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Beef Hams containing Gum arabic

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Preparation and Quality Evaluation of Beef Hams Containing Gum Arabic from Acacia senegal var. kerensis Johnson K. Mwove [email protected] 1 10 th Egerton University International Conference 30 th March to 1 st April 2016
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Page 1: Beef Hams containing Gum arabic

Preparation and Quality Evaluation of Beef Hams Containing Gum Arabic from Acacia

senegal var. kerensis

Johnson K. Mwove

[email protected]

1

10th Egerton University International Conference 30th March to 1st April 2016

Page 2: Beef Hams containing Gum arabic

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Introduction

Meat extenders are non-meat substanceswith substantial binding properties used toextend “add volume” to meat products(Heinz and Hautzinger 2007).

In addition they may enhance nutritionalcomposition

Vegetable proteins, hydrocolloids, milkproteins, egg proteins, have been used asbinders in meat.

Page 3: Beef Hams containing Gum arabic

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Gum arabic

• A hydrocolloid that is used as a stabilizer and emulsifier in foods

• It has successfully been used in• Low fat yoghurt

• Beverages

• Baking

• Flavour encapsulation

• Chewing gum

• Cheese making, etc

• (Belitz and others 2009; Kennedy et al., 2011; Mugo, 2012)

Page 4: Beef Hams containing Gum arabic

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Gum arabic in Kenya

Potential of gum arabic productionis very high yet its production of GAis still very low

The tree holds potential foralternative source of income

Collectors are ready to engage infull time gum collection if readymarket are availed.

Thus, the need to obtain data thatwill increase GA Production

(Chretin et al., 2008; Wekesa et al., 2013)

Picture of Gum arabic

A

B

Picture of Acacia senegal

Page 5: Beef Hams containing Gum arabic

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Materials and Methods

2 Factor factorial experiment gum arabic at 1%. 1.5%, 2.0%, 2.5% and 3.0% and a

product containing Soy protein concentrate (SPC) at 3.5%

Meat injection levels: 30% and 35% over green weight and a non-injected sample.

Beef from the round - rear leg of the cow

Injection and Massaging done manually Determination of Cook yield, Expressible moisture,

Proximate composition: Moisture, Protein, Fat

Sensory evaluation: Descriptive tests and general acceptability tests

Page 6: Beef Hams containing Gum arabic

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Materials and Methods

Manufacture of formed ham

Page 7: Beef Hams containing Gum arabic

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Results: Cook Yield and Expressible moisture

0

20

40

60

80

100

0% 1% 1.50% 2.00% 2.50% 3.00% SPC

Perc

enta

ge (

%)

Binder (%) - 1-3% GA, 3.5% SPC

Cook Yield (%) Extractable moisture (%)

Actual gum in ham

Page 8: Beef Hams containing Gum arabic

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Results: Proximate analysis

0

20

40

60

80

0% 1% 1.50% 2.00% 2.50% 3.00% SPC

Perc

enta

ge

Binder - 0-3% GA, 3.5% SPC

Moisture Content (%) Ash Content (%)

Protein Content (%) Fat Content (%)

Page 9: Beef Hams containing Gum arabic

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Results: Injection level

Curing brine injection level (%)

0% 30% 35%

Actual Injection level (%) - 29.51b 33.84a

Cook Yield (%) 70.55 c 86.78b 88.33a

Extractable moisture (%) 10.19 c 12.97 b 16.16a

Moisture Content (%) 65.38 b 71.41a 72.03a

Ash Content (%) 1.22c 3.46 a 2.76b

Protein Content (%) 27.40 a 23.19 b 22.19c

Page 10: Beef Hams containing Gum arabic

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Results: Sensory evaluation

Increasing injection significantly reduced the hardness of injected beef hams and thus increased juiciness

Juiciness was rated highest for SPC sample and the 2.5 and 3.0 % GA sample

Beef flavor was more retained in the beef hams containing gum arabic

Overall liking was significantly highest in the sample containing 2.5% GA and SPC

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Conclusion

Gum arabic from Acacia senegal var. kerensis can be used as a binder/ extender in meat products

In beef hams, a level of 2.5% of the product weight yields a product with desirable properties comparable to products containing SPC in the market.

Page 12: Beef Hams containing Gum arabic

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Acknowledgement

Egerton University – Scholarship that financed my studies and part of the research

Association of African Universities (AAU) – Research Grant ($ 2000)that financed the research

Supervisors

• Symon Mahungu, PhD

• Lilian Gogo, PhD

• Ben N. Chikamai, PhD

Page 13: Beef Hams containing Gum arabic

Thank You!

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