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ATOMIC PHYSICS
Dr. Anilkumar R. KopplkarAssociate Professor
S.S. Margol College, SHAHABADGulbarga,Karnatka India
Atomic Physics: Vector Atom model
• Space quantization• Electron spin• Quantum numbers• Pauli`s Exclusion principle• Stern Gerlach Experiment• LS and JJ coupling schemes for two electrons• Zeeman effect Normal, anomalous• Stark effect
Pauli Exclusion Principle
SternGerlach experiment
• This experiment confirmed the quantisation of electron spin into two orientations.
• Potential energy of electron spin magnetic moment in magnetic field in zdirection is
• The resultant force is
• As gsms = ±1,
• The deflection distance is then,
E ˆ s ˆ B szB
gsB msB
Fz d(E)
dz B gsms
dBz
dz
Fz B
dBz
dz
z 1/2at 2 1/2F
m
L
v
2
B L2
4KE
dBz
dz
Pauli Exclusion Principle
• To understand atomic spectroscopic data, Pauli proposed his exclusion principle:
• No two electrons in an atom may have the same set of quantum numbers (n, ℓ, mℓ, ms).
• It applies to all particles of halfinteger spin, which are called fermions, and particles in the nucleus are also fermions.
• The periodic table can be understood by two rules:
• The electrons in an atom tend to occupy the lowest energy levels available to them.
• The Pauli exclusion principle.
Total Angular Momentum
• L, Lz, S, Sz, J, and Jz are quantized.
Orbital angular momentum Spin angular momentum
Total angular momentum
• If j and mj are quantum numbers for the singleelectron hydrogen atom:
• Quantization of the magnitudes:
• The total angular momentum quantum number for the single electron can only have the values
Total Angular Momentum
SpinOrbit Coupling
•An effect of the spins of the electron and the orbital angular momentum interaction is called spinorbit coupling.
• is the magnetic field due to the electron’s orbital motion.
• where is the angle between .
The dipole potential energy
The spin magnetic moment
●
Total Angular Momentum
•Now the selection rules for a singleelectron atom become
–Δn = anything Δℓ = ±1
–Δmj = 0, ±1 Δj = 0, ±1
•Hydrogen energylevel diagram for n = 2 and n = 3 with spinorbit splitting.
ManyElectron Atoms
• Hund’s rules:
• The total spin angular momentum S should be maximized to the extent possible without violating the Pauli exclusion principle.
• Insofar as rule 1 is not violated, L should also be maximized.• For atoms having subshells less than half full, J should be minimized.
• For a twoelectron atom
• There are LS coupling and jj coupling to combine four angular momenta J.
This kind of coupling is called LS coupling or RussellSaunders coupling, and it is found to give good agreement with the observed spectral details for many light atoms. For heavier atoms, another coupling scheme called "jj coupling" provides better agreement with experiment.
The Zeeman Effect
• Atoms in magnetic fields:
– Normal Zeeman effect
– Anomalous Zeeman effect
• Astrophysical applications
Zeeman Effect• First reported by Zeeman in 1896.
Interpreted by Lorentz.
• Interaction between atoms and field can be classified into two regimes:
– Weak fields: Zeeman effect, either normal or anomalous.
– Strong fields: PaschenBack effect.
• Normal Zeeman effect agrees with the classical theory of Lorentz. Anomalous effect depends on electron spin, and is purely quantum mechanical.
B = 0
B > 0
Norman Zeeman effect• Observed in atoms with no spin.
• Total spin of an Nelectron atom is
• Filled shells have no net spin, so only consider valence electrons. Since electrons have spin 1/2, not possible to obtain S = 0 from atoms with odd number of valence electrons.
• Even number of electrons can produce S = 0 state (e.g., for two valence electrons, S = 0 or 1).
• All ground states of Group II (divalent atoms) have ns2 configurations => always have S = 0 as two electrons align with their spins antiparallel.
• Magnetic moment of an atom with no spin will be due entirely to orbital motion:
ˆ S ˆ s ii1
N
ˆ B
ˆ L
Norman Zeeman effect
• Interaction energy between magnetic moment and a uniform magnetic field is:
• Assume B is only in the zdirection:
• The interaction energy of the atom is therefore,
where ml is the orbital magnetic quantum number.
This equation implies that B splits the
degeneracy of the ml states evenly.
ˆ B 0
0
Bz
E ˆ ˆ B
E zBz B Bzml
Norman Zeeman effect transitions
• But what transitions occur? Must consider selections rules for ml: ml = 0, ±1.
• Consider transitions between two Zeemansplit atomic levels. Allowed transition frequencies are therefore,
• Emitted photons also have a polarization, depending
on which transition they result from.
h h 0 B Bz
h h 0
h h 0 B Bz
ml 1
ml 0
ml 1
Norman Zeeman effect transitions
• Longitudinal Zeeman effect: Observing along magnetic field, photons must propagate in zdirection.
– Light waves are transverse, and so only x and y polarizations are possible.
– The zcomponent (ml = 0) is therefore absent and only observe ml = ± 1.
– Termed components and are circularly polarized.
• Transverse Zeeman effect: When observed at right angles to the field, all three lines are present.
ml = 0 are linearly polarized  to the field.
ml = ±1 transitions are linearly polarized at right angles to field.
Norman Zeeman effect transitions• Last two columns of table below refer to the
polarizations observed in the longitudinal and
transverse directions.
• The direction of circular polarization in the
longitudinal observations is defined relative to B.
• Interpretation proposed by Lorentz (1896)

(ml=1 )
(ml=0 )
+
(ml=+1 )
Anomalous Zeeman effect• Discovered by Thomas Preston in Dublin in 1897. • Occurs in atoms with nonzero spin => atoms with odd number of
electrons.• In LScoupling, the spinorbit interaction couples the spin and orbital
angular momenta to give a total angular momentum according to • In an applied Bfield, J precesses about B at the Larmor
frequency. • L and S precess more rapidly about• J to due to spinorbit
interaction.
Spinorbit effect therefore stronger.
ˆ J ˆ L ˆ S
Anomalous Zeeman effect
• Interaction energy of atom is equal to sum of interactions of spin and orbital magnetic moments with Bfield:
where gs= 2, and the < … > is the expectation value. The normal Zeeman effect is obtained by setting and
• In the case of precessing atomic magnetic in figure on last slide, neither Sz nor Lz are constant. Only is well defined.
• Must therefore project L and S onto J and project onto
zaxis =>
E zBz
(zorbital z
spin )Bz
ˆ L z gsˆ S z
B
Bz
ˆ L z ml .
ˆ S z 0
ˆ J z m j
ˆ  ˆ L  cos1
ˆ J
 ˆ J  2  ˆ S  cos2
ˆ J
 ˆ J 
B
"Anomalous" Zeeman Effect
• • While the Zeeman effect in some atoms (e.g., hydrogen) showed the expected
equallyspaced triplet, in other atoms the magnetic field split the lines into four, six, or even more lines and some triplets showed wider spacings than expected. These deviations were labeled the "anomalous Zeeman effect" and were very puzzling to early researchers. The explanation of these different patterns of splitting gave additional insight into the effects of electron spin. With the inclusion of electron spin in the total angular momentum, the other types of multiplets formed part of a consistent picture. So what has been historically called the "anomalous" Zeeman effect is really the normal Zeeman effect when electron spin is included. "Normal" Zeeman effectThis type of splitting is observed with hydrogen and the zinc singlet.This type of splitting is observed for spin 0 states since the spin does not contribute to the angular momentum. "Anomalous" Zeeman effectWhen electron spin is included, there is a greater variety of splitting patterns.
"Normal" Zeeman effect
This type of splitting is observed with hydrogen and the zinc singlet.
This type of splitting is observed for spin 0 states since the spin does not contribute to the angular momentum.