+ All Categories
Home > Documents > “Assessing Costs and Benefits of Adaptation: Methods and Data”

“Assessing Costs and Benefits of Adaptation: Methods and Data”

Date post: 05-Jan-2016
Category:
Upload: coye
View: 40 times
Download: 1 times
Share this document with a friend
Description:
Brian H. Hurd, PhD, Professor Dept . of Agricultural Economics & Agricultural Business New Mexico State University bhurd @ nmsu.edu http://agecon.nmsu.edu/bhurd. Climate Change Adaptation in the Water Sector: Lec 5. Strategies for Developing Climate Change Scenarios and Modeling Data. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Popular Tags:
13
“Assessing Costs and Benefits of Adaptation: Methods and Data” First Regional Training Workshop – Capacity Building Programme on the Economics of Adaptation Bangkok, Thailand 11 Mar - 14 Mar 2013 Brian H. Hurd, PhD, Professor Dept. of Agricultural Economics & Agricultural Business New Mexico State University bhurd @ nmsu.edu http://agecon.nmsu.edu/bhurd
Transcript
Page 1: “Assessing Costs and Benefits of Adaptation: Methods and Data”

“Assessing Costs and Benefits of Adaptation: Methods and Data”First Regional Training Workshop – Capacity Building Programme on the Economics of Adaptation

Bangkok, Thailand

11 Mar - 14 Mar 2013

Brian H. Hurd, PhD, ProfessorDept. of Agricultural Economics & Agricultural BusinessNew Mexico State University bhurd @ nmsu.edu http://agecon.nmsu.edu/bhurd

Page 2: “Assessing Costs and Benefits of Adaptation: Methods and Data”

• Hydrological data and modeling • Economic data and water demand

estimation• Collaborate, work t0gether and other final

thoughts

Page 3: “Assessing Costs and Benefits of Adaptation: Methods and Data”

Hydrological Data and ModelingWater management agencies/authorities may have

measured streamflows from various locations on the river

Naturalized streamflows (native streamflow without reservoirs) is desirable, sometimes synthesized datasets are available

Various hydrologic models are available from simplified water-balance models, such as WATBAL, to more sophisticated variable Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Macroscale Hydrologic Models (http://www.hydro.washington.edu/Lettenmaier/Models/VIC/index.shtml)

Page 4: “Assessing Costs and Benefits of Adaptation: Methods and Data”

Economic Data and Water Demand EstimationWater demand studies are conducted in many

places and regions, providing information on water prices, costs, and demand elasticities.

In developing countries, water demand estimates maybe difficult to find, estimates may need to be made based on water use estimates and available water price information

Page 5: “Assessing Costs and Benefits of Adaptation: Methods and Data”

Defining Prices, Benefits, CostsWillingness-to-pay is a monetary measure of the

intensity of individual preferences (needs, wants, desires)

Market goodsObserved equilibrium market prices represent the

willingness-to-pay at the margin of potential buyers and the willingness-to-accept of potential sellers for a good or service.

Non-market goodsBenefits are based on individual values in the form of

willingness-to-pay (WTP) and their aggregation across all affected individuals

Costs are the value of the opportunities forgone because of the commitment of resources to a project, or the willingness-to-pay to avoid detrimental effects (damages).

Page 6: “Assessing Costs and Benefits of Adaptation: Methods and Data”

Identify Types of Water ValuesLong-run versus short-runAt-site versus at-source (in situ)Per period (e.g., annual) versus capitalized Use, nonuse and Total Economic ValuesUnits of water quantity measures

Withdrawal – amount removed from sourceDelivery – amount delivered to place of useDepletion or consumptive use – amount

evaporated or transpired into the atmosphere, incorporated into crops and products, removed from the local water environment.

Page 7: “Assessing Costs and Benefits of Adaptation: Methods and Data”

Valuation Method Description of Method and Data Sources Useful for Valuing Water as:

Inductive Methods

1. Observations of Water Market Transactions

Observed prices from transactions for short-term leases or permanent sales of rights to water.

Actual at-source or at-site WTP manifested by transactions within or between agricultural, industrial, municipal, and environmental uses.

2. Econometric Estimation of Production and Cost Functions

Primary or secondary data on industrial andagricultural inputs and outputs analyzed with statistical (usually regression) techniques.

Producers' (agricultural or industrial) at-site valuations.

3. Econometric Estimation of Municipal Water Demand Functions

Primary or secondary municipal data analyzed with statistical methods.

At-site demands for municipal sector (including residential, commercial, and government) deliveries.

4. Travel Cost Method (TCM) Revealed preference approach using econometric analysis to infer the value of recreational site attributes from the varying expenditures incurred by consumers to travel to the site.

Valuation of recreational services and derived at source valuations for changes in water supply.

5. Hedonic Property Value Method (HPM)

Revealed preference approach using econometric analysis of data on real property transactions with varying availability of water supply or quality.

At-source demands for changes in water quantity or quality revealed by transactors in residential or farm properties.

6. Defensive Behavior Method

Revealed preference method using reductions in the costs of actions taken to mitigate or avoid incurring an external cost as a partial measure of the benefits of policies from reducing the externality.

Valuation of reduced water pollution from biological or chemical contaminants.

7. Damage Cost Methods Maximum willingness to pay given as monetary value of damages avoided.

Valuation of reduced water pollution or flood damages.

8. Contingent Valuation Method (CVM)

Expressed preference method using statistical techniques for analyzing responses to survey questions asking for monetary valuation of proposed changes in environmental goods or services.

At-source valuations of environmental (e.g. instream) water supplies. Also at-site valuations of changes in residential water supplies.

From Young, 2005, pp. 47-49, Table 2-1. Main Types of Nonmarket Water Valuation Methods, Their Characteristics, and Uses

Page 8: “Assessing Costs and Benefits of Adaptation: Methods and Data”

From Young, 2005, pp. 47-49, Table 2-1. Main Types of Nonmarket Water Valuation Methods, Their Characteristics, and Uses

Valuation Method Description of Method and Data Sources Useful for Valuing Water as:

9. Choice Modeling (CM) Expressed preference method using statistical techniques to infer WTP for goods or services from survey questions asking a sample of respondents to make choices among alternative proposed policies.

At-source valuations of environmental (e.g. instream) water supplies. Also at-site valuations of changes in residential water supplies.

10. Benefit Transfer Benefits estimated for one or more sites or policy proposals employed to assign benefits or value to other sites or policy proposals.

Adaptable in principle for any case: producers' or consumers' goods; and collective environmental goods including nonuse values.

11. Benefit Function Transfer / Meta-Analysis

Statistical synthesis of the results of previously reported studies of the same phenomenon or relationship to distill generalizations.

A potential basis for benefit transfer in all producers' and consumers' valuation contexts. Also valuable for assessing role of methodological assumptions in research results.

Deductive Methods

12. Basic Residual Method Constructed models for deriving point estimate of net producers' income or rents attributable to water via budget or spreadsheet analysis.

At-site or at-source estimates for offstream intermediate goods (agriculture, industry) for single-product case.

13. Change in Net Rents Constructed residual models for deriving interval estimate of net producers' income or rents attributable to increment of water via budget or spreadsheet analysis.

At-site or at-source estimates for offstream intermediate goods (agriculture, industry) for multiple-product, multiple-technology cases.

14. Mathematical Programming

Constructed residual models for deriving net producers' rents or marginal costs attributable to water via (usually) fixed price optimization models.

At-site or at-source valuation of offstream intermediate goods (agriculture, industry) for multiple-product, multiple-technology cases.

15. Value-added Constructed models of net producers' income or rents attributable to water via value-added measure from input-output models.

Seriously biased (overestimate) method that has been used mainly in offstream intermediate goods (agriculture and industry).

16. Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Models

Constructed models for deriving net producers' income or rents attributable to water via price endogenous optimization models.

Recently adapted method used mainly for off stream intermediate goods (agriculture and industry).

17. Alternative Cost Recently adapted method used mainly for off stream intermediate goods (agriculture and industry).

At-site or at-source valuation of intermediate goods offstream (agriculture, industry) and instream (hydropower, transportation). Also for water as private and collective consumption good by households.

Page 9: “Assessing Costs and Benefits of Adaptation: Methods and Data”

A Common Appoach for Estimating Use Values:Residual Analysis Methods

Value of water is imputed by accounting for the values and payments to all other inputs and factors of production, the residual claimant

Maximum willingness to pay is bounded by the amount or share of Total Revenues remaining after all other variable and fixed factors have been paid their fair price – either a market price or the price required to attract that factor into production

Page 10: “Assessing Costs and Benefits of Adaptation: Methods and Data”

Valuing Water as a Residual Claim on Revenues (max WTP)

Total Revenue = $16.5 millionTotal Non-water Costs and Payments = $14.1

Value of water = $16.5 - $14.1 = $2.4

Page 11: “Assessing Costs and Benefits of Adaptation: Methods and Data”

Value of Water (Net Return to Water)With Production Function

Y=Y(XM, XH, XK, XL, XW) where: Y-output, M-materials, H-labor, L-land, K-capital, W-water

If all inputs are paid according to their VMP, then the total product value is completely allocated as:

Assuming competitive input markets and optimizing producer behavior (i.e., choose Xj such that VMPXj = Pj) then

the ‘value of water’ is found by solving for the shadow price of water:

The maximum willingness to pay for water is the RESIDUAL value remaining after all other factors (both fixed and variable) have been paid.

* ( ) [( ) ( ) ( ) ( )]Y M M H H K K L LW

W

P Y P X P X P X P XP

X

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )Y M M H H K K L L W WP Y VMP X VMP X VMP X VMP X VMP X

Page 12: “Assessing Costs and Benefits of Adaptation: Methods and Data”

Other Deductive ApproachesInput-Output ModelsAlternative Cost MethodBenefit Transfer

Estimated production functionsMarket analysis – observation of water

markets, trades, leases, and water rightsHedonic property value method

Inductive Approaches: Empirical and Statistical Methods

Page 13: “Assessing Costs and Benefits of Adaptation: Methods and Data”

Merci’ Beaucoup!GrazieThank YouGracias

Brian H. Hurd, PhDDepartment of Agricultural Economics & Agricultural BusinessGerald Thomas Hall Rm. 350New Mexico State UniversityTel : (575) 646-2674Email: [email protected]: http://agecon.nmsu.edu/bhurd


Recommended