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NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR

Current Scenario of BiopesticidesAn Assignment of Agri Input Marketing

Submitted to: Dr. P. Venugopal XLRI, Jamshedpur

Submitted by: Amit Bishnoi(107) Kamlesh Yadav(127) Nirupama Lakra(136) Rahul Kumar(148) Shalini Mishra(155) Varun Chaudhary(164)

BiopesticidesBiopesticides are naturally occurring substances that control pests (biochemical pesticides), microorganisms that control pests (microbial pesticides), and pesticidal substances produced by plants containing added genetic material (plant-incorporated protectants) also know as PIPs Biopesticides, particularly microbial Biopesticides, have virtually all the health safety and environmental properties that one would desire in a pesticide Microbial insecticides are come from naturally-occurring bacteria, fungi, viruses.

Biopesticide in IndiaBiopesticides represent only 2.89% (as on 2005) of the overall pesticide market in India and is expected to exhibit an annual growth rate of about 2.3% in the coming years (Thakore, 2006). In India, so far only 12 types of biopesticides have been registered under the Insecticide Act, 1968 (www.nicm.org.in/biopesticides/registered.htm). Neem based pesticides, Bacillus thuringensis, NPV and Trichoderma are the major biopesticides produced and used in India

(http://coe.mse.ac.in/taxproj.asp). Whereas more than 190 synthetics are registered for use as chemical pesticides. Most of the biopesticides find use in public health, except a few that are used in agriculture. Besides, i) transgenic plants and ii) beneficial organisms called bio-agents: are used for pest management in India. Consumption of biopesticides has increased from 219 metric tons in 1996-97 to 683 metric tons in 2000-01, and about 85% of the biopesticides used are neem based products. Consumption of chemical pesticides has significantly fallen from 56,114 MT to 43,584 MT during the same period. Some success stories about successful utilization of biopesticides and bio-control agents in Indian agriculture include (Kalra & Khanuja, 2007):

Control of diamondback moths by Bacillus thuringiensis. Control of mango hoppers and mealy bugs and coffee pod borer by Beauveria. Control of Helicoverpa on cotton, pigeon-pea, and tomato by Bacillus thuringiensis. Control of white fly on cotton by neem products. Control of Helicoverpa on gram by N.P.V. Control of sugarcane borers by Trichogramma. Control of rots and wilts in various crops by Trichoderma-based products.

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Table 1: Annual availability of biopesticides in India Biopesticides/Bioagents Neem 300 PPM Neem 1500 PPM Bt NPV (liquid) Beauveria Pheromone traps Lures Trichogramma Chrysoperla & other biocontrol insects Trichoderma Quantity/annum (approx) 1,000,000 L 250,000 L 50,000 kg 500,000 Le Meager 500,000 nos. 2 million 1 million Meager 500 T Source: Kalra & Khanuja 2007

BenefitsUsually inherently less toxic than conventional pesticides Environmental and worker welfare Produce little if any residue Food safety Generally have a narrow spectrum of activity Low direct impact on non targets, including humans and wildlife Use often compatible with other control agents May aid chemical pesticide performance when used together Enhanced control Help prevent/delay chemical pesticide resistance Mode of action not specific Reduced risk of developing resistance Used as a component of ICM may decrease use of chemical pesticides Crop quality and yields remain high Flexible approach to pest management Natural enemies can reproduce in the pest population and respond to changes Help meet market demands/expecations for Environmentally friendly agriculture Reduced chemical pesticide residuesCCS NIAM, Jaipur Agri Input Marketing Page 3

There are a number of instances where bio control agents have been successfully employed in India. Some examples of these are given below: 1. Growth of lantana weed was controlled by using the bug Telonemia scrupulosa 2. Sugarcane pyrilla has been successfully controlled in a number of States by the introduction of its natural enemy Epiricania melanoleuca and Tetrastictus pyrillae. 3. Trichogramma, which feeds on the eggs of sugarcane borers, has been used against the borers in the states of Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, UP, Bihar and Haryana. 4. Similarly Trichogramma, Bracon, Chelonus and Chrysopa spp. are being used for the control of cotton bollworms. Trichogramma has also been used against rice stem borer and leaf folder. 5. The sugarcane scale insect has been controlled with the help of predatory coccinellid beetles in UP, West Bengal, Gujarat and Karnataka. The popularity of biopesticides has increased in recent years, as extensive and systematic research has greatly enhanced their effectiveness. Also, techniques for the mass production, storage, transport and application of biopesticides have been improved in recent years.

Potential of Biopesticide in IndiaThe importance of biopesticides in Indian agriculture as a component of the Integrated Pest Management System. But there are certain limitations like irregular availability of biopesticides in the market and the gradual disappearance of mixed/multiple cropping affecting the growth of biopesticides. It is observed that India occupies a comparatively better position in the arena of biopesticides; in terms of growth of usage, percentage share of the total pesticide market and also in research publications. The driving forces behind this progress are identified as huge research infrastructure (universities and bio-control labs) and favorable public support system/policies.

So far, use of synthetic chemical pesticides had been the widely used approach for reducing the estimated 45% gross crop loss due to pests and diseases, amounting to around Rs. 290 billion per annum. More and more quantities of chemicals are used for agricultural intensification to feed an ever growing population. In fact, the pest induced loss is on the rise despite increasing usage of pesticides. Fortunately, realization of the negative effects of these chemicals on nature and natural resources like pollution, pesticide residue, pesticide resistance etc, have forced many to shift focus on to more reliable, sustainable and environment friendly agents of pest control, theCCS NIAM, Jaipur Agri Input Marketing Page 4

biopesticides. In spite of the claimed efficacy, their use, however, has remained very low due to a number of socio-economic, technological and institutional constraints. Nonetheless, rise in income levels due to a growing economy coupled with increasing awareness of health related effects of chemical pesticides has increased the demand of organic food. In view of this demand and the government s efforts to mitigate climate change, biopesticides are going to play an important role in future pest management programmes. Scope of Biopesticides The striking feature of biopesticides is environment friendliness and easy biodegradability, thereby resulting in lower pesticide residues and largely avoiding pollution problems associated with chemical pesticides. Further, use of biopesticides as a component of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs can greatly decrease the use of conventional (chemical) pesticides, while achieving almost the same level of crop yield. However, effective use of biopesticides demands understanding of a great deal about managing pests especially by the end users. In terms of production and commercialization also biopesticides have an edge over chemical pesticides like low research expenditure, faster rate of product development as well as flexible registration process.

Future business prospectsBiopesticides In India , the annual estimate damage ( 20%-30%) caused by pests ,diseases and weeds in various crops in the field and stored grains was Rs. 60-70 billion in 1983 . The present price estimates is around 600 billion That s why in 2005 ,pesticides worth Rs 27 billion were used in India Biopesticides are likely have a greater impact on the insecticide sector . Some analyst believe that Biopesticides will account for 15 % of the total insecticide market by 2010 . There is a growing demand for organically cultivated fresh and process fruits and vegetables . The current consumption of organically produced fruits and vegetables at the global level is valued at Rs 27 billion . The APEDA ( Agricultural Produces Export Development Agency ) of the Union Commerce Ministry had proposed to export organic food at a value of Rs 1500 billion annually during eleventh five year plan This would require enormous efforts to produce and use Biopesticides in

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the context of Integrated Pest Management . The growth rate of Biopesticides for the next ten years has been forecast at 10% to 15 % in contrast to 2.5 % for chemical pesticides.

Factors affecting growth of biopesticidesHowever, some of the factors which have restricted the growth of biopesticides are:

Low reliability because of low stability in effect Target specificity which distracts farmers Slow in action compared to synthetics Shorter shelf life Erratic availability of biopesticides in the market Already established and strong market of chemical pesticides Regulatory system favorable to chemical pesticides, and The gradual disappearance of multiple or mixed cropping, which is known to keep away the magic bullet-chemical pesticide.

Usage of Biopesticides

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The global weighted average consumption level of biopesticides is approximately 1 kg/ha. With the global organic farming area comprising about 24 million hectares, global biopesticide consumption is thus estimated at about 24 million kg.

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