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AUSTRALIA. (FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.)

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424 offentliche Gesundheitspflege. At one time he held the position of lecturer on public health at Guy’s Hospital. He 1 was a member of the organising committee and honorary secretary of the Section of Architecture and Hygiene at the i International Congress of Hygiene in 1891, and was a delegate to the International Congress of Hygiene and Demography at Budapest in 1894. To the literature of the subjects in which he was so much interested he added largely, and for ten years compiled the annual health reports of Middlesex. His numerous writings upon health subjects include a volume of the Contemporary Science Series on public health problems, and various essays and reports. The borough of St. Pancras, for which he was medical officer for 28 years, having been appointed in 1885 in succession to Sir Shirley Murphy, owes him a deep debt of gratitude for the interest which he took in all that concerned its health and well-being. He was one of the founders of the St. Pancras School for Mothers. Not only St. Pancras, however, but the whole metropolis is indebted to him for his untiring activity in the cause of the health of the people, and the science of hygiene generally has been the richer for his life. He married Jane, the daughter of Mr. John Reynolds of Brighton, and leaves a son and a daughter. WILLIAM CARTER, M.D. LOND., F.R.C.P. LOND., F.R.C.S. IREL., J.P., CONSULTING PHYSICIAN TO THE ROYAL Southern HOSPITAL, LIVERPOOL, ETC. WE regret to announce the death of Dr. William Carter, the well-known Liverpool physician, which occurred at Prince’s-avenue, Liverpool, on Sunday last, Feb. 2nd. Dr. William Carter was born at Newbury, Berkshire, in 1836, and received his medical education at Charing Cross and St. Thomas’s Hospitals in London, and also in Dublin. At the University of London he had a distinguished career, winning gold medals in physiology and com- parative anatomy, and obtaining honours in materia medica, organic chemistry, in medicine, midwifery, and forensic medicine. He also obtained medals from the Society of Apothecaries in London in botany, materia medica, and pharmaceutical chemistry. He graduated in the University of London as M.B.,B.Sc. in 1864, having previously taken what was then the recognised double qualification of M.R.C.S. Eng., L.S.A. He was appointed demonstrator of anatomy at Charing Cross Hospital, and after a brief stay in Dublin, in 1866 he went to Liverpool, where he remained in practice and enjoyed close association with the scientific and educational side of the city for 42 years. His first introduction to educational work in Liverpool was his appointment to the lectureship on chemistry at the Liverpool College in Shaw-street, Liverpool, and from that time he was associated with the academic life in the city dating almost from the beginnings of the existing University of Liverpool. He was promptly appointed physician to the Liverpool Royal Southern Hospital and later to the Liver- pool Eye and Ear Infirmary, while he was also for a I period medical officer of health for West Derby. This sanitary appointment, which he held for some time, though the other professional claims on him were very heavy, gave him that insight into sanitation which made him so prominent a social reformer. Upon the founda- tion of the University of Liverpool he became pro- fessor of materia medica and therapeutics, a post which he held till 1908, when, on giving up his professional work, he was made Emeritus Professor. For 36 years he was honorary physician to the Royal Southern Hospital, his term of service being specially extended after he had reached the age of 60. In 1908, when he relinquished professional practice and decided to retire to Wales, a farewell banquet was given to him at which a portrait of himself painted in oils was presented to him by his friends and admirers. In addition to the purely professional duties implied in what has been recorded, it must be mentioned that Dr. Carter was always in the forefront in public controversies upon medico-social subjects. His efforts in the promotion of total abstinence were very energetic in Liverpool; he was an acute critic of legislation for the notifi- cation of infectious disease, and the measure under which we at present live records his views rather than the wider objects first aimed at. He was an ardent advocate of the formation of medical defence unions ; he spoke from the beginning, with a conviction which many of his colleagues and friends did not, and do not, share, of the benefits that would unfailingly follow on the registration of midwives ; he was once engaged in starting a journal having for its object the reform of the Contagious Diseases Act; and he was a strong public champion of efficient vaccination. With one aallSB celebre, the famous lVIaybrick case, he was intimately associated, and the accuracy of his remarks upon the trial, which were published in THE LANCET shortly after the sentence had been given, was unchallenged, despite their dealing with highly controversial points. Dr. Carter gave his reasons in one sentence for believing that the symptoms displayed by the deceased had resulted from an irritant poison, most probably from arsenic. The memory of Dr. Carter’s strenuous career as physician and social reformer, which is indicated in these notes, will long remain in the city where his life work was done. AUSTRALIA. (FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.) The Baby Bonus. DISSATISFACTION has been expressed in Parliament that members of the medical profession were in some instances charging a fee for filling up the certificate by which the baby bonus is claimed. The Bill provides that a medical certificate must state the child was viable, if there is any reason to doubt the fact. The Prime Minister said that for doctors to charge for these certificates was "unprofessional." The general practice has been not to make any specific charge for the certificate, but to raise the midwifery fee. On the other hand, many medical men contend there is a principle involved, and that raising the midwifery fee does not properly cover the charge for filling up a certificate. The Women’s Hospital authorities now detain .63 of the .65 from their patients for a fortnight’s treatment. Lady Talbot Milk Institute. Some months ago the Victorian Government requested Dr. J. Johnston, of the Board of Public Health, to draw up a scheme by which a pure milk-supply for infants might be extended. He proposed that various municipalities should with assistance take over and extend the operations of the Talbot Institute. The municipalities have not responded except in a very few instances. The financial state of the Lady Talbot Milk Institute once more is such that Govern- ment aid is to be invoked. Sydney Tuberculosis Dispensary. It is stated a report has been presented to the Chief Secretary giving information of the above institution. In the three months of its existence 250 patients are said to have been treated " with satisfactory results." A somewhat more startling allegation is that of 40 "contacts" who sub- mitted themselves for examination, half of them were found to be suffering from consumption. These figures are apparently accepted by the dispensary officials, who point to them as sufficient justification for the existence of such work. But in some quarters they are doubted. hriendly Societies in Victoria. The annual report of the Government statist of Victoria (Mr. A. M. Laughton) on Friendly Societies shows a steady increase in membership and funds. At the end of 1911 there were 48 societies, with 1498 branches, a total membership of 148,603, an annual income of C559,585, and funds representing in the aggregate .B2,246,396. The funds per member worked out at .B15 2s. 4d. The growth of the societies, both financial and numerical, has been especially marked during the last ten years. Between 1901 and 1911 the membership increased by 45,498, the annual income by .6181,545, and the total funds by <6875,792. At the close of 1911 there were in existence 11 female societies, having a membership of 11,056 and total funds of .632,321. Ten of these were associated with male societies. The member- ship of males at the end of 1881 was 49,431, out of a popula- tion of males of 16 years and upwards of 274,840. At the close of 1911, when the population had grown to 436,989, the male membership of friendly societies was 137,547. The ratios to population of annual income and total funds were greater in Victoria than in Great Britain, while the
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Page 1: AUSTRALIA. (FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.)

424

offentliche Gesundheitspflege. At one time he held the

position of lecturer on public health at Guy’s Hospital. He 1was a member of the organising committee and honorarysecretary of the Section of Architecture and Hygiene at the iInternational Congress of Hygiene in 1891, and was adelegate to the International Congress of Hygiene andDemography at Budapest in 1894. To the literature of thesubjects in which he was so much interested he added largely,and for ten years compiled the annual health reports ofMiddlesex. His numerous writings upon health subjectsinclude a volume of the Contemporary Science Series onpublic health problems, and various essays and reports.The borough of St. Pancras, for which he was medical

officer for 28 years, having been appointed in 1885 insuccession to Sir Shirley Murphy, owes him a deep debtof gratitude for the interest which he took in all thatconcerned its health and well-being. He was one of thefounders of the St. Pancras School for Mothers. Not onlySt. Pancras, however, but the whole metropolis is indebtedto him for his untiring activity in the cause of the health ofthe people, and the science of hygiene generally has beenthe richer for his life.He married Jane, the daughter of Mr. John Reynolds of

Brighton, and leaves a son and a daughter.

WILLIAM CARTER, M.D. LOND., F.R.C.P. LOND.,F.R.C.S. IREL., J.P.,

CONSULTING PHYSICIAN TO THE ROYAL Southern HOSPITAL,LIVERPOOL, ETC.

WE regret to announce the death of Dr. William Carter,the well-known Liverpool physician, which occurred atPrince’s-avenue, Liverpool, on Sunday last, Feb. 2nd.

Dr. William Carter was born at Newbury, Berkshire, in1836, and received his medical education at Charing Crossand St. Thomas’s Hospitals in London, and also in Dublin.At the University of London he had a distinguishedcareer, winning gold medals in physiology and com-

parative anatomy, and obtaining honours in materiamedica, organic chemistry, in medicine, midwifery, andforensic medicine. He also obtained medals from the Societyof Apothecaries in London in botany, materia medica, andpharmaceutical chemistry. He graduated in the Universityof London as M.B.,B.Sc. in 1864, having previously takenwhat was then the recognised double qualification ofM.R.C.S. Eng., L.S.A. He was appointed demonstrator ofanatomy at Charing Cross Hospital, and after a brief stay inDublin, in 1866 he went to Liverpool, where he remained inpractice and enjoyed close association with the scientific andeducational side of the city for 42 years.His first introduction to educational work in Liverpool was

his appointment to the lectureship on chemistry at the

Liverpool College in Shaw-street, Liverpool, and from thattime he was associated with the academic life in the citydating almost from the beginnings of the existing Universityof Liverpool. He was promptly appointed physician to theLiverpool Royal Southern Hospital and later to the Liver-pool Eye and Ear Infirmary, while he was also for a Iperiod medical officer of health for West Derby. This

sanitary appointment, which he held for some time,though the other professional claims on him were veryheavy, gave him that insight into sanitation which madehim so prominent a social reformer. Upon the founda-tion of the University of Liverpool he became pro-fessor of materia medica and therapeutics, a post whichhe held till 1908, when, on giving up his professional work, hewas made Emeritus Professor. For 36 years he was honoraryphysician to the Royal Southern Hospital, his term ofservice being specially extended after he had reached theage of 60. In 1908, when he relinquished professionalpractice and decided to retire to Wales, a farewell banquetwas given to him at which a portrait of himself painted inoils was presented to him by his friends and admirers.

In addition to the purely professional duties implied inwhat has been recorded, it must be mentioned that Dr.Carter was always in the forefront in public controversiesupon medico-social subjects. His efforts in the promotionof total abstinence were very energetic in Liverpool;he was an acute critic of legislation for the notifi-cation of infectious disease, and the measure underwhich we at present live records his views ratherthan the wider objects first aimed at. He was an ardentadvocate of the formation of medical defence unions ; he

spoke from the beginning, with a conviction which many ofhis colleagues and friends did not, and do not, share, of thebenefits that would unfailingly follow on the registration ofmidwives ; he was once engaged in starting a journal havingfor its object the reform of the Contagious Diseases Act; andhe was a strong public champion of efficient vaccination.With one aallSB celebre, the famous lVIaybrick case, he was

intimately associated, and the accuracy of his remarks uponthe trial, which were published in THE LANCET shortlyafter the sentence had been given, was unchallenged,despite their dealing with highly controversial points. Dr.Carter gave his reasons in one sentence for believing that thesymptoms displayed by the deceased had resulted from anirritant poison, most probably from arsenic.The memory of Dr. Carter’s strenuous career as physician

and social reformer, which is indicated in these notes, willlong remain in the city where his life work was done.

AUSTRALIA.(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.)

The Baby Bonus.DISSATISFACTION has been expressed in Parliament that

members of the medical profession were in some instancescharging a fee for filling up the certificate by which the babybonus is claimed. The Bill provides that a medical certificatemust state the child was viable, if there is any reason todoubt the fact. The Prime Minister said that for doctors tocharge for these certificates was "unprofessional." The

general practice has been not to make any specific charge forthe certificate, but to raise the midwifery fee. On the otherhand, many medical men contend there is a principleinvolved, and that raising the midwifery fee does not

properly cover the charge for filling up a certificate. TheWomen’s Hospital authorities now detain .63 of the .65 fromtheir patients for a fortnight’s treatment.

Lady Talbot Milk Institute.Some months ago the Victorian Government requested

Dr. J. Johnston, of the Board of Public Health, to draw upa scheme by which a pure milk-supply for infants might beextended. He proposed that various municipalities shouldwith assistance take over and extend the operations of theTalbot Institute. The municipalities have not respondedexcept in a very few instances. The financial state of the

Lady Talbot Milk Institute once more is such that Govern-ment aid is to be invoked.

Sydney Tuberculosis Dispensary.It is stated a report has been presented to the Chief

Secretary giving information of the above institution. Inthe three months of its existence 250 patients are said tohave been treated " with satisfactory results." A somewhatmore startling allegation is that of 40 "contacts" who sub-mitted themselves for examination, half of them were found tobe suffering from consumption. These figures are apparentlyaccepted by the dispensary officials, who point to them assufficient justification for the existence of such work. Butin some quarters they are doubted.

hriendly Societies in Victoria.The annual report of the Government statist of Victoria

(Mr. A. M. Laughton) on Friendly Societies shows a steadyincrease in membership and funds. At the end of 1911 therewere 48 societies, with 1498 branches, a total membershipof 148,603, an annual income of C559,585, and funds

representing in the aggregate .B2,246,396. The funds permember worked out at .B15 2s. 4d. The growth of thesocieties, both financial and numerical, has been especiallymarked during the last ten years. Between 1901 and 1911the membership increased by 45,498, the annual income by.6181,545, and the total funds by <6875,792. At the close of1911 there were in existence 11 female societies, having amembership of 11,056 and total funds of .632,321. Ten ofthese were associated with male societies. The member-

ship of males at the end of 1881 was 49,431, out of a popula-tion of males of 16 years and upwards of 274,840. At theclose of 1911, when the population had grown to 436,989,the male membership of friendly societies was 137,547.The ratios to population of annual income and total fundswere greater in Victoria than in Great Britain, while the

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425

funds per member in Victoria exceeded by almost 100 percent. the proportionate funds held in Great Britain. The

mortality prevailing among Victorian friendly societymembers has been shown by recent investigations to bemuch lower than that of the general community. Thisfavourable feature is specially noticeable at the younger andmiddle ages. Returns have been furnished this year for thefirst time by juvenile societies. They show that at theend of 1911 the number of members of 35 branches of foursocieties who were entitled to benefits was 429, and thefunds amounted to .&1585. The following is a summary ofmembership, revenue, expenditure, and total funds duringthe triennial period 1909-10-11 :-

Membership. Revenue. Expenditure. Funds.

1909 ...... 136,340 ....6523,871 ....6399,345 ... 2,012,4171910 ...... 142,275... 534,616... 424,431 ... 2,122,6021911 ...... 148,603... 559,585... 435,791... 2,246,396Victoria has about 28 per cent. of the branches of the

Friendly Societies of Australasia, 28 per cent. of the members,and almost 32 per cent. of the capital.

West A1Mtralian University.The following professorial chairs in the West Australian

University have been filled :-Biology, Mr. A. Willey, D.Sc.,F.R.S. ; chemistry, Mr. N. S. Wilsmore, D.Sc.; English,Mr. W. Murdoch, M.A. ; mathematics and physics, Mr. A. D.Ross, M.A., D.Sc. ; geology, Mr. W. G. Woolnough, D.Sc. ;mining and engineering, Mr. H. E. Whitfield, B.A., B.E.

Inamircction Medical Inspection.The Federal Government is contemplating the establish-

ment of a medical inspector of emigrants to the Common-wealth to reside in London. The Melbourne Argus expressedsome suspicion that this merely meant a hostile demonstra-tion by the Labour Party against the policy of immigrationbeing conducted by various States. Mr. J. Thomas (Ministerfor External Affairs) has made a statement in answer to this ’’

idea. He said :-The suggestion is that a Commonwealth medical officer should be

stationed in London, and it will be his duty to appoint in the variouscentres doctors who will be entitled to charge only a specified feefor examining anyone desirous of coming to Australia. That exa-mination will take place in the town or village in which the

prospective immigrant lives. A certificate issued by the local doctorwill be sufficient to enable anyone to go on board a steamer. Besidesthat, I do not see any objection to a person who has a familydoctor being examined by him, provided our representative is satisfiedas to his credentials; and I am prepared to put that view before themedical man we appoint. On the same conditions, I am quite satisfiedthat the certificate of any well-known doctor in England will beaccepted for the purpose of the Act. If, however, a family is examinedby a private medical man, he will be at liberty to charge any fee, incontrast to the maximum which will be permitted under the new pro-posals. The idea is that doctors should be appointed in a very largenumber of centres, so that persons will be examined before they leavetheir homes. It will not be necessary then to run the risk of goingeven as far as London with the prospect of being turned back.Then, again, as to the question of examining first-class as well as

third-class passengers. It seems to me a necessity for the convenienceof all other travellers, as well as for the welfare of Australia, thatproper and searching examination should be made in every case. Asto persons coming on board at wayside ports and enjoying the specialadvantage of being only examined by the ship’s medical officer, thereis really no cause for congratulation. The Bill says that the ship’sofficer must give a medical certificate for everyone on board, and thecertificates must be handed in when the passengers are landing. This

applies to everybody, whether they join at London or whether they joinat a port en route. Great Britain has been specially named in thisconnexion for the reason that at present immigration is beingspecially drawn from there. Nearly all the oversea settlers nowarriving in the Australian States are embarked at British ports. Thatwill explain also why steps are not to be immediately taken to establishexamination centres in other countries. It must be admitted that thepassenger joining a steamer away from Great Britain has only toundergo one examination, whereas the British immigrant is required tosubmit to two-an examination before leaving his home, and anotherby the ship’s doctor. The advantage is, however, really with thepassenger from Great Britain, in that he runs much less risk of beingsent back again after reaching his destination, than the man who hasonly been examined once. Those who do not carry the prescribedcredentials are much more liable to be refused admission to theCommonwealth when the final searching examination is made here.

Medical Rhodes Scholar.The Rhodes scholarship in Victoria for 1912 has been

given to Mr. F. R. Kerr, who is a medical student in hisfifth year.

Melbourne City Health Officer.The city health officer’s position, rendered vacant by the

resignation of Dr. J. Jamieson; who has held it for 27 years,will be thrown open to application. There is some differ-ence of opinion whether applicants outside Australia shouldbe barred. The salary proposed is &pound; 50 per annum.Jan.2nd.

Medical News.THE HUNTERIAN SOCIETY DINNER.-The anni-

versary dinner of the Hunterian Society took place atDe Keyser’s Royal Hotel on Feb. 4th, the President, Mr.A. H. Tubby, being in the chair. A large number ofladies were present, and the function undoubtedly gainedmuch in festivity from their presence, which removed some ofthe sense of heaviness that occasionally broods over suchgatherings at the commencement. Dr. T. B. Hyslop gave thetoast of ’’ The Hunterian Society," which was responded toby the President, who referred to it as the second oldestmedical society in London, having been founded in 1819,and as being largely a society of Guy’s, St. Thomas’s, andLondon men. He briefly reviewed the work of theHunterian orators. Dr. W. Langdon Brown, in pro-posing "The Guests and Sister Societies," thought ita good thing that the amalgamation of societies in the

Royal Society of Medicine had not entirely crowdedout all the smaller societies. He pointed out thatthe Hunterian Society was not the second, but the third,oldest society in London, as the Abernethian Society inter-vened between it and the Medical Society. He referred in

graceful terms to the work of Sir Francis H. Champneys, SirW. Watson Cheyne, and Dr. Arthur Latham, whose names hecoupled with the toast. Sir Watson Cheyne, replying for theMedical Society of London, referred humorously to the

proposal of marriage that had been made a few years backbut had been declined, and Sir Francis Champneys, as

President of the Royal Society of Medicine, expressed hisopinion that the Medical Society had done quite right inrefusing the alliance, for certain of the smaller societies

performed functions which they would lose by amalgama-tion. He looked forward to the time when the acknowledgedfunction of the Royal Society of Medicine would be to

express an authoritative opinion on all important subjects inmedicine and surgery. Dr. Arthur Latham dwelt on thetwofold advantages that accrued from learned societies-theincrease of knowledge and the promotion of social inter-course. He said it was not sufficiently known that the

amalgamation of societies into the Royal Society of Medicinehad been largely due to Sir Richard Douglas Powell. Re-

ferring to medical research, he announced that the Govern-ment had agreed to give no less a sum than .660,000 for thatpurpose. Dr. W. J. M. Ettles, in proposing the toast of "TheOrator and Officers," said that the duty of the orator was todraw lessons from the progress of medicine and surgery and seewhether the profession was keeping to the ideals of Hunter.Dr. E. W. Goodall, the orator, replied. Dr. F. J. Smith, inproposing the health of "The President," mentioned thatthey had had an interview with the Chancellor in referenceto the National Insurance Act, and expressed his pleasure inbeing able to announce that as a result they were going toget something very good out of him after all. The President

replied. The dinner was excellent, and excellent music,vocal and instrumental, was provided by Miss Gladys van derBeeck, Mr. Leon Fartovsky, Miss Adelina Leon, Mrs. FraserHenry, and Mr. Bernard Jellen.

REMARKABLE HEALTH RECORD AT PWLLHELI.&mdash;At the last meeting of the town council of the ancientborough of Pwllheli (whose municipal charter dates back tothe days of the Black Prince) some remarkable figures weresubmitted by the borough surveyor with reference to thehealth of the town. During the month of December thedeath-rate was only 6- 31 per 1000. There were no cases ofinfant mortality. During the year 1912 the death-rate was9 - 45 per 1000, as compared with 13’ 3, the lowest record forEngland and Wales. The following comparative table wassubmitted :-

1877-88 ............ Death-rate 21’7 per 1000.1895-1904............ " 18’8 "

1905-12 ............ " 17-05 "

1912 ............... 9-45

There was entire freedom from notifiable infectious diseases.

during 1912. The town has greatly increased in publicfavour as a health and pleasure (seaside) resort during recentyears, and is establishing a reputation as a winter resort. Its

health-giving properties are fully attested by the foregoing


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