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Arousal Regulation

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chapter. 12. Arousal Regulation. Why Regulate Arousal?. Athletes who don’t effectively cope with stress may experience decreases in performance as well as mental and physical distress. Athletes need to be able to regulate arousal to stay focused and in control. Self-Awareness of Arousal. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
12 Arousal Regulation chapter

Electrode Placement for Chest Leads, V1 to V6

12Arousal Regulationchapter

1Why Regulate Arousal?Athletes who dont effectively cope with stress may experience decreases in performance as well as mental and physical distress. Athletes need to be able to regulate arousal to stay focused and in control.

2Self-Awareness of ArousalYou must increase your awareness of your psychological states before you can control your thoughts and feelings.Once you are aware of your optimal arousal, you can employ arousal regulation (reduction, maintenance, induction) strategies.How individuals cope with anxiety is more important than how much anxiety they experience.

3Self-Awareness of ArousalIts not a case of getting rid of the butterflies, its a question of getting them to fly in formationbasketball coach Jack DonahueCompared to non-elite athletes, elite athletes see their anxiety as facilitative rather than debilitative.

4Anxiety Reduction TechniquesSomatic anxiety reductionProgressive relaxation: Learn to feel the tension in your muscles and then to let go of the tension.

5Anxiety Reduction TechniquesSomatic anxiety reductionBreath controlWhen you are calm, confident, and in control, your breathing is smooth, deep, and rhythmic.When you are under pressure and tense, your breathing is short, shallow, and irregular.

6Anxiety Reduction TechniquesSomatic anxiety reductionBiofeedbackBecoming more aware of your autonomic nervous system and learning to control your physiological and autonomic responses by receiving physiological feedback not normally available

7Anxiety Reduction TechniquesCognitive anxiety reductionRelaxation response teaches individuals to quiet the mind, concentrate, and reduce muscle tension by applying the elements of meditation.

8Anxiety Reduction Techniques Cognitive anxiety reductionAutogenic trainingA series of exercises designed to produce two physical sensationswarmth and heavinessand, in turn, produce a relaxed state

9Anxiety Reduction TechniquesMultimodal anxiety reduction packagesCognitiveaffective stress management training (SMT)Teaches a person specific integrated coping responses using relaxation and cognitive components to control emotional arousal


Ost (1988) Variantof Progressive RelaxationAdapted, by permission, from R. Smith, 1980, A cognitive-affective approach to stress management training for athletes. In Psychology of motor behavior and sport, 1979, edited by C. Nadeau et al. (Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics), 56.

11Four Phasesof Stress Management TrainingPretreatment phase (assess skills and deficits)Treatment rationale phaseSkill acquisition (training in muscular relaxation, cognitive restructuring, and self-instruction)Skill rehearsal

12Anxiety Reduction TechniquesMultimodal anxiety reductionStress inoculation training (SIT)An individual is exposed to and learns to cope with stress (via productive thoughts, mental images, and self-statements) in increasing amounts, thereby enhancing his or her immunity to stress

13Anxiety Reduction TechniquesMultimodal anxiety reductionFour steps to stress inoculation training (SIT)Preparing for the stressor (e.g., Its going to be rough; keep your cool)Controlling and handling the stressor (e.g., Keep your cool since hes losing his cool) Coping with feelings of being overwhelmed (e.g., Keep focused; what do you have to do next?)Evaluating coping efforts (e.g., You handled yourself well)

14Anxiety Reduction TechniquesHypnosisAn altered state of consciousness that can be induced by a procedure in which a person is in an unusually relaxed state and responds to suggestions designed to alter perceptions, feelings, thoughts, and actions

15The Matching HypothesisAn anxiety management technique should be matched to a particular problem.

Cognitive anxiety should be treated with mental relaxation.Somatic anxiety should be treated with physical relaxation.If you are not sure what type of anxiety is most problematic, however, use a multimodal technique.

16What Is Coping?CopingA process of constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external and/or internal demands or conflicts appraised as taxing or exceeding ones resources (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984)

17Coping CategoriesProblem focusedEfforts to alter or manage the problems that are causing stress (e.g., time management, problem solving)

18Coping CategoriesMajor problem-focused categoriesInformation gatheringPrecompetition and competition plansGoal settingTime management skillsProblem solvingIncreasing effortSelf-talkAdhering to injury rehabilitation programs

19Coping CategoriesEmotion focusedRegulating the emotional responses to the problem that causes the stress (e.g., through relaxation, mediation)

20Coping CategoriesMajor emotion-focused categoriesMeditationRelaxation Wishful thinkingReappraisalSelf-blame, mental and behavioral withdrawalCognitive efforts to change the meaning (but not the actual problem or environment of the situation

21Coping in SportThere is no single coping strategy that is effective in all situations.Use problem-focused coping when stressful situations can be changed and emotion-focused coping when situations are not amenable to change.Athletes must learn a diverse set of problem- and emotion-focused coping strategies to use in different situations and for different stress sources.

22Coping in SportCoping strategies frequently used by athletesTask focusRational thinking and self-talkPositive focus and orientationSocial supportMental preparation and anxiety managementTime managementTraining hard and smart

23Moving Beyond Anxiety: Coping With Emotions1.Self-statement modification Changing negative to positive statements.2.Imagery Coping with negative emotions or using positive emotions.3.Socratic dialogue Thought-provoking questions are asked so athletes can reevaluate their self-defeating thoughts.4.Corrective experiencesAthlete makes a conscious decision to engage in the behavior that is of concern, which can reduce anxiety and correct past mistakes.


24Moving Beyond Anxiety: Coping With Emotions (continued)5. Vicarious learning Modeling appropriate behaviors makes it more likely that behavior will be produced.6. Self-analysis Monitoring emotions in sport and thus increasing self-awareness.7.Storytelling, metaphors, and poetry Literary techniques encourage athletes to consider alternative ways of viewing and dealing with the situation (e.g., quotes or stories from sport stars).8.Reframing Perspective taking, such as viewing an important competition as just another game).

25Keys to Generalizing Coping Strategies Recognition of stimulus generality. Understand that certain coping skills transfer to other life situations.

Broad application of coping skill. Some skills are likely to generalize to nonsport situations, such as stress inoculation training and progressive relaxation.

Personal significance of coping application. Coping skills that are important to an individual will typically transfer to other situations.

26Keys to Generalizing Coping Strategies Internal locus of control of coping skill. Coping skills become more transferable when an athlete claims ownership of the skill.

Learned resourcefulness. Resourceful individuals realize that coping skills can apply to different aspects of life.

27On-Site Relaxation TipsSmile when you feel tension coming on.Have funenjoy the situation.Set up stressful situations in practice.Slow down; take your time.Stay focused on the present.Come prepared with a good game plan.

28Signs of UnderarousalMoving slowly, not getting setMind wandering, being easily distractedLack of concern about how one will performLack of anticipation or enthusiasmHeavy feeling in legs, no bounce

29Arousal-Inducing TechniquesThe goal is to get athletes at an optimal level of arousal.Often things such as pep talks and motivational speeches can overarouse athletes. So if arousal is to be raised, it should be done in a deliberate fashion with awareness of optimal arousal states and on an individual basis.

30Arousal-Inducing TechniquesIncrease breathing rate.Act energized.Use mood words and positive statements.Listen to music.Use energizing imagery.Complete a precompetition workout.