archaeology

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    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    1.4 The underlying bedrock geology of the area is mapped as Charmouth Mudstone

    Formation of the Jurrasic Period with overlying superficial deposits of Dunsmore

    Gravel and Wolston Clay (BGS 2013).

    Archaeological background

    1.5 An archaeological desk-based assessment (CgMs 2009) and subsequent

    archaeological evaluation (JMHS 2009) of the site were carried out in 2009;

    reference to these documents should be made for a full archaeological background.

    However, the results of these studies are summarised below.

    1.6 The site is situated adjacent to the southern edge of the deserted medieval

    settlement of Cawston (Warwickshire HER MWA4135 / MWA4144). English

    Heritages National Mapping Programme (NMP) and a geophysical survey (Bartlett-

    Clark Consultancy 2011) have identified cropmarks likely to be associated with

    medieval settlement activity extending into the western and southern central parts of

    the site. Archaeological evaluation of the site in 2009 identified six field boundary

    ditches, a drain and an area of ridge and furrow. Medieval pottery from one of the

    ditches indicates that the remains are that of the very southern limit of the deserted

    medieval village of Cawston (JMHS 2009).

    1.7 An archaeological evaluation of the field immediately to the north of the site was

    carried out in 2012 (CA 2012). The evaluation identified Early and Middle Iron Age

    ditches and pits, probably representing the remains of an unenclosed Iron Age

    settlement in addition to medieval enclosures believed to represent the outer limits

    of the deserted medieval village.

    Archaeological objectives

    1.8 The objectives of the archaeological strip, map and record excavation were to:

    Ensure the adequate recording of any buried archaeological remains that may

    be exposed within the current defined limits of the archaeological strip, map

    and record excavation areas prior to their removal by development

    Produce a plan of all archaeological features exposed within the

    archaeological strip, map and record excavation areas

  • Cotswold Archaeology

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    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    Investigate and record exposed archaeological features/deposits in order to

    clarify both their date, character, and significance and to provide a clear

    understanding of their chronology

    Ensure that any artefactual/environmental evidence is recorded, assessed

    and reported to an acceptable standard

    Methodology

    1.9 The fieldwork comprised excavation of three areas (Area 1 measured approximately

    1400m, Area 2 measured approximately 1025m and Area 3 measured

    approximately 525m), in the locations shown on the attached plan (Fig. 2). The

    extent of both Areas 1 and 2 was slightly reduced from the area specified in the

    Specification for Archaeological Observation and Recording of Below-Ground

    Works, to avoid buried services, a badger sett exclusion zone and the watercourse.

    The areas were set out on OS National Grid (NGR) co-ordinates using Leica GPS

    and surveyed in accordance with CA Technical Manual 4 Survey Manual (2012).

    1.10 All areas were excavated by mechanical excavator equipped with a toothless

    grading bucket. All machine excavation was undertaken under constant

    archaeological supervision to the top of the first significant archaeological horizon or

    the natural substrate, whichever was encountered first. Where archaeological

    deposits were encountered they were excavated by hand in accordance with CA

    Technical Manual 1: Fieldwork Recording Manual (2007).

    1.11 Deposits were assessed for their palaeoenvironmental potential in accordance with

    CA Technical Manual 2: The Taking and Processing of Environmental and Other

    Samples from Archaeological Sites (2003). No deposits were identified that required

    sampling. All artefacts recovered were processed in accordance with Technical

    Manual 3 Treatment of Finds Immediately after Excavation (1995).

    1.12 The archive and artefacts from the evaluation are currently held by CA at their

    offices in Kemble. Subject to the agreement of the legal landowner the artefacts will

    be deposited with Rugby Art Gallery and Museum under accession number

    RTA.1019 along with the site archive. A summary of information from this project,

    set out within Appendix D, will be entered onto the OASIS online database of

    archaeological projects in Britain.

  • Cotswold Archaeology

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    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    2. RESULTS (FIGS 2-8)

    2.1 This section provides an overview of the archaeological strip, map and record

    excavation results; detailed summaries of the recorded contexts, context groups

    (used here only where there are multiple interventions per feature) and finds are to

    be found in Appendices A, B and C respectively.

    Area 1 (Figs 2, 3 & 6)

    2.2 Natural substrate comprising Dunsmore Gravel, 1004, was exposed in Area 1 at an

    average depth of 0.45m below present ground level (bpgl). Two areas were

    identified where colluvial gravel deposits had settled into large depressions in the

    natural substrate: 1088 in the northern corner of the area and 1003 adjacent to the

    south-western limit of the area. The earliest deposit observed along the south-

    eastern limit of the area was alluvial clay, 1093, which overlay the natural gravel.

    Three north-west/south-east aligned ditches were observed. Undated Ditch A was

    the most south-westerly of these ditches. It cut the natural substrate and contained a

    single fill comprising orange brown sandy silt. Its south-eastern terminal end was

    identified just to the north of colluvial deposit, 1003. Two ditches, B and C were

    identified to the north-east of Ditch A, both had previously been identified by the

    archaeological evaluation in 2009 (JMHS 2009). Ditch B cut the natural substrate

    and contained a single light yellow brown clay fill, from which no dating evidence

    was recovered. Ditch C was aligned roughly parallel to Ditch B but was much larger

    in size, averaging 3.4m in width and 0.65m in depth. The ditch contained sequences

    of silted fills (1026, 1027, 1028 and 1087 in the westernmost intervention, and 1042,

    1043, 1044, 1045 and 1046 in the eastern intervention). The fills appeared to have

    derived from silting and comprised grey brown sandy clays with the uppermost fill in

    each intervention, 1046 and 1087, comprising dark red brown sandy clay. No dating

    evidence was recovered from the ditch which was cut by two modern field drains

    1033 and 1031/1047. The ditch was seen in plan to cut colluvial deposit 1088 to the

    north and alluvial clay 1093, to the south.

    2.3 Twenty undated postholes were observed in the western part of Area 1, 1015, 1017,

    1019, 1021, 1023, 1035, 1037, 1039, 1049, 1051, 1055, 1057, 1059, 1061, 1063,

    1067, 1069, 1071, 1073 and 1075. These features cut the natural substrate, 1004.

    They varied in size between 0.2m and 0.58m in diameter and between 0.08m and

    0.3m in depth. They were all filled by a single mid to dark grey brown or dark yellow

  • Cotswold Archaeology

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    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    brown sandy clay. Some very small fragments of ceramic building material (CBM)

    recovered from the fill of posthole 1035 could only be loosely dated to the medieval

    to modern periods. Posthole 1075 was truncated by a small pit or disturbed

    posthole, 1077. This feature, 1077, and the posthole which it appears to replace,

    1075, along with undated posthole 1073 appear to align with three other modern

    postholes, 1065, 1089 and 1091. These features were identified as modern, either

    through their post-dating subsoil 1002, or through the presence of modern finds

    within their fills. It is likely these five features (1065, 1073, 1075/1077, 1089 and

    1091) represent a modern fence line. No other clear posthole alignments could be

    identified but it is possible they could form structures, possibly agricultural buildings

    or stock pens.

    2.4 The articulated remains of a goat were found to have been placed in a small pit,

    1083, also located in the western part of the site. The pit was an irregular oval and

    the animals remains were overlain by mid grey brown silty clay, 1084. No dating

    evidence was recovered from this fill.

    2.5 With the exception of the modern posthole fence line (1065, 1073, 1075, 1077,

    1089, and 1091) all the features were sealed by a layer of subsoil comprising mid

    orange brown silty clay and gravel, 1002. A number of additional modern features

    were also recorded cutting this layer. This included a further two postholes 1009 and

    1053 and a north-west/south-east aligned field drain, 1011. Modern glass and

    pottery was recovered from the fills of posthole 1009 and 1053.

    2.6 A deposit of modern made ground, 1001, was observed along the south-eastern

    limit of the excavated area, overlying the subsoil. This deposit was not removed as

    dumped fragments of asbestos tile were found to exist within a large rectangular cut

    feature adjacent to this area. The subsoil and made ground were sealed by topsoil

    1000.

    Area 2 (Figs 2, 4, 6 & 7)

    2.7 The earliest deposit observed over most of Area 2 was natural substrate comprising

    Dunsmore Gravel, 2002. However, a later layer of alluvial clay, 2004, was the

    earliest deposit exposed in the southern part of the area. A sondage excavated in

    the southern corner of Area 2 revealed that the natural gravel 2002, was sealed by

    an earlier layer of alluvial clay, 2099. This deposit was in turn covered by a layer of

  • Cotswold Archaeology

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    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    peat approximately 0.20m in thickness, 2098. The peat was sealed by the later layer

    of alluvium, 2004. This deposit extended approximately 10m upslope from the south-

    eastern limit of the area. All of the archaeological features that extended downslope

    into this area post-dated alluvial deposit 2004.

    2.8 The earliest features identified in Area 2 comprised a number of shallow gullies.

    Gully D was aligned north-west/south-east and contained a single silted fill. No

    dating evidence was recovered from this feature but it clearly pre-dated a north-

    east/south-west aligned Gully, E, from which a single sherd of 11th to 13th-century

    pottery was recovered. The southern terminus of Gully D was removed by a modern

    drainage feature. Two other north-west/south-east aligned gullies were identified, G

    and H. Both had single fills comprising grey yellow sandy clay from which no dating

    evidence was recovered. Gully G was seen in plan to be cut by a large north-

    west/south-east aligned Ditch, F. This ditch corresponds to an anomaly identified by

    the geophysical survey (Bartlett-Clark Consultancy 2011) and to a cropmark

    identified by the NMP. It was 3m wide and 0.96m in depth. It contained four fills and

    was truncated by a modern drainage feature, 2033. Six fragments of tile dating to

    the post-medieval period were recovered from the earliest of these fills, 2037. The

    ditch cut alluvial clay layer 2004 towards the south-eastern limit of the area. Three

    undated fills were recorded at the terminal. Gully H was cut by a further large ditch,

    I, running parallel to Ditch F. This ditch was 1.44m in width and 0.84m in depth and

    had very steeply sloping sides. It contained four fills and was also truncated along its

    southern edge by a modern drainage feature, 2026. No dating evidence was

    recovered from this feature. A possible large circular pit, 2014 near the western

    edge of Area 2 was identified. No evidence for the date or function of the pit was

    found. Both of the north-west/south-east aligned ditches and the pit were cut by a

    further large ditch, J, which ran north-east/south-west before turning 90 to run

    north-west/south-east where it removed the end of Ditch I. Ditch J was 2.15m in

    width and 0.92m in depth and contained two fills. The lower fill, 2012, contained

    post-medieval CBM and 19th-century glass. Similarly to Ditch F its terminal cut

    alluvial clay deposit 2004. The terminal contained a single undated silted fill.

    2.9 A further north-west/south-east aligned ditch, K, was identified to the north-east of

    Ditches F and I. Ditch K corresponds to one of the ditches identified by the

    geophysical survey (Bartlett-Clark Consultancy 2011) and NMP. No dating evidence

    was recovered from its single fill. It was truncated along its northern edge by a

    modern drainage feature which removed its southern terminus. A possible undated

  • Cotswold Archaeology

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    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    north-east/south-west aligned spur from the ditch was identified, L. This narrow gully

    contained a single fill and terminated approximately 4.5m to the north-east of Ditch

    K. The gully was truncated by a large circular pit, 2078. The function of the pit could

    not be ascertained and no dating evidence was recovered from its three fills 2079,

    2080 and 2081, which appeared to have resulted from silting. A large north-

    east/south-west ditch, O was identified in the north-eastern corner of the area. This

    feature contained three fills. Pottery of 11th to 13th-century date was recovered from

    the two later fills, 2086 and 2087. A single small sherd of residual pottery broadly

    dated to the Romano-British period was also recovered from fill 2087. This ditch, O,

    was cut by a further large north-west/south-east aligned ditch, N. Two fills were

    identified within this ditch where it met the north-western limit of excavation. The

    earlier fill, 2044 comprised dark grey brown silty clay whilst the upper fill, 2045

    comprised grey brown silty clay. A small fragment of burnt bone was recovered from

    the earlier fill 2044, whilst medieval pottery was recovered from the later fill, 2045.

    The ditch was truncated by numerous post-medieval field drains. A narrow

    curvilinear gully, M was identified to the south-west of Ditch N. The gully, M, cut

    Ditch Spur, L and was truncated by an area of root disturbance, 2053. The

    relationship between the large Ditch, N, and the Gully, M, could not be established

    due to the similarity of fills 2056 and 2060 which comprised dark grey clay silt. It is

    probable that they are contemporary.

    2.10 Two possible pits, 2016 and 2029 were identified to the north-west of Ditch N. Both

    were roughly circular and shallow and contained single fills 2017 and 2030 from

    which no finds were recovered.

    2.11 A further three intercutting pits were identified in the central part of the area: 2090,

    2093 and 2095. Pits 2090 and 2095 were of a similar size and shape to one another

    and to Pits 2014, 2078, 2016, and 2029. Pit 2090 contained two fills: 2091 and

    2092. It was cut by a much smaller circular pit, 2093, to the south west. This pit

    contained a single fill 2094 which was in turn cut by the second large Pit 2095. The

    latest pit also contained two fills: 2096 and 2097. Two fragments of burnt flint were

    recovered from the secondary fill of the earliest pit, 2092.

    2.12 A number of areas of disturbed natural substrate were observed, concentrated in the

    central and northern parts of the area. Investigation identified these features as

    areas of root disturbance and tree throws.

  • Cotswold Archaeology

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    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    2.13 All archaeological features were either sealed by subsoil 2001 or by a patchy

    deposit of modern made ground 2003 which was located in the northern part of the

    area. Both of these deposits were sealed by topsoil 2000 from which a few residual

    sherds of 12th to 14th-century pottery were recovered.

    Area 3 (Figs 2, 5 & 8)

    2.14 Dunsmore Gravel, 3002, was the earliest deposit observed over most of Area 3 with

    alluvial clay, 3104, extending over the south-eastern part of the area. All

    archaeological features cut the gravel and/or the alluvium.

    2.15 A series of intercutting ditches and gullies were identified in Area 3. Gully P was

    aligned roughly north/south. Two undated fills were identified in the central part of

    the gully: 3039 and 3038. The gully terminated just to the north of alluvial clay

    deposit 3104 where a single fill, 3078, was recorded. To the north the gully was

    truncated by both a small circular pit, 3033, and a large rectangular pit, 3040. No

    dating evidence was recovered from any of these features.

    2.16 To the west of Gully P a large Ditch Q, and a further narrow Gully R were identified;

    both running north-west/south-east parallel to one another. The termini of these

    features were identified close to the terminus of Gully P, again just to the north of

    alluvial deposit 3104. Gully R appeared to turn approximately 90 in the central part

    of the area, to run north-east/south-west. No dating evidence was recovered from

    either the ditch or the gully. A further Gully, S, (probably the same as Gully E in Area

    2) truncated Ditch Q and north-south Gully P. No dating evidence was recovered

    from Gully S in this area but pottery of 11th to 13th-century date was recovered from

    this feature in Area 2. A contemporary north-west/south-east aligned spur from this

    gully, 3052, was recorded.

    2.17 A further two undated gullies were recorded in Area 3. A shallow, north-east/south-

    west aligned gully, Z, was recorded in the north-western part of the area and a

    shallow gully, U, was identified at the north-eastern limit of excavation. Gully Z

    contained two fills 3010 and 3011 comprising grey brown sandy silts. Gully U

    contained a single fill, 3025. The majority of Gully U was truncated by a large ditch,

    T, which also cut Gullies R and Z and Ditch Q in the central part of the site. Ditch T

    was aligned north-west/south-east and turned 90 to run north-east/south-west.

    Evidence of a re-cut along the length of Ditch T was observed, Ditch V. A fragment

  • Cotswold Archaeology

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    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    of glazed pottery of 15th to 17th-century date was recovered from the earliest fill of

    the re-cut, 3017, however post-medieval material was recovered from the basal fill of

    this feature where it continued into Area 2 (Ditch J) where the original profile was

    removed. The original Ditch, T, was also truncated in the centre of the area by the

    terminal end of another ditch, W, which ran north-west/south-east and turned to run

    north-east/south-west. Residual pottery of 12-14th-century date and post-medieval

    CBM was recovered from the fills of Ditch W: 3054 and 3071. Ditch W was in turn

    cut by an undated Ditch X, which ran on a similar alignment. Possible evidence of a

    further shallow gully terminus, Y, truncating Ditch X was observed against the south-

    western limit of excavation.

    2.19 All the features observed in Area 3 were sealed by a layer of subsoil, 3001, where it

    was in existence or by topsoil 3000. An iron axe head which may date to the

    medieval period was recovered from the topsoil in this area.

    The finds and palaeoenvironmental evidence

    2.20 Artefactual material was recorded from 16 deposits (Appendix C). Included are small

    quantities of Roman and medieval pottery and an iron axe head of probable

    medieval date (below).

    Pottery

    2.21 A single small bodysherd in a fine grey-firing fabric of broad Roman date (1st to 4th

    centuries AD) was recorded as a re-deposited find from medieval-dated ditch fill

    2087 (ditch O).

    2.22 Medieval pottery amounting to 16 sherds (62 g) was recorded from six deposits. The

    condition is poor, in particular for the dominant calcareous shelly fabric, where the

    (fossil shell) inclusions are largely leached. The shelly fabric, noted from deposits

    2043, 2086, 2087 and 3071, is representative of types known from the east of

    Warwickshire and abundant in Northamptonshire (Soden and Ratkai 1998: type

    CS05). It is broadly dateable across the 12th to 14th centuries. A single rimsherd in

    this type was recorded, from ditch fill 2087 (Ditch O), the vessel represented was

    identifiable as a jar with everted/expanded rim. Bodysherds in a black-firing

    unglazed sandy coarseware were recorded from deposits 2069 and 2000. Similar

    fabrics are known from across Warwickshire (ibid; 22-34: group RS); the tradition

  • Cotswold Archaeology

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    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    spanning the 12th14th centuries. A single sherd of Midlands Purple type (ibid. 199:

    type MP) from deposit 3017 (Ditch V) can be dated to the 15th to the mid-17th

    centuries.

    Other material

    2.23 Small quantities of ceramic building material and glass are post-medieval or later in

    date (Appendix C). An iron axe head from topsoil 3000 exhibits the narrow,

    symmetrical-blade and expanding lugs which define some medieval forms (Goodall

    1980, 20-22).

    Faunal remains

    2.24 A small animal bone assemblage consisting of 269 fragments and 1854 grams was

    recovered from five deposits. Only one deposit, 2012, from Ditch J, could be dated;

    to the 18th to 19th centuries. The only species that could be identified with any

    confidence were cattle, sheep and goat with the remaining fragments being of sheep

    size. All of these species are common in the majority of faunal assemblages in the

    UK.

    2.25 The majority of the bone is in a poor state of preservation, displaying a high degree

    of fragmentation due to exposure to the elements. The exception to this is the well-

    preserved and almost complete skeleton of an aged, adult goat recovered from

    deposit 1084. This animal was between 4 and 6 years old and shows no sign of

    slaughter or butchery, so can be assumed to have died of natural causes.

    3. DISCUSSION

    3.1 The archaeological strip map and record excavation identified archaeological

    remains indicative of prolonged agricultural use of the site. The very limited

    artefactual assemblage recovered indicates these agricultural features are likely to

    date to the medieval, post-medieval and modern periods. With the exception of a

    single sherd of Roman pottery from a residual context, no finds pre-dating the

    medieval period were recovered. The features can be broadly split into five phases.

    Phase 1: Undated (pre-medieval?)

    3.2 A number of undated features were identified that could pre-date the medieval

    period. These features comprise Gullies D, G, H, L, P, R, U and Z and Ditches K

    and Q. No dating evidence was recovered from any of these features which are

  • Cotswold Archaeology

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    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    phased based on their stratigraphic relationships to later features. All of these

    ditches and gullies were aligned north-west/south-east with the exception of Gully P

    which was orientated north/south and Gully L which may represent a contemporary

    north-east/south-west aligned spur from north-west/south-east Ditch K. The gullies

    dating to this phase are likely to have performed an irrigation function, draining

    excess water from the plateau at the top of the slope down toward the central part of

    the site, where there is now a watercourse. Ditches Q and K are parallel to one

    another and may represent early boundaries, pre-dating the medieval or post-

    medieval enclosure of the area. Ditch K corresponds to a cropmark identified by the

    NMP which does not appear to be contemporary with the cropmarks forming

    enclosed areas (CgMs 2009).

    Phase 2: Medieval

    3.3 Pottery dating to the 12-14th centuries was recovered from two north-east/south-

    west aligned linear features, Gully E/S and Ditch O. Although only a single sherd of

    medieval pottery was recovered from Gully E/S it stratigraphically post-dates Gullies

    D and P and Ditch Q of Phase 1 and pre-dates Ditch F which dates to the post-

    medieval period. In contrast to the gullies and ditches of Phase 1, Gully E/S and

    Ditch O run across the slope and may represent agricultural boundaries rather than

    drainage features.

    Phase 3: Late medieval or early post-medieval

    3.4 A number of north-west/south-east aligned ditches (Ditches A, B and I) along with

    two ditches appearing to form parts of enclosed areas (Ditches T and M/N) may date

    to the late medieval or early post-medieval periods. The limited artefactual

    assemblage recovered from these features means their date is uncertain. Medieval

    pottery recovered from two ditches assigned to this phase (from Ditch N, recovered

    during this excavation, and from Ditch B recovered in the 2009 evaluation (JMHS

    2009) was present only as individual sherds in the uppermost fills of these features.

    These ditches are likely to represent agricultural boundaries or enclosures. Whilst it

    is possible they could represent the south-easterly extent of agricultural land

    associated with the deserted medieval settlement of Cawston, known to be located

    in the adjacent north-westerly field (MWA4135 / MWA4144), it is also possible that

    they are later in date and demarcate boundaries or enclosed areas associated with

    Cawston post-medieval Manor (MWA4138), located c. 250m south-east of the site.

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    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    3.5 The six large, circular pits (2014, 2016, 2029, 2078, 2090 and 2095) identified in

    Area 2 were morphologically similar. It is possible they are contemporary with one

    another and may date to this phase, although no dating evidence was recovered

    from them. However, pit 2078 was proven to post-date possible medieval Ditch K/L

    and Pit 2014 was proven to pre-date late post-medieval Ditch J/V. The function of

    these pits was not apparent.

    3.6 No evidence indicating the continuation of the possible ridge and furrow recorded

    during the 2009 evaluation, between Areas 2 and 3 (JMHS 2009), was identified.

    3.7 The archaeological strip map and record excavation suggests agricultural remains

    associated with the deserted medieval settlement may extend further to the south-

    east than had been identified previously. Although the numerous drainage gullies

    and ditches of Phase 1 and 2 are not closely dateable they are proven to pre-date

    ditches which are likely to be associated with post-medieval Cawston Manor. They

    lead downslope, probably to drain the settled area situated at the top of the slope,

    into an area now containing a watercourse. No clear evidence for structures or

    industrial activity on the site was found. The limited nature of the artefactual

    assemblage suggests the site lies in the agricultural hinterland of the area occupied

    in the medieval period. The iron axe head recovered from Area 3 was of a broadly

    medieval form but was unstratified.

    Phase 4: Post-medieval

    3.8 Ditches C, F, J/V, W, X and Y are believed to date to the post-medieval period.

    Ditches F and C were very substantial in size, both being over 3m in width. Both

    correspond to cropmarks identified by the NMP and to linear anomalies identified by

    the geophysical survey (Bartlett-Clark Consultancy 2011). Post-medieval tile was

    recovered from one of these ditches, which appear to form two sides of a

    rectangular enclosure measuring approximately 130m in width. The enclosure is

    likely to be associated with the post-medieval manor at Cawston.

    3.9 Post-medieval CBM was recovered from Ditch W which was aligned broadly parallel

    to Ditches C and F and which appeared to have undergone a re-cut (Ditch X).

    Possible Ditch Terminal Y was stratigraphically proven to post-date this feature. This

    ditch leads down the slope towards the modern watercourse, and is likely to be

    associated with drainage.

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    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    3.10 Ditch J/V was proven to post-date Ditch F and is therefore the latest of the ditches

    identified by the excavation. One sherd of pottery dating from the 15th to 17th

    centuries was recovered from the basal fill of Ditch J/V in Area 3 although this find is

    likely to be residual as a large quantity of 18th to 19th-century glass, tile and brick

    was recovered from the primary fill of the same feature in Area 2. It is likely this ditch

    performed a drainage function rather than acting as a boundary as it had an unusual

    shape in plan, initially following the course of earlier Ditch, T, before turning to run

    downslope. This suggests Ditch T was still visible in the landscape as an earthwork

    at the time Ditch V/J was created.

    Undated

    3.11 The large number of undated postholes identified in the western part of Area 1 could

    be indicative of the presence of timber built structures on the site, possibly stock

    enclosures, pens or agricultural buildings of medieval date. It is however more likely

    the postholes relate to phases of a north-west/south-east aligned boundary depicted

    the 1887 and 1905 Ordnance Survey maps or with earlier phases of the extant

    north-western site boundary. The line of postholes in Area 1, which was proven to

    be modern in origin, also roughly aligns with the boundary shown on the historic

    maps. The boundary appears to have been removed by 1925, when it is no longer

    depicted on OS mapping.

    3.12 The date of a pit containing the articulated remains of a goat in Area 1 could not be

    established. Given the age of the individual it is likely that this represents disposal

    rather than having any greater significance.

    3.13 The date and function of small oval Pit 3033, and large rectangular Pit 3040, in Area

    3 remain uncertain although both were proven to post-date possible medieval Gully

    P.

    Overall

    3.14 The completed phases of archaeological work, both within the site and its near

    vicinity, alongside desk based research demonstrate the gradual shift of activity

    within the area. This is primarily in relation from the core of the deserted medieval

    village to the west to Cawston Manor to the east.

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    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    3.15 The strip map and record excavation has confirmed that agriculture was the primary

    use of the site from the medieval period to the present day. With the exception of a

    single sherd of Roman pottery, no evidence for the use of the site prior to the

    medieval period was identified during this excavation. This is in contrast to the

    results of the archaeological evaluation located immediately to the north-east of the

    site (CA 2012), where early and middle Iron Age (5th to 1st-century BC) remains

    were identified. In addition to the Iron Age remains, the evaluation also identified

    enclosures believed to be associated with the deserted medieval village of Cawston.

    The earliest phase of features identified by the strip map and record excavation may

    be associated with these medieval enclosures, though these likely represent the

    very fringe of activity given that the ridge and furrow identified previously (JMHS

    2009) was not visible within the site, but also by the limited nature of the medieval

    artefactual assemblage recovered during the excavation.

    3.16 These agricultural features were superseded by enclosure and boundary ditches of

    the post-medieval period, highlighted by their orientation shift to north-west to south-

    east, which are likely to have been associated with Cawston Manor (to the south-

    east of the site); the manor (or grange) at Cawston being developed as a mansion in

    the late 16th century (Salzman 1951). The manor was pulled down in 1829 and a

    farmhouse erected in its place (Bloxam, 1861), as such the agricultural activity

    throughout the post-medieval era and into the modern period was likely associated

    in the majority with the mansion and potentially later with the farmhouse.

    4. CA PROJECT TEAM

    4.1 Fieldwork was undertaken by Charlotte Haines, assisted by Alex Thomson, Chris

    Watts, Jerry Stone, Alex Portch, Chris Leonard, Tom Weavill, Jay Wood, Sarah

    Foster, Sophie Wood, Eddy Doherty, Jeff Muir and Jamie Wright. The report was

    written by Charlotte Haines, assisted by Hazel ONeill. The illustrations were

    prepared by Jon Bennett. The archive has been compiled by Charlotte Haines, and

    prepared for deposition by James Johnson. The project was managed for CA by Ian

    Barnes.

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    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    5. REFERENCES

    Bartlett-Clark Consultancy 2011 Land North of Cawston Lane, Rugby, Warwickshire. Report

    on Archaeological Geophysical Survey

    BGS (British Geological Survey) 2011 Geology of Britain Viewer

    http://maps.bgs.ac.uk/geology viewer_google/googleviewer.html Accessed April

    2013

    Bloxam, M.H. 1861 History of Dunchurch

    CA (Cotswold Archaeology) 2012 Cawston Lane, Dunchurch, Rugby, Warwickshire:

    Archaeological Evaluation

    CgMs Consulting 2008 Cawston Lane, Rugby. Archaeological Desk-based Assessment

    CgMs Consulting 2011 Specification for Archaeological Observation and Recording of

    Below-Ground Works

    EH (English Heritage) 2013 http://www.pastscape.org.uk/hob.aspx?hob_id=337652#aRt

    Accessed 20 June 2013

    JMHS (John Moore Heritage Services) 2009 An Archaeological Evaluation on Land

    Northwest of Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire

    Salzman L.F. (ed.) 1951 'Parishes: Dunchurch and Thurlaston', A History of the County of

    Warwick: Volume 6: Knightlow hundred URL: http://www.british-

    history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=57101 Date accessed: 20 June 2013..

    http://www.pastscape.org.uk/hob.aspx?hob_id=337652#aRt

  • Cotswold Archaeology

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    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    APPENDIX A: CONTEXT DESCRIPTIONS

    Area 1

    No. Type Description Length (m)

    Width (m)

    Depth (m)

    Spot-date

    1000 Deposit Topsoil 0.30

    1001 Deposit Modern made ground

    1002 Deposit Subsoil 0.25

    1003 Deposit Colluvial fill of natural hollow

    1004 Deposit Natural substrate

    1005 Cut Ditch terminus 1.10 0.23

    1006 Fill Fill of 1005 1.10 0.23

    1007 Cut Ditch 2.22 0.31

    1008 Fill Fill of 1007 2.22 0.31

    1009 Cut Posthole 0.30 0.80

    1010 Fill Fill of 1009 0.30 0.80

    1011 Cut Modern field drain

    1012 Fill Fill of 1011

    1013 Cut Ditch 1.14 0.26

    1014 Fill Fill of 1013 1.14 0.26

    1015 Cut Posthole 0.51 0.17

    1016 Fill Fill of 1015 0.51 0.17

    1017 Cut Posthole 0.50 0.19

    1018 Fill Fill of 1017 0.50 0.19

    1019 Cut Posthole 0.56 0.20

    1020 Fill Fill of 1019 0.56 0.20

    1021 Cut Posthole 0.37 0.31 0.20

    1022 Fill Fill of 1021 0.37 0.31 0.20

    1023 Cut Stake hole 0.22 0.30 0.14

    1024 Fill Fill of 1023 0.22 0.30 0.14

    1025 Cut Ditch 3.07 0.64

    1026 Fill 1st fill of 1025 1.00 0.8

    1027 Fill 2nd

    fill of 1025 2.86 0.28

    1028 Fill 3rd

    fill of 1025 1.62 0.33

    1029 Void

    1030 Void

    1031 Cut Field drain 0.25 0.30

    1032 Fill Fill of 1031 0.25 0.30

    1033 Cut Field drain 0.34 0.38

    1034 Fill Fill of 1033 0.34 0.38

    1035 Cut Posthole 0.36 0.35 0.30

    1036 Fill Fill of 1035 0.36 0.35 0.30

    1037 Cut Posthole 0.33 0.43 0.24

    1038 Fill Fill of 1037 0.33 0.43 0.24

    1039 Cut Posthole 0.31 0.30 0.17

    1040 Fill Fill of 1039 0.31 0.30 0.17

    1041 Cut Ditch 3.71 0.65

    1042 Fill 1st fill of 1041 2.85 0.29

    1043 Fill 2nd

    fill of 1041 1.61 0.48

    1044 Fill 3rd

    fill of 1041 2.40 0.28

    1045 Fill 4th

    fill of 1041 1.00 0.15

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    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    1046 Fill 5th

    fill of 1041 1.66 0.31

    1047 Cut Field drain 0.45 0.60

    1048 Fill Fill of 1047 0.45 0.60

    1049 Cut Posthole 0.41 0.31 0.09

    1050 Fill Fill of 1049 0.41 0.31 0.09

    1051 Cut Posthole 0.37 0.32 0.19

    1052 Fill Fill of 1051 0.37 0.32 0.19

    1053 Cut Posthole 0.35 0.32 0.33

    1054 Fill Fill of 1053 0.35 0.32 0.33

    1055 Cut Posthole 0.29 0.22 0.22

    1056 Fill Fill of 1055 0.29 0.22 0.22

    1057 Cut Posthole 0.31 0.39 0.12

    1058 Fill Fill of 1057 0.31 0.39 0.12

    1059 Cut Posthole 0.43 0.42 0.17

    1060 Fill Fill of 1059 0.43 0.42 0.17

    1061 Cut Posthole 0.33 0.38 0.14

    1062 Fill Fill of 1061 0.33 0.38 0.14

    1063 Cut Posthole 0.38 0.36 0.10

    1064 Fill Fill of 1063 0.38 0.36 0.10

    1065 Cut Posthole 0.57 0.31 0.10

    1066 Fill Fill of 1065 0.57 0.31 0.10

    1067 Cut Posthole 0.58 0.47 0.25

    1068 Fill Fill of 1067 0.58 0.47 0.25

    1069 Cut Posthole 0.33 0.32 0.25

    1070 Fill Fill of 1069 0.33 0.32 0.25

    1071 Cut Posthole 0.33 0.39 0.25

    1072 Fill Fill of 1071 0.33 0.39 0.25

    1073 Cut Posthole 0.45 0.54 0.24

    1074 Fill Fill of 1073 0.45 0.54 0.24

    1075 Cut Posthole 0.27 0.33 0.12

    1076 Fill Fill of 1075 0.27 0.33 0.12

    1077 Cut Posthole/pit 0.59 0.48 0.11

    1078 Fill Fill of 1077 0.59 0.48 0.11

    1079 Cut Void

    1080 Fill Void

    1081 Cut Ditch terminus 0.82 0.12

    1082 Fill Fill of 1081 0.82 0.12

    1083 Cut Pit 1.04 0.68 0.30

    1084 Fill Fill of 1083 1.04 0.68 0.30

    1085 Cut Ditch 1.00 0.30

    1086 Fill Fill of 1085 1.00 0.30

    1087 Fill Fill of 1025 1.15 0.27

    1088 Deposit Colluvial gravel in natural hollow

    1089 Cut Posthole 0.25 0.25

    1090 Fill Fill of 1089 0.25 0.25

    1091 Cut Posthole 0.26 0.26

    1092 Fill Fill of 1091 0.26 0.26

    1093 Deposit Alluvial Clay

    Area 2 No. Type Description Length Width Depth Spot-date

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    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    (m) (m) (m)

    2000 Deposit Topsoil 0.40

    2001 Deposit Subsoil 0.23

    2002 Deposit Natural substrate

    2003 Deposit Made ground 0.20

    2004 Deposit Alluvial clay 0.21

    2005 Cut Ditch terminus 1.41 0.28

    2006 Fill Fill of 2005 1.41 0.28

    2007 Cut Curvi-linear gully 0.54 0.12

    2008 Fill Fill of 2007 0.54 0.12

    2009 Cut Curvi-linear gully terminus 0.36 0.91

    2010 Fill Fill of 2009 0.36 0.91 0.36 0.91

    2011 Cut Ditch 2.15 0.92

    2012 Fill 1st fill of 2011 0.90 0.41

    2013 Fill 2nd

    fill of 2011 2.15 0.61

    2014 Cut Pit 2.00 0.28

    2015 Fill Fill of 2014 2.00 0.28

    2016 Cut Pit 1.93 2.00 0.15

    2017 Fill Fill of 2016 1.93 2.00 0.15

    2018 Cut Gully 0.64 0.55

    2019 Fill Fill of 2018 0.64 0.55

    2020 Cut Tree throw

    2021 Fill Fill of 2020

    2022 Cut Ditch 1.66 0.84

    2023 Fill 1st fill of 2022 0.80 0.40

    2024 Fill 2nd

    fill of 2022 1.21 0.13

    2025 Fill 3rd

    fill of 2022 1.40 0.16

    2026 Cut Gully 0.40 0.30

    2027 Fill Fill of 2026 0.40 0.30

    2028 Deposit Dark occupation deposit 1.39 0.20

    2029 Cut Pit 2.15 1.60 0.28

    2030 Fill Fill of 2029 2.15 1.60 0.28

    2031 Cut Gully 0.53 0.14

    2032 Fill Fill of 2031 0.53 0.14

    2033 Cut Modern pipe cut 0.85 0.67

    2034 Fill 1st fill of 2033 0.85 0.67

    2035 Fill 2nd

    fill of 2033 0.85 0.67

    2036 Cut Ditch 3.00 0.96

    2037 Fill 1st fill of 2036 1.15 0.68

    2038 Fill 2nd

    fill of 2036 1.17 0.62

    2039 Fill 3rd

    fill of 2036 0.22 0.47

    2040 Fill 4th

    fill of 2036 2.20 0.48

    2041 Cut Gully 0.60 0.23

    2042 Fill Fill of 2041 0.60 0.23

    2043 Cut Ditch 1.95 0.53

    2044 Fill 1st fill of 2043 1.45 0.31

    2045 Fill 2nd

    fill of 2043 1.65 0.34

    2046 Cut Field drain 0.81 0.48

    2047 Fill 1st fill of 2046 0.81 0.40

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    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    2048 Fill 2nd

    fill of 2046 0.80 0.09

    2049 Cut Gully terminus 0.38 0.17

    2050 Fill Fill of 2049 0.38 0.17

    2051 Cut Gully/ditch 0.59 0.25

    2052 Fill Fill of 2051 0.59 0.25

    2053 Cut Rooting/tree throw 1.25 0.13

    2054 Fill 2nd

    fill of 2053 1.25 0.07

    2055 Cut Gully >0.77 0.15

    2056 Fill Fill of 2055 >0.77 0.15

    2057 Void

    2058 Void

    2059 Cut Ditch >1.47 >1.40 0.40

    2060 Fill Fill of 2059 >1.47 >1.40 0.40 >1.40 0.40

    2061 Cut Modern drainage gully 1.88 0.68 0.53

    2062 Fill Fill of 2061 1.88 0.68 0.53

    2063 Cut Modern drain 1.90 0.62 >0.59

    2064 Fill Fill of 2063 1.90 0.62 >0.59

    2065 Fill 1st fill of 2053 1.25 0.07

    2066 Cut Ditch terminus 1.95 0.90 0.45

    2067 Fill 3rd

    fill of 2066 1.68 0.90 0.26

    2068 Fill 2nd

    fill of 2066 1.95 0.90 0.19

    2069 Fill Fill of 2070 0.54 0.14

    2070 Cut Ditch 0.54 0.14

    2071 Fill Fill of 2072 0.81 0.58 0.17

    2072 Cut Ditch 0.81 0.58 0.17

    2073 Fill Fill of 2074 0.69 0.68 0.18

    2074 Cut Ditch 0.69 0.68 0.18

    2075 Fill Fill of 2076 0.69 0.19

    2076 Cut Ditch 0.69 0.19

    2077 Fill 1st fill of 2066 0.74 0.38 0.09

    2078 Cut Pit 0.80 0.32

    2079 Fill 1st fill if 2078 0.65 0.16

    2080 Fill 2nd

    fill of 2078 0.80 0.15

    2081 Fill 3rd

    fill of 2078 0.52 0.13

    2082 Cut Gully 0.33 0.20

    2083 Fill Fill of 2082 0.33 0.20

    2084 Cut Ditch 1.86 0.98

    2085 Fill 1st fill of 2084 1.86 0.44

    2086 Fill 2nd

    fill of 2084 1.86 0.42

    2087 Fill 3rd

    fill of 2084 1.86 0.37

    2088 Cut Ditch >0.44 0.17

    2089 Fill Fill of 2088 >0.44 0.17

    2090 Cut Pit 1.68 0.25

    2091 Fill 1st fill of 2090 1.68 0.10

    2092 Fill 2nd

    fill of 2090 1.68 0.15

    2093 Cut Pit 0.81 0.16

    2094 Fill Fill of 2093 0.81 0.16

    2095 Cut Pit 2.00 0.28

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    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    2096 Fill 1st fill of 2095 2.00 0.18

    2097 Fill 2nd

    fill of 2095 2.00 0.10

    2098 Deposit Layer of peat 0.20

    2099 Deposit Layer of alluvial clay 0.23

    Area 3

    No. Type Description Length (m)

    Width (m)

    Depth (m)

    Spot-date

    3000 Deposit Topsoil 0.28

    3001 Deposit Subsoil 0.16

    3002 Deposit Natural substrate

    3003 Cut Re-cut of ditch 2.30 0.50

    3004 Fill 1st fill of 3003 1.00 0.06

    3005 Fill 2nd

    fill of 3003 1.50 0.40

    3006 Fill 2nd

    fill of 3003 0.90 0.40

    3007 Fill 3rd

    fill of 3003 0.80 0.20

    3008 Fill 4th

    fill of 3003 1.10 0.20

    3009 Cut Gully 0.50 0.20

    3010 Fill 1st fill of 3009 0.40 0.10

    3011 Fill 2nd

    fill of 3009 0.50 0.10

    3012 Cut Ditch

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    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    3043 Fill 3rd

    fill of 3040 1.39 0.24

    3044 Fill 4th

    fill of 3040 2.29 0.23

    3045 Cut Ditch 1.90 0.06

    3046 Fill 1st fill of 3045 0.80 0.10

    3047 Fill 2nd

    fill of 3045 1.00 0.50

    3048 Fill 3rd

    fill of 3045 0.80 0.40

    3049 Fill 4th

    fill of 3045 0.90 0.50

    3050 Fill 5th

    fill of 3045 0.45 0.20

    3051 Fill 5th

    fill of 3040 1.70 0.09

    3052 Cut Gully terminus 0.36 0.07

    3053 Fill Fill of 3052 0.36 0.07

    3054 Fill 2nd

    fill of 3056 0.25 0.17

    3055 Fill 1st fill of 3056 0.23 0.19

    3056 Cut Ditch 0.25 0.25

    3057 Fill 4th

    fill of 3061 0.67

    3058 Fill 3rd

    fill of 3061 0.55 0.20

    3059 Fill 2nd

    fill of 3061 0.20 0.08

    3060 Fill 1st fill of 3061 0.43 0.10

    3061 Cut Ditch 0.67

    3062 Fill Fill of 3063

    3063 Cut Gully

    3064 Fill 2nd

    fill of 3066 0.80 0.22

    3065 Fill 1st fill of 3066 0.20 0.20

    3066 Cut Ditch 0.80

    3067 Fill 2nd

    fill of 3069 0.90 0.22

    3068 Fill 1st fill of 3069 0.50 0.07

    3069 Cut Ditch terminus 0.90 0.28

    3070 Fill 4th

    fill of 3074 0.14

    3071 Fill 3rd

    fill of 3074 0.16

    3072 Fill 2nd

    fill of 3074 0.85 0.10

    3073 Fill 1st fill of 3074 0.40 0.19

    3074 Cut Ditch 0.58

    3075 Fill Fill of 3076 0.42 0.20

    3076 Cut Gully 0.42 0.20

    3077 Cut Ditch terminus 0.11

    3078 Fill Fill of 3077 0.11

    3079 Fill 2nd

    fill of 3081 0.80 0.11

    3080 Fill 1st fill of 3081 0.92 0.05

    3081 Cut Gully terminus 0.92 0.14

    3082 Fill 9th

    fill of 3091 0.35 0.32

    3083 Fill 8th

    fill of 3091 0.60 0.17

    3084 Fill 7th

    fill of 3091 0.65 0.22

    3085 Fill 6th

    fill of 3091 0.40 0.09

    3086 Fill 5th

    fill of 3091 0.70

    3087 Fill 4rd

    fill of 3091 0.17 0.16

    3088 Fill 3rd

    fill of 3091 0.10

    3089 Fill 2nd

    fill of 3091 0.33 0.17

    3090 Fill 1st fill of 3091 0.20 0.10

    3091 Cut Ditch

    3092 Fill 2nd

    fill of 3094 0.95 0.23

    3093 Fill 1st fill of 3094 2.05

    3094 Cut Ditch 0.85

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    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    3095 Cut Ditch 0.46 0.20

    3096 Fill Fill of 3095 0.46 0.20

    3097 Cut Ditch/gully 1.19 0.55

    3098 Fill 3rd

    fill of 3097 1.19 0.16

    3099 Fill 2nd

    fill of 3097 1.04 0.23

    3100 Fill 1st fill of 3097 0.89 0.21

    3101 Cut Gully/ditch 2.19 0.80

    3102 Fill 2nd

    fill of 3101 2.19 0.58

    3103 Fill 1st fill of 3101 0.98 0.11

    APPENDIX B: CONTEXT GROUP CONCORDANCE

    Ditch / Gully Context Numbers Area A 1005/1007 1

    B 1013/1081/1085 1

    C 1025/1041 1

    D 2074/2076 2

    E 2070/2072 2

    F 2036/2066 2

    G 2041 2

    H 2031 2

    I 2022 2

    J 2005/2011 2

    K 2018/2088 2

    L 2049/2082 2

    M 2007/2009/2051/2055 2

    N 2059/2043 2

    O 2084 2

    P 3031/3037/3077 3

    Q 3026/3066 3

    R 3035/3063/3076 3

    S 3095 3

    T 3012/3045/3061 3

    U 3024 3

    V 3016/3003 3

    W 3056/3074/3094/3101 3

    X 3069/3091/3097 3

    Y 3081 3

    Z 3009 3

  • Cotswold Archaeology

    25

    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    APPENDIX C: THE FINDS

    Context Description Count Weight(g) Spot-date

    1010 Modern glass: blue vessel glass Slate (burnt)

    1 1

    4 5

    C19+

    1036 Ceramic-building material: brick/tile fragments 3 1 Pmed?

    1054 Modern pottery: refined whiteware 1 8 LC18-C19+

    1066 Modern glass: natural blue/green widow glass 1 6 C19+

    1084 Animal bone: Goat skeleton 148 1698

    2000 Medieval pottery: unglazed sandy ware 4 27 C12-C14

    2012 Post-medieval glass: green wine/spirits glass Ceramic-building material: flat tile Ceramic-building material: brick Animal bone: Cattle

    2 2 3 1

    360 322 2336 114

    C18-C19

    2037 Ceramic-building material: flat tile 6 239 pmed

    2044 Animal bone: Sheep size (burnt) 1 2

    2045

    Animal bone: Sheep/goat Medieval pottery: Calcareous shelly ware

    1 1

    9 12

    C12-C14

    2069 Medieval pottery: unglazed sandy ware 1 3 C12-C14

    2086 Medieval pottery: Calcareous shelly ware (burnt) 1 3 C12-C14

    2087 Medieval pottery: Calcareous shelly ware (jar) Roman pottery: fine greyware

    8 1

    24 1

    C12-C14

    2092 Worked flint: flake (burnt) 2 2 -

    3000 Iron object: axe 1 - -

    3017 Medieval/early post-medieval pottery: Midlands Purple 1 34 C15-C17

    3054 Ceramic-building material: flat tile 1 54 pmed

    3071 Medieval pottery: Calcareous shelly ware 1 3 C12-C14

    3098 Animal bone: Sheep size 118 31

  • Cotswold Archaeology

    26

    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record Excavation

    APPENDIX D: OASIS REPORT FORM

    PROJECT DETAILS

    Project Name Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip, Map and Record

    Short description

    An archaeological strip, map and record excavation was undertaken by Cotswold Archaeology in April 2013 at Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire. Three areas were excavated. The excavation identified a number of undated shallow drainage gullies and boundary ditches which may be associated with the deserted medieval village of Cawston located immediately to the north-west of the site. Enclosure ditches and boundary ditches of post-medieval date were also identified and are likely to be associated with the post-medieval manor at Cawston. The function of a number of undated pits was not ascertained, however, a number of undated postholes are likely to represent early phases of a boundary depicted on late 19th-century Ordnance Survey maps and an extant boundary. A limited artefactual assemblage was recovered, but included a single sherd of Romano- British pottery, a small quantity of medieval pottery, an iron axe head of probable medieval date and a quantity of post-medieval ceramic building material and glass. The limited nature of the medieval artefactual assemblage suggests the site is likely to have lain in the agricultural hinterland of the area adjacent medieval settlement. It appears to have continued to have performed an agricultural function throughout the post-medieval period and into the modern era.

    Project dates 9th -23rd April 2013

    Project type (e.g. desk-based, field evaluation etc)

    Strip, Map and Record

    Previous work (reference to organisation or SMR numbers etc)

    Field evaluation (JMHS 2009) DBA (CgMs 2008)

    Future work Unknown

    PROJECT LOCATION

    Site Location Cawston Lane, Cawston, Warwickshire

    Study area (M2/ha) 3.2ha

    Site co-ordinates (8 Fig Grid Reference) SP 4474 2730

    PROJECT CREATORS

    Name of organisation Cotswold Archaeology

    Project Brief originator

    Project Design (WSI) originator CgMs Consulting

    Project Manager Ian Barnes

    Project Supervisor Charlotte HAines

    MONUMENT TYPE None

    SIGNIFICANT FINDS None

    PROJECT ARCHIVES Intended final location of archive Content

    Physical Rugby Art Gallery and Museum Ceramics, animal bone,

    Paper Rugby Art Gallery and Museum Context sheets, registers, photos drawings

    Digital Rugby Art Gallery and Museum Digital photos, Survey Data

    BIBLIOGRAPHY CA (Cotswold Archaeology) 2013 Lime Tree Village, Cawston, Warwickshire: Archaeological Strip Map and Record. CA typescript report 13165

  • Warwickshire

    CotswoldArchaeology

    Cirencester 01285 771022

    Milton Keynes 01908 218320

    Andover 01264 326549

    w www.cotswoldarchaeology.co.uk

    e [email protected]

    PROJECT TITLE

    FIGURE TITLE

    FIGURE [email protected]

    PROJECT NO.DRAWN BYAPPROVED BY

    N

    0 1km

    Site location plan

    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, RugbyWarwickshire

    660121JBPJM 1

    23-05-2013001:25,000

    Reproduced from the 2006 Ordnance Survey Explorer map with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of The Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office Crown copyright Cotswold Archaeology Ltd 100002109

    c

  • 0 1m

    W

    Area 1, Section AA

    S108.5m

    AOD

    NE

    1006

    1005, Ditch A

    1006

    1013, Ditch B

    NE

    Area 1, Section BB

    SW108.5m

    AOD

    1041, Ditch C

    modernfielddrain

    1046

    1046

    1044

    1045

    1044

    1042

    1043

    1042

    NE

    Area 1, Section CC

    SW108.6m

    AOD

    topsoil 2000

    2004 2004

    2098

    2099

    2098

    2099

    NE

    Area 2, Section DD

    SW

    106.5mAOD

    modernfielddrain

    Area 2, Section EE

    N NE108mAOD

    2042

    2040

    2039

    2037

    2036, Ditch F

    2038

    2040

    ditch2036

    2041, Gully G

    modernfield drain

    CotswoldArchaeology

    PROJECT TITLE

    FIGURE TITLE

    FIGURE [email protected]

    PROJECT NO.DRAWN BYAPPROVED BY

    Area 1 and 2: Sections

    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, RugbyWarwickshire

    23-05-2013001:20

    660121JBPJM 6

    Cirencester 01285 771022

    Milton Keynes 01908 218320

    Andover 01264 326549

    w www.cotswoldarchaeology.co.uk

    e [email protected]

    peat

  • 2000

    2003

    2001

    2045

    modernfielddrain

    2044

    2043, Ditch N

    N NE108.5m

    AOD

    Area 2, Section JJ

    SW

    2000

    2001 2001

    2019

    modernfield drain

    2018, Ditch K

    NE108.5m

    AOD

    Area 2, Section HH

    202820322031, Gully H

    2025

    2024

    2023

    2022, Ditch I

    Area 2, Section GG

    NE SW108.5m

    AOD

    modernfield drain

    0 1m

    Area 2, Section II

    20082007, ditch M

    SW NE108.3m

    AOD2075

    ditch2076

    SW NE108mAOD

    Area 2, Section QQ

    E

    Area 2, Section FF

    W107.6m

    AOD2092

    2091

    2090

    20942097

    20962093

    2095

    Area 2, Section RR

    SW NE108.5m

    AOD

    2087

    2086

    2085 ditch2084

    CotswoldArchaeology

    PROJECT TITLE

    FIGURE TITLE

    FIGURE [email protected]

    PROJECT NO.DRAWN BYAPPROVED BY

    Area 2: Sections

    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, RugbyWarwickshire

    23-05-2013001:20

    660121JBPJM 7

    Cirencester 01285 771022

    Milton Keynes 01908 218320

    Andover 01264 326549

    w www.cotswoldarchaeology.co.uk

    e [email protected]

  • 3051

    3044

    3041

    3040

    30433042

    NW

    Area 3, Section OO

    SE108.5m

    AOD

    Area 3, Section PP

    NE SW108mAOD

    30343032

    3031, Gully P

    30333033

    3098

    3099

    3100

    3097, Ditch X 3102

    3101, Ditch W

    3103

    Area 3, Section MM

    SW NE107.5m

    AOD

    3096

    3095, Gully S/E

    Area 3, Section NN

    NW SE107.8m

    AOD

    3062 3054

    3057 3064

    3062

    3063, Gully R

    30653058

    3059 3060

    3055

    3063, Gully R

    Area 3, Section LL

    3056, Ditch W

    3061, Ditch T

    3066, Ditch Q

    SE NW SW NE NW108.2m

    AOD

    NE NW SW

    3000

    3001

    3008

    30073006

    30053050

    3046

    3045, Ditch T

    30483047

    3004

    3011

    3010

    3009, Gully Z

    3003, Ditch V/J

    SW NE108.5m

    AOD

    Area 3, Section KK

    CotswoldArchaeology

    PROJECT TITLE

    FIGURE TITLE

    FIGURE [email protected]

    PROJECT NO.DRAWN BYAPPROVED BY

    0 1m

    Area 3: Sections

    Lime Tree Village, Cawston, RugbyWarwickshire

    23-05-2013001:20

    660121JBPJM 8

    Cirencester 01285 771022

    Milton Keynes 01908 218320

    Andover 01264 326549

    w www.cotswoldarchaeology.co.uk

    e [email protected]

    660121 lime tree village cawston sms report_r3.pdf660121 Lime Tree Village Fig 1 to 8660121 Lime Tree Village Fig 1660121 Lime Tree Village Fig 2660121 Lime Tree Village Fig 3660121 Lime Tree Village Fig 4660121 Lime Tree Village Fig 5660121 Lime Tree Village Fig 6660121 Lime Tree Village Fig 7660121 Lime Tree Village Fig 8

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