PAGE Sir M.Faseeh khan
MBA/M.Com/BS/BBS/B.ComSir M.Faseeh Khan
Federal Urdu Art and Science University
For BBA/B.Com/BSCompiled by:M.Faseeh KhanFederal Urdu Art and science University- Karachi
DEFINITION, SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF AUDTINGQ.1Define Auditing? with difference point of view?Ans.Auditing Defined:Audit may be defined as the verification of accuracy and correctness of the books of accounts by independent persons qualified for the job and not in any way connected with the preparation of such accounts. It is an intelligent and a critical scrutiny of the books of accounts of a business with the documents and vouchers from which they have been written up.
Montgomery: a systematic examination of the books and records of a business or other organization in order to ascertain or verify and report upon the facts regarding the financial operations and the results thereof
According to Taylor & Perry: An audit is an investigation by an auditor into the evidence from which the final revenue accounts and balance sheet or other statement, of an organization have been prepared in order to ascertain that they present a true and fair view of the summarized transactions for the period under review and of the financial state of the organization at the end date, so enabling the auditor to report there of
An intelligent and critical scrutiny of the books of accounts of a business with the documents and vouchers from which they have been written up, for the purpose of ascertaining whether the working results of a particular period as, should by the profit & loss Accounts and also the financial position reflected in the Balance sheet are truly and fairly determined and presented by those responsible for their completion.
Dickee: An arrangement of accounting record undertaken with a view to establish whether they correctly and complete reflect the transactions to which they purport to relate.Auditing may further be defined as:
careful searching of the books of accounts by comparing them with the documents and papers from which they have been written up. And thus trying to find out whether the profit or loss for a particular period and the financial position, as shown by the final Accounts are correct and true.All the above definitions clearly show that the auditor has not only to see the arithmetical accuracy of the books of accounts but has also to go further and find out whether the transactions entered in the books of original entry are correct or not. It most of the cases he is required to go behind the books.
In fact, audit implies the scouting of the complete course of a transaction in a business. It is an important part of an auditors job to check up the authority behind the transaction, the relation of the transactions with the business, examination of the book entries their presentation of its results and lastly, the correct presentation of its results in the final accounts.
An important objection of auditing is to satisfy those who are interested in the financial affairs of an under taking that the books and accounts are accurate and reliable, that all receipts and payments have been properly accounted for and that the Balance sheet or final statement of accounts are true and correctly drawn up.
Q.2Define the scope of Auditing?Ans.Scope of Auditing:
The auditor can determine the scope of an audit of financial statements in accordance with the requirements of legislations, regulations or relevant professional bodies. The state can frame rules for determining the scope of audit work. In the same way professional bodies can make rules to conduct the audit. The auditor can follow all the applicable on the audit work while checking the accounts of a business concern.
The audit should be organize to cover all aspects of the entity as far as they are relevant to the financial statement being audited. A business entity has many areas of working. A small entity may have few functions while a large concern has many functions. The auditor has duty to go through all the function of a business. The audit report should cover all function so that the reader may know about all the working of a concern.
The auditor should obtain reasonable assurance as to whether the information contained in the underlying accounting record and other source data is reliable and sufficient as the basis for preparation of the financial statements. The auditor can use various techniques to test the validity of data. All auditors while doing the auditor work usually apply the compliance test and substance test. The auditor can show such information in the report.
The auditor should decide whether the relevant information is properly communicated in the financial statement. Accounting is a information system so facts and figures must be so presented that reader can get information about the business entity. The auditor can mention this fact in his report. The principles of accounting can be applied to decide about the disclosure of financial information in the statements.
The auditor assesses the liability and sufficiency of the information contained in the underlying accounting records and other source of data by making a study and evaluation of accounting system and internal controls to determine the nature, extent and timing of other auditing procedures.
The auditing assesses the reliability and sufficiency of the information contained in the underlying accounting record and other source data by carrying out other test, enquiries and other verification procedures of accounting transactions and account balance as he considers appropriate in the particular circumstances. There are compliance test in order to examine the data. The vouching, Verifications and valuations techniques are also used.
The auditor determines whether the relevant information is properly communication by comparing the financial statement with the underlying accounting records and other source data to see whether they properly summarized the transactions and events recorded therein. The auditor can compare the accounting record with financial statement in order to check that same data has been processed for preparing the final accounts of a business concern.
The auditor determines whether the relevant information is properly communicate by consideration the judgments that management has made in preparing the financial statements, accordingly, the auditor assesses the selection and consistent application of accounting policies, the manner in which the information has been classified and the adequacy of disclosure.
The auditor must have the quality of judgment when accounting book do not provide true data.
Judgments permeates the auditor work, for example in determining the extent of audit procedures and in assessing the reasonableness of the judgments and estimates made by management in preparing financial statements. The accounting data is based on personal judgment of accountant and managers in preparing final accounts. Such judgments also effect the working of an auditor. He is also bound to make guess work on the basis of available data.
The audit evidence available to auditor is persuasive rather than conclusive in nature. Due to judgment and persuasive evidence absolute certainty in auditing is really attainable. That is why the auditor can express an opinion as true and fair instead of exact and cent percent correct. The personal judgment affects the value of many items. The value of such items becomes an opinion so cent percent accuracy is not there.11.Misstatement:
The Auditors carries out procedures designed to obtain reasonable assurance that financial statement are properly stated in all material aspects. Because a test nature and other inherent limitations of an audit, together with inherent limitations of any system of internal control, there is an unavoidable risk that even some material misstatement may remain undiscovered. The statements show true and fair view instead of exact view of operations.
The auditor may get an indication that some fraud or error may have occurred which could result in material misstatement would curse the auditor to extend his procedures to confirm or dispel his suspicion. It is the duty of auditor to check cent percent items in order to discover the error in accounting books and other records when he smells any doubt. He should clear the doubt or confirm it while going through the record.
Constraints on the scope of audit of financial statement that impair the auditors ability to express an unqualified opinion on such financial statements should be seen out in his report, and a qualified opinion or disclaimer of opinion should be expressed as an appropriate.
Q.No.3 Distinguish between Auditing and Accounting?
1. It is an art of recording, classifying, summarizing and interpreting the
2. It works with raw or primary data and has primary responsibility for bringing out useful results of operation.
3. Accountant is primarily responsible for the preparation of financial statements.
4. Accountant need not to be qualified chartered Accountant
5. The management determines the extent of work.
1. It is an examination and reporting on their accuracy.
2. Auditing works beings, where the accounting wo