2. The Money Changerby Rembrandt (1627) Chiaroscuro, Tenebrism 3. The Money Changerby Rembrandt (1627) Chiaroscuro, Tenebrism 4. Silverpoint drawing of Saskia vanUylenburgh by Rembrandt (1633) This was drawn after my wife,when she was 21 years old, thethird day after our betrothalthe8 thof June, 1633. REMBRANDT: SASKIA 5. Saskia van Uylenburgh-Cousin of an art dealer with whomRembrandt lived and rented studiospace when he moved toAmsterdam. -From a well-connected family, shebrought him a large dowry and anentre into social circles whichbenefited his career. -Frequently served as Rembrandtsmodel. REMBRANDT: SASKIA 6. REMBRANDT: THE NIGHTWATCH (1642) The Militia Company of Captain Banning Cocq A group portrait for the Kloveniers militia 7. REMBRANDT: THE NIGHTWATCH (1642) 18 members involvedin the commission, but Rembrandt paints 30+ 8. REMBRANDT: THE NIGHTWATCH (1642) Powder boyExtra figures: adds visual interest, and also provides active figures 9. REMBRANDT: THE NIGHTWATCH (1642) Banning Cocq:gesturing, speaking;as if ordering the mento march out 10. REMBRANDT: THE NIGHTWATCH (1642) Glove:challenge 11. REMBRANDT: THE NIGHTWATCH (1642) Musketry: The musket was the special weapon of the Kloveniers militia 12. REMBRANDT: THE NIGHTWATCH (1642) Laurel leaves:victory 13. REMBRANDT: THE NIGHTWATCH (1642) Chicken, tied by its claws 14. REMBRANDT: THE NIGHTWATCH (1642) Insignia of the Kloveniers militia 15. Saskia: dies in 1642. Holding a jointestate with Rembrandt, her willstipulated that her half did not go tohim, but to Titus when he married orcame of age, Rembrandt got only anyinterest off of her half until that time.Further, if he were to remarry, her halfwas to go to one of her sisters, andTituss share would be forfeit, asRembrandts stake in the interest. 16. RembrandtFinancial Insolvency: -Had taken a large loan in 1639 tobuy the house; after 15 years hadonly managed to pay off abouta quarter of what he owed, andhad also been ignoring taxes andinterest. -Selling the house would havecaused potential difficulties dueto the terms of Saskias will, since they had owned it jointly and thusit was part of Tituss inheritance. -Forced in 1656 to apply for acessation of goods, whereby hispossessions were auctioned offby his creditors, including hispaintings, drawings, and prints. 17. Self-Portrait, 1660Rembrandt in the 1660s:-Moves to a small rentedhouse with Titus, Hendrickje,and his daughter Cornelia. -Obliged to turn over futuresales of art to his creditors,he sets up a dummycorporation with Titus andHendrickje asart dealersand Rembrandt as a salaried advisor. -Again starts to receiveimportant commissions,including the Syndics of theDrapers Guild and Julius Civilis. 18. Self-Portrait, 1660Both Titus and Hendrickjedie in 1663, leaving Corneliaas his only surviving family. 19. Rubens and his Wife(Isabella Brant) in theHoneysuckle Bower (1609) PETER PAUL RUBENS --Born 1577 in Seigen, Germany; his father, Jan, was a Calvinistand fled his native Antwerp toescape religious persecution. --Jan Rubens, an attorney, hadoriginally fled to Cologne; after an affair with a princess towhom he served as secretaryhe was imprisoned and nearlyexecuted. He was released andallowed to settle in Seigen. --Jan Rubens died in 1587,leaving his wife Maria to raisePeter Paul and his 13-year-oldbrother Philip. --Maria Rubens returned withher sons to Antwerp. 20. RUBENS: ITALYThe Duke of Mantua --In Venice meets Vincenzo I,Duke of Mantua, who was agreat patron of the arts, and isoffered a job as one of hispainters. --His tasks consisted mostly ofcopying famous works of art and painting original portraitsof beautiful women for theDukes Gallery of Beauties. --The job also gave him accessto important people and artcollections (including theDukes own) and theopportunity to travel aroundItaly. Self Portrait with a Circle of Friends from Mantua (early 1600s) 21. RUBENS: ITALYCopies of Roman and Italian mastersDrawing after the central group ofLeonardos Battle of Anghiari 22. RUBENS: ITALYPortraits Marchesa Brigada Spinola Doria (c.1606) 23. RUBENS: ANTWERP Rubens and his Wife(Isabella Brant) in theHoneysuckle Bower (1609) Rubenss own weddingportrait 24. RUBENS: ANTWERPReligious paintingsThe Elevation of theCross (1610-11), an altarpiece for the Church of St. Walburga,Antwerp Rubenss first altarpiecein Antwerp 25. RUBENS: MYTHOLOGICAL AND HISTORY PAINTINGSPrometheus Bound (1611-12) 26. RUBENS: HUNTING SCENESLion Hunt (c.1620?) 27. RUBENS: MEDICI CYCLE--Commissioned in 1621-22 byMarie deMedici to paint a largecycle of paintings at her newresidence, the Palais deLuxembourg, designed in 1620by Solomon de Brosse. --Marie was the widow of theprevious king, Henri IV, and themother of the current king, LouisXIII. She had also served asregent in Louiss youth, but was generally disliked by the Frenchpeople, even by her son.--Rubenss cycle was intended toglorify her and present apositive image of her role inFrench politics and society. Marie deMediciby Rubens (c.1622) 28. MARIE DEMEDICI--Born in Florence, Italy, in 1573. --Her father was Grand Duke ofTuscany and a member of thewealthy Medici family; uponthe death of Henri IVs first wife, her father secured for her thetitle of Queen of France by thepayment of a huge dowry. --She married Henri IV by proxyin 1600, but upon her arrival inFrance things went poorlyshequarreled not just with Henribut openly and violently with his mistresses. --Bore him a son, Louis XIII. Marie deMediciby Rubens (c.1622) 29. MARIE DEMEDICI--Upon Henris assassination in1610which she reputedly may have had a role inshe wasrecognized as the Regent ofFrance, who would rule thecountry in the place of Louis XIII (then 9-years-old). She placed at the head of her government herown lover Concini, also anItalian. --In 1617, Louis attained fullpowers of king and had Concini assassinated and Mariebanished.--In 1621, due to the influence ofCardinal Richelieu, Louisallowed her to return to Paris.Marie deMediciby Rubens (c.1622) 30. RUBENS: MEDICI CYCLEThe commission: --24 paintings21 scenesshowing events from Marieslife and portraits of herself andher parents (a second plannedseries, of events from Henrislife, was never completed). --Begun in 1622, completed 1625. --In order to mask the oftenmundane and contentiousreality of Maries life, Rubenssurrounded her with allegoricalfigures and used metaphorsfrom classical mythology tocreate scenes implying triumphand apotheosis, and justifiedMarie as a symbol of virtue. Marie deMediciby Rubens (c.1622) 31. RUBENS: MEDICI CYCLEScene 1: The Destiny of Marie deMedici Zeus and Hera look on from above The Fates spin the thread of Mariesdestiny The job of the third Fate,Atropos, was to cut thethread of life, and her usualattribute was scissors. Hereshe is without them,implying the privileged andimmortal nature of Marie 32. RUBENS: MEDICI CYCLEScene 2: The Birth of Marie deMedici The goddess Juno presents theinfant Marie to an allegorical figure of the city of Florence 33. RUBENS: MEDICI CYCLEScene 3: The Educationof Marie deMedici Apollo (the Greek patron of the arts) andAthena (Goddess of Wisdom) help attendto Maries education The Three Graces offer her beauty 34. RUBENS: MEDICI CYCLEScene 6: The Arrival ofMarie deMedici inMarseilles A personification of France welcomes her Fame trumpets to alert France of her arrival Sea gods, tritons, andsirens lead her ship toshoreMarie 35. RUBENS: MEDICI CYCLEScene 21: The Triumph of Truth An allegorical figure of Truth isunveiled by time, to show that in theend time will reveal that the rupturebetween Marie and Louis was due tothe falsity and scheming of others Marie and Louis in Heaven; he offersher a laurel crown with two joinedhands and a heart inside of it 36. RUBENS: MEDICI CYCLELouis XIII andMarie deMedici by Rubens 1630: Marie plots a coup against Louis and his chiefminister; she is again exiled, this time permanently. 37. NICOLAS POUSSIN --1593/94-1665 --Trained under variousminor painters --Arrived in Rome in 1624;worked for a time inDomenichinos studio --By the late 1620s hadbegun to achievesuccess, even obtaininga commission for analtarpiece in St. Peters(The Martyrdom ofSt. Erasmus) 38. NICOLAS POUSSIN: Early period, Rome --By the late 1620s he began toexplore a new direction; he gaveup large-scale painting in churches and palaces, and started workingon smaller works mostly derivedfrom classical subject matter, andintended for a small, erudite circle that was sincerely interested in the ancient world. --His approach was more poeticthan archeological, and he favored a warmth in color and lightinginspired by Venetian painters. 39. NICOLAS POUSSIN: Mid-1630s, Rome Triumph of Pan (1636) --By the mid-1630s he becameinterested in more active subject matter which provided a sense of pageantry and festivity, derivedfrom mythology and the OldTestament. --He style and approach also beganto change. Rather than soft,coloristic, and poetic, his paintingsfeatured firmer drawing andmodeling, frieze-like arrangementsof figures, rhetorical gestures, andcarefully planned compositions.Colors became cool, and more likea tint. The new influence was aserious, archeological study ofclassical sculpture. 40. NICOLAS POUSSIN: Mid-1630s, Rome Ancient Romanfriezes 41. NICOLAS POUSSIN: 1640-42, France --Promised a high position if he returned to France, Poussin went back to Paris in 1640. Things did not go well, and he was back inRome in 1642, and remained there for the rest of his life. --In the 1640s he will become more interested in New Testamentsubject matter, but presented inthe same style as his classicalsubjects, with an emphasis onfirmness, clarity, balance,rationality, and archeologicalfidelity. 42. NICOLAS POUSSIN: 1642 and on, Rome Holy Family on the Steps (1648) 43. NICOLAS POUSSIN: ART THEORY --Painting should deal only withnoble and serious subject matter, presented in logical and orderly ways. Rather than simply imitatingnature or narrating events, theartist should present a perfected version of his subject. 44. NICOLAS POUSSIN: ART THEORY --Painting should appeal to the mind rather than they eye, and decorative trivialities should be avoided. Color and light should be used to express the action, but not in an overly sensuous way.--The painter should work in aconsistent mode; for instance, if he is dealing with harsh or solemn subject matter, the paintingshould appear harsh and solemn, and it would be incorrect tointroduce sweetness or charm. 45. NICOLAS POUSSIN: METHODS --Would begin by carefullyresearching the subject, andreading all that he could findabout it. --Make a rough sketch of a design as an initial guide. --Make wax models which would be clothed and put on a smallstage with a backdrop of thelandscape or architecture. --After studying possiblecompositions, he would make a second drawing. 46. NICOLAS POUSSIN: METHODS --Larger models would be made and staged; their proportionsand details would be based ona study of ancient statues; it wasfrom these that he would paintthe final picturehe did notlike to paint from life for fear of losing his image of the ideal. 47. CHARLES LE BRUN --1619-90 --Vouet was among his earlyinstructors. --Went to Rome in 1642 and spent a brief period therestudying under Poussin. --Returns to France in 1646 andquickly rises to prominence.Develops a style that showsthe influence of Poussin inthe classical details, gestures,and poses, but is overall lessrigorousgravitates towardsa freer, more picturesqueprettiness, rather than themeticulousness of Poussin. Entrance of Alexander into Bablyon (c.1661) Le Brun by Coysevox (1676) 48. LE BRUN AND THE FRENCH ACADEMY Charles Le Brun by Antoine Coysevox (1676) --French Academy of Painting and Sculpture founded in 1648; Colbert eventually assumedcontrol over it and Le Brun wasnamed director in 1663. --Colbert and Le Brun alsofounded the Gobelins Works tomanufacture tapestries andfurniture for the royal palaces. Le Bruns positions at theAcademy and Gobelins gave him almost total control of the arts in France; Le Brun was officiallynamed by Louis as the greatest French artist of all time. 49. LE BRUN AND THE FRENCH ACADEMY Charles Le Brun by Antoine Coysevox (1676) Academic Theory: --Painting is not intended for theeye, but for the mind, and should be considered an intellectual art for educated people. --The artist should never simplyimitate nature, but enrich it byapplying the rules of proportion, perspective, and composition. --The artist should concentrate on permanent aspects of nature, such as form and outline, andde-emphasize ephemeralaspects such as color, whichappeal primarily to the eye. 50. LE BRUN AND THE FRENCH ACADEMY Charles Le Brun by Antoine Coysevox (1676) Academic Theory: --The artist should choose only noble subject matter, and avoid the inclusion of anything low. Everything included in a painting should be appropriate to thesubject and theme chosen. --Students should study only from appropriate models. The bestwere authentic works of the ancient Greeks and Romans, Raphael, and of course Poussin. --Venetian painters should beavoided as models since theystressed color; works of Dutch and Flemish artists were also considered dubious.
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