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Austrian, Prussian & Russian Absolutism

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  • Austria, Prussia & RussiaIn the Age of Absolutism

  • Austria

  • The HapsburgsAustrian Hapsburgs = HRESpanish HapsburgsProblem: Both collapsed by late 17th C.Peace of Westphalia War of Spanish SuccessionHouse of Austria Goal: build new empire

  • Problems with TurksConstant conflict w/ Ottoman Empire (Turkey)Turkish Wars: late 17th C.Ottomans AustriaLouis XIV supported Turks (Turks in East Austria, France attacked in West)

  • Help from the EastCoalition of Polish, Russian Austrian & Pope Beat back TurksTreaty of Karlowitz Austria gained land

  • Victorious Jan Sobieski (Poland) painting in Vatican

  • Prince Eugene of SavoyMilitary leader saved Hapsburg empireReorganized Army (like Louis XIV structure & pay)Attacked Turks again took more land

  • Make Up of EmpireSerfdom Feudal EstatesLeft alone as long as they:Paid taxesSupplied troopsDietsLocalNot national

  • Religion in Austrian EmpireRepressed ProtestantsTook landsBurned homes200,000 left & went to neighboring countries

  • Austrian RulersTried to control empirePeople viewed their leaders as kings of indiv. territoriesCharles VI Hapsburg EmperorDaughter: Marie-Theresa

  • Maria Theresa

  • Pragmatic Sanction of 1713All diets and leaders agreed to regard the Hapsburg territories as indivisible and recognize only one line of heirs. All kingdoms would be passed intact to a single Habsburg heir (male OR female)

  • Prussia

  • Hohenzollerns15th 16th C. family ruled parts of Eastern Germany Electors of Brandenburg Dukes of PrussiaSmall holdings along Rhine

  • Frederick William

    The Great Electorr. 1640-1688Determined to: Unify his 3 provincesEnlarge territoryCreate a permanent army

  • Anti-Louis XIVReligion:CalvinistWelcomed 20,000 Huguenots (Edict of Font.)Finances:Fiscally frugal Wars:Against Louis XIV

  • Prussian MilitaryNeed: Small scattered statesNo natural boundaries for protectionFW-TGE deal w/ Junkers (landed nobility of Brandenburg-Prussia) In exchange for allowing king to collect taxes, Junkers got:Complete control over enserfed peasantsExempt from taxes

  • Consolidating PowerFWTGE crushed opposition to his powerConsolidated bureaucracyTaxes him directlyResult Junkers power declined as FWTGE hadFinancial independenceSuperior forcesState revenues tripled1688: pop 1 mil supported peacetime army of 30,000

  • King Frederick Wm IGrandson of FWTGEr. 1713-1740The Soldiers KingEstablished Prussian absolutismTransformed Pr. into military state

  • Military StateBy 1740:12th in Euro. Pop.4th largest Army in EuropeBest in Europe, butMade possible by:Forced conscription1713: consc. declared life-long (many fled/injured self to avoid)

  • Military State (cont.)1733: Prussian men mustTrain in militaryServe in reserveJunkers: led army (commanded peasants on & off estates)Result Fred Wm I Maintained army size AND ag. productionCreated rigid, highly disciplined societyNever really used army, but maintained balance of power

  • Prussian Absolutism in a NutshellPolicies of Fred Wm I + harsh peasant bondage + Junker tyranny = foundation for highly militaristic state

    Prussia, is not a state with an army, but an army with a state. - Mirabeau

  • Russia

  • Ivan the Terrible

  • The Rise of Peter the Greatvideo TAKE NOTESDiscussion to follow on video & PSD on PTG

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