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Asphaltic Concrete Mix Design

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Typical Asphaltic Design
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  • Asphaltic Concrete Mix Design

    Seksyen Loji Dan KuariJKR Woksyop PersekutuanKL

  • Construction Of Road in the 60s by JKR

  • STILL Little PROBLEMS IN ROAD RESURFACING !Is this JKR Works After 100 Years

  • SubgradeRoad Structure

  • Cracking

  • CrackingWhy cracking in asphalt surfacing undesirable?It allows surface water to penetrate into the lower pavement layers, causing localised weakening of the pavement structure.It reduces the dynamic modulus of the surfacing, making it less able to distribute imposed traffic loads.

  • Possible Causes of CrackingExcess fines in mixture.Insufficient bitumen.Insufficient compaction.Improperly proportioned mixture.Voids content too high.Rolling when mixture too cold.Overheating the bitumen.Wet mixing time too long.Improper joint preparation & construction. Over Rolling - vibratory roller.Too high amplitude - vibratory roller.

  • Rutting

  • RuttingWhy rutting in asphalt surfacing undesirable?It creates an irregular road profile, thus poor riding quality, dangerous to traffics.It increases roughness, thus increases vehicle operating costs.It allows surface water to accumulate, thus increases risk of skidding and aquaplaning, and water infiltration into pavement structure.

  • Possible Causes of RuttingExcess bitumen.Excess fines in mixture.Improperly proportioned mixture.Excessive tack coat.Excessive segregation.

  • Skidding

  • SkiddingDoes asphaltic concrete road surfacing lack the necessary macrotexture for skidding resistance at high speeds ?

  • Possible Causes of Smooth Surface Texture1. Excess fines in mixture.2. Excess bitumen.3. Over rolling.4. Rolling when mixture too hot.5. Excessive segregation.6. Abrasion of aggregates by traffic.

  • Porous AsphaltThe solution ?

  • Stone Mastic Asphalt

  • Component Of Asphalt Aggregate Filler Bitumen

  • Sheet1

    JKR KUARI BUKIT PENGGORAK, KUANTAN

    MATERIALS STANDARD

    MECHANICAL PROPERTIESSTANDARDREQUIREMENT

    Crushing ValueMS 30< = 30

    SoundnessAASHTO Test< = 12 %

    Method T104

    Flakiness IndexMS 30< = 30

    Water AbsorptionMS 30< = 2 %

    Polish Stone ValueMS 30> = 40

    ( Wearing Course Only )

    MARSHALL PROPERTIESWEARINGBINDER

    Stabilty> 500 kg> 450 kg

    Flow2 mm - 4 mm2 mm - 4 mm

    Stiffness> 250 kg/mm> 225 kg/mm

    Air Void in Mix3 - 5 Percent3 - 7 Percent

    Void in Aggregate Filled75 - 85 Percent65 - 80 Percent

    With Bitumen

    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MIX AND MATERIALS

    Bitumen Content5.0 - 7.0 PercentACW 14 Wearing

    5.5 - 6.5 PercentACW 14 Binder

    4.0 - 6.0 PercentACB 28 Binder

    Density of Mix2.33 mT per m3

    SG Bitumen 80 - 1001.022

    Satu Ela Metal0.667 mT

    Satu Ela Premix0.625 mT

    Satu mT Bitumen20 mT Premix

    Satu litre Diesel0.2 mT Premix5 litre per mT Premix

    &L&8d/FailNor_backupMe_materials standard.xls

    Sheet2

    Sheet3

  • Aggregate - The Major Component Of Premix Production.

  • BasaltGranite

  • Coarse Aggregate Testing1 Test Per Stockpile Per 2,500 Tons Of Asphaltic Concrete Produced;* Aggregate Crushing Value.* Sodium Sulphate Soundness.* Flakiness Index.* Water Absorption.* Polished Stone Value (Wearing Course Only).

  • Limestones in wearing course?

  • Fine Aggregate Testing1 test per stockpile per 2,500 tons of asphaltic concrete produced;* Sodium Sulphate Soundness.* Water Absorption.

  • Sand or quarry dust?Fine aggregate: Natural sand, mining sand or quarry fines.

  • Cement or limestone?Mineral filler: Rock dust, limestone dust, hydrated lime or hydraulic cement.Anti-stripping agent: Ordinary Portland cement.

    Material passing 75 um to bitumen ratio by weight 0.6 - 1.2.Mineral Filler / Anti Stripping Agent

  • Bitumen grade: Penetration grade 80-100 (MS 124).80-100 or 60-70 ?

  • Bitumen Testing* Penetration.* Softening point.* Solubility in Trichloroethylene.* Ductility.* Flash point.* Retained penetration after thin film oven.* Loss on heating.

    Test frequency: Not stated in JKR Guidelines or JKR/SPJ. Recommends one set of test per every bitumen delivery to the plant.

  • BITUMEN QUALITYPENETRATION TESTpenetrationvaluein 0.1 mm100 grammeneedlebitumenat25degreesCelsius5 seconds

  • Mix Design

  • Mix Design RequirementsGrading of combined aggregates + filler - Table 4.8 JKR/SPJ.Bitumen content - Table 4.9 JKR/SPJ.Marshall method of mix design - Clause 4.2.4.3 JKR/SPJ.Test parameters of Marshall specimens - Table 4.10 JKR/SPJ.Establish design aggregate grading and bitumen content with tolerances in Table 4.11 JKR/SPJ.

  • Mix Design RequirementsGrading of combined aggregates + filler - Table 4.8 JKR/SPJ.Bitumen content - Table 4.9 JKR/SPJ.Marshall method of mix design - Clause 4.2.4.3 JKR/SPJ.Test parameters of Marshall specimens - Table 4.10 JKR/SPJ.Establish design aggregate grading and bitumen content with tolerances in Table 4.11 JKR/SPJ.

  • Table 4.8 - Gradation Limits For Asphaltic Concrete B.S. Sieve Size, mm% Passing By Weight20100-1001480-951068-90 552-723.3545-621.1830-450.42517-300.1507-160.0754-10

    Chart1

    100100100

    967494.4139650873

    906891.8703241895

    725275.8104738155

    583849.6758104738

    362023.9900249377

    251215.36159601

    1678.7281795511

    843.042394015

    UPPER

    LOWER

    % Passing

    Sieve Size mm

    % Passing

    SPECIFICATION

    Sheet2

    4.00014.000100107810

    12.50096.2502.574.2502.5

    10.0009068

    Sheet1

    JKR KUARI PUSAT BUKIT BULUH

    PULAI CHONDONG, KELANTAN

    SIEVE FOR ACW 20

    SAMPLE NO

    SAMPLINGTESTING

    DATE

    TIME

    LOCATION

    DISTRICT

    TEST BY

    SIEVE SIZEUPPERLOWERWt Ret% Ret% Passing

    20.00010010000.00100.00

    12.50096741125.5994.41

    10.0009068512.5491.87

    5.000725232216.0675.81

    2.400583852426.1349.68

    0.600362051525.6923.99

    0.30025121738.6315.36

    0.1501671336.638.73

    0.075841145.693.04

    Pan00613.040.00

    TOTAL WEIGHT (gm)2005

    Sheet1

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    UPPER

    LOWER

    % Passing

    Sieve Size mm

    % Passing

    HCMMIX

    HCM ASPHALTIC

    SOURCEB.S SIEVE (WEIGHT RETAINED)

    191612.59.54.752.360.60.30.150.075Pan

    AGG.BIN A1145010035801064100022157

    AGG.BIN B064530488100239200132129

    AGG.BIN C00023121449490351010502358

    AGG.BIN D00065628712085242942181632756

    FILLER00000012392816131081053

    SOURCEB.S SIEVE (% RETAINED)

    191612.59.54.752.360.60.30.150.075Pan

    AGG.BIN A0.509967547520.862308762246.499768196626.88919796014.91423273060.18544274460.04636068610000.0927213723100

    AGG.BIN B03.006106153124.894316580622.921559417647.06434945981.83184593710.0939408173000.04697040860.1409112259100

    AGG.BIN C0000.084817642113.231552162861.450381679420.7803223071.48430873620.42408821030.42408821032.1204410517100

    AGG.BIN D0000.21770682152.031930333810.413642960843.831640058119.013062409310.66763425257.91001451385.9143686502100

    FILLER0000001.13960113963.703703703726.68566001958.214624881310.2564102564100

    SOURCEB.S SIEVE (% PASSING)

    191612.59.54.752.360.60.30.150.075Pan

    AGG.BIN A99.490032452578.627723690332.12795549375.23875753360.3245248030.13908205840.09272137230.09272137230.09272137230.09272137230.00

    AGG.BIN B10096.993893846972.099577266349.17801784882.11366838890.28182245190.18788163460.18788163460.18788163460.14091122590.05

    AGG.BIN C10010010099.915182357986.683630195125.23324851574.45292620872.96861747242.54452926212.12044105170.42

    AGG.BIN D10010010099.782293178597.750362844787.336719883943.505079825824.492017416513.8243831645.91436865027.91

    FILLER10010010010010010098.860398860495.156695156768.471035137710.256410256458.21

    SOURCEB.S SIEVE (% PASSING)USING

    191612.59.54.752.360.60.30.150.075Pan

    AGG.BIN A20.0019.9015.736.431.050.060.030.020.020.020.020.00

    AGG.BIN B18.0018.0017.4612.988.850.380.050.030.030.030.030.01

    AGG.BIN C12.0012.0012.0012.0011.9910.403.030.530.360.310.250.05

    AGG.BIN D48.0048.0048.0048.0047.9046.9241.9220.8811.766.642.843.80

    AGG.BIN E2.002.002.002.002.002.002.001.981.901.370.211.16

    100.0

    141.62010010010091725937251790

    127.441899.9095.1881.4071.7959.7747.0323.4514.078.363.345.02

    84.961210090786752392012760

    339.8448

    14.162100958979624928.518.5127.50

    708100

    Blending Aggregate.% Aggregate Used.

    AGG.BIN A(Batu 5/8)141.60Kg18.88

    AGG.BIN B(Batu 3/8)127.44Kg16.99

    AGG.BIN C(Batu 1/8)84.96Kg11.33

    AGG.BIN D(Dust)339.84Kg45.31

    FILLER( Cal.Powder)14.16Kg1.89

    BITUMEN42.00Kg5.60

    Total750.00Kg100

  • Mix Design RequirementsGrading of combined aggregates + filler - Table 4.8 JKR/SPJ.Bitumen content - Table 4.9 JKR/SPJ.Marshall method of mix design - Clause 4.2.4.3 JKR/SPJ.Test parameters of Marshall specimens - Table 4.10 JKR/SPJ.Establish design aggregate grading and bitumen content with tolerances in Table 4.11 JKR/SPJ.

  • Mix Design RequirementsGrading of combined aggregates + filler - Table 4.8 JKR/SPJ.Bitumen content - Table 4.9 JKR/SPJ.Marshall method of mix design - Clause 4.2.4.3 JKR/SPJ.Test parameters of Marshall specimens - Table 4.10 JKR/SPJ.Establish design aggregate grading and bitumen content with tolerances in Table 4.11 JKR/SPJ.

  • Table 4.9 - Design Bitumen ContentsClass of MixNormal Range of Design Bitumen Content by Weight of MixACW 20 - WC5.0 - 7.0 %ACB 20 - BC4.5 - 6.0 %ACB 28 - BC4.0 - 6.0 %

  • Clause 4.2.4.3 Asphaltic Concrete Mix DesignPrepare specimens for standard stability and flow tests as per AASHTO T 245 using 75 blows/face.Determine bulk specific gravity of specimens as per AASHTO T 166.Determine stability and flow values as per AASHTO T 245.Voids analysis; VMA, VFB, VIM.

  • Mix Design MethodMS 535Specification for asphaltic concrete for road pavement and airfield runway by the Marshall test method.Asphalt Institute MS-2 Mix design methods for asphalt concrete.

  • Mix Design RequirementsGrading of combined aggregates + filler - Table 4.8 JKR/SPJ.Bitumen content - Table 4.9 JKR/SPJ.Marshall method of mix design - Clause 4.2.4.3 JKR/SPJ.Test parameters of Marshall specimens - Table 4.10 JKR/SPJ.Establish design aggregate grading and bitumen content with tolerances in Table 4.11 JKR/SPJ.

  • Table 4.10 - Test Parameters For Asphaltic ConcreteParameterWCBCStability S> 500 kg> 450 kgFlow F> 2.0 mm> 2.0 mmStiffness S/F>250 kg/mm >225 kg/mmAir voids in mix3.0 - 5.0 %3.0 - 7.0 %VFB75 - 85 %65 - 80 %

  • Mix Design RequirementsGrading of combined aggregates + filler - Table 4.8 JKR/SPJ.Bitumen content - Table 4.9 JKR/SPJ.Marshall method of mix design - Clause 4.2.4.3 JKR/SPJ.Test parameters of Marshall specimens - Table 4.10 JKR/SPJ.Establish design aggregate grading and bitumen content with tolerances in Table 4.11 JKR/SPJ.

  • Table 4.11 - Tolerances For Asphaltic Concrete Mixes ParameterPermissible Variation% by weight of total mixBitumen content.+/- 0.2 %Fractions of combined

    aggregate passing 5.0 mm and larger sieves.+/- 5.0 %Fractions of combined

    aggregate passing 3.35 mm and 1.18 mm sieves. +/- 4.0 %Fractions of combined

    aggregate passing 425 m and 150 m sieves.+/- 3.0 %Fraction of combined

    aggregate passing 75 m sieve.+/- 2.0 %

  • Trial LayA minimum of 10 tons of each mix shall be placed in trial areas to demonstrate to the satisfaction of S.O. that the mixing, laying and compacting equipment conforms to the requirements of the specification, and that the proposed mixes are satisfactory. 1. Rollers.2. Paver.3. Trial site.4. Tests on premix sample :Binder content & aggregate grading.Theoretical maximum specific gravity.Prepare Marshall specimens.Specific gravity, volumetric properties, Marshall stability and flow of Marshall specimens.

  • Trial Lay - Continue5. Record temperatures of premix on lorry, at plant and site.6. Record laying temperatures.7. Record laying thickness.8. Check texture of paved surface.9. Record rolling temperatures.10. Record rolling pattern.11. Check texture and condition of compacted surface.12. Record compacted thickness and density from core samples.13. Check consistency in production.14. Check at least one longitudinal joint.

  • Temperature Of Bitumen < 177 C (350 F)

  • Aggregate StockpileEach aggregate shall be stored in a separate stockpile. Stockpiles of sand and other fine aggregates shall be kept dry using waterproof covers or other means.

  • Aggregate Grading TestBatch plant - 1 test per hot bin per day of production.Drum mix plant - 1 test per cold bin per day of production.

  • Temperature < 163 C (325 F)

  • Sampling of premix

  • Sampling of PremixSample quantity:> 20 mm (eg. ACB28) - minimum 24 kg.< 20 mm (eg. ACW20) - minimum 16 kg.

    Sampling from lorry:> 20 mm - take 4 increments.< 20 mm - take 3 increments.One increment approx. 7 kg (use size 2 square-mouth shovel).Scoop 100 mm below surface.

  • Testing of Premix1 test per 200 tons of asphaltic concrete produced;* Bitumen content & grading.* Maximum specific gravity.* Preparation of Marshall specimens.* Bulk specific gravity of Marshall specimens.* Volumetric properties (VMA, VFB, VIM).* Marshall stability & flow.

  • Density and Thickness Requirement1. Required compacted density; Wearing Course : 98 - 100% Marshall density Binder Course : 95 - 100% Marshall densityThe average thickness over any 100 metre length shall be not less than the required thickness. The minimum thickness at any point shall be not less than the required thickness minus 5 mm.

  • Terima Kasih

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