Argumentative FallaciesTheres more than just Ad Hominem and False Authority!Slippery SlopeIf something happens, then undoubtedly a particular result will follow.Results will be much larger than the one small step it took to get there.Example: If you get one female cat, you will become a cat lady because your house will be overrun with kittens. Ad HominemAttacking personal qualities of your opponent instead of the argument or claim he or she is making.Example:Bill: "I believe that abortion is morally wrong." Dave: "Of course you would say that, you're a priest."
Red HerringAn irrelevant topic is presented in order to take attention away from the original issue. The basic idea is to "win" an argument by leading attention away from the argument and to another topic.Example: "Argument" for making grad school requirements stricter:"I think there is great merit in making the requirements stricter for the graduate students. I recommend that you support it, too. After all, we are in a budget crisis and we do not want our salaries affected."DogmatismProposing that there simply cannot be any other possible way of making sense of and engaging with an issue but the one you represent.Example: There is no way that you could use anything other than a pencil and paper to complete your assignments.Moral EquivalenceDefining distinct and conflicting moral behaviors in similar terms.Example: Smoking cigarettes is nothing short of suicide the smoker is willingly killing himself.BandwagonBut everybodys doing it!--Suggesting that simply because a lot of others are doing it, you should too.Example: Jimmy: Mom, everyones getting their eyelids pierced, so I should too. Sentimental AppealRelying entirely on manipulatively heart-warming or heart-wrenching appeals to emotion to win support for what has not been otherwise rationally justified.Example: (insert picture of sad-looking puppy) Give $100 to this organization to save thousands of puppies just like Buster, here. (sad music playing in the background Scare TacticsTo reduce complicated issues to simple threats or to exaggerate a possible danger well beyond its actual likelihood. Example: Because of the possibility of poisoning of Halloween candy by some people who give it out to trick-or-treaters, communities should ban trick-or-treating.False AuthoritySuggesting that you should listen and follow what someone has to say about something that he or she is in fact not a credible, reliable authority on.Example: Britney Spears said that George W. Bush had a great plan for the economy, and so therefore I voted him because I trusted what she had to say.Either/OrTo reduce complicated questions, which can be effectively answered in multiple different ways, to only two, diametrically opposed, possible answers.Example: Either you support the President, or you are not an American. Sourceshttp://www.uwec.edu/ranowlan/logical%20fallacies.htmlhttp://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacieshttp://ksuweb.kennesaw.edu/~shagin/logfal-analysis-moralequiv.htm
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