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BIODIVERSITY - WordPress.combiodiversity of bacteria cell shape gram stain position of flagella...

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  • BIODIVERSITY

    The variability among living organism from all source including terrestrial,marine and

    other aquatic ecosystem and the ecological complexes within

    species,between species and of ecosystem

    Classification system using :

    • level of cell organization a] prokaryote b} eukaryote• Organism a] unicellular b] multicellular• Feeding mode a] saprophytic b] photosynthesis c] holozoic

    Type of Biodiversity:

    • Genetic diversity a] gene and chromosome mutation b] sexual reproduction• Species diversity a] species richness b] species abundance• Ecosystem diversity

    Hierarchy of classificationSpecies

    Genus

    Family

    Order

    Class

    Phylum

    Kingdom• Taxonomy- science of naming and and classifying organism

  • Kingdom Monera

    EUBACTERIAARCHEBACTERIA

  • DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ARCHAEBACTERIAAND EUBACTERIA

    EUBACTERIA ARCHAEBACTERIA

    Cell wall consists of peptidoglican. Cell wall consists of polysaccharides and protein.

    Has no histone protein associated with DNA.

    The histone protein is associated with DNA.

    Small and simple RNA polymerase. RNA polymerase is more complex and similar to eukaryotes.

    Absent of membrane enclosed organelles. Present of membrane enclosed organelles.

    Has no nuclear envelope. Has no nuclear envelope.

    Very sensitive to rifamycin antibiotics. Not sensitive to rifamycin antibiotics.

  • Unique characteristic (Kingdom Monera)

    prokaryotic unicellular

    Photosynthetic or absorb Asexually reproduction

    Bacteria or blue green algae

  • BIODIVERSITY OF BACTERIA

    CELL SHAPE GRAM STAIN POSITION OF FLAGELLA

    SPHERICAL SHAPE(COCCUS)

    ROD SHAPE(BACILLUS)

    SPIRAL SHAPE(SPIRILLIUM)

    COMMA SHAPE(VIBRIO)

    GRAM-POSITIVE

    GRAM-NEGATIVE

    ATRICHOUS-ABSENCE OF FLAGELLA

    MONOTRICHOUS-A SINGLE FLAGELLUM PRESENT AT ONE END.

    AMPHITRICHOUS- A FLAGELLUM OCCURS AT EACH OF THE TWO ENDS.

    CEPHALOTRICHOUS- A GROUP OF FLAGELLA FOUND ONLY AT ONE END.

    LOPHOTRICHOUS-A GROUP OF FLAGELLA OCCURS AT EACH OF THE TWO ENDS.

    PETRITRICHOUS-A NUMBER OF FLAGELLA DISTRIBUTED ALL OVER THE SURFACE.

  • IMPORTANCE OF BACTERIA :

    PHATOGENIC BACTERIA DECOMPOSERS

    SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP

    FOOD PRODUCTION

    SEAWAGE TREATMENT

  • ALGAEALGAE PROTOZOAPROTOZOA

  • EUKARYOTIC UNICELLULAR & SIMPLE MULTICELLULAR

    AQUATIC & DAMP HABITATS

    HETEROTROPHIC, AUTOTROPHIC,

    PARASITE

  • CHLOROPHYTA PHAEOPHYTA

    EG. Chlamidomonas sp. EG. Fucus sp.

    UNICELLULAR MULTICELLULAR

    APPEARS GREEN. APPEARS BROWN.

    FRESH WATER. MARINE HABITAT.

    FOOD STORAGE IS STARCH. FOOD STORAGE IN LAMINARIN & MANNITOL (CARBOHYDRATE).

    LOCOMOTION BY FLAGELLA. NON-MOTILE.

    PEYRENOIDS. THALLUS BODY.

  • PHYLUM RHIZOPODA CILIOPHORA EUGLENOPHYTA APICOMPLEXA

    EXAMPLE AMOEBA PARAMECIUM EUGLENA PLASMODIUMLOCOMOTION

    PSEUDOPODIUM CILIA FLAGELLA NON-MOTILE

    PATTERN OF MOVEMENT EXTEND PSEUDOPODIA

    SPIN, MOVE ZIG-ZAG PATH SWIM

    NEED HOST (HUMAN & MOSQUITO)

    NUTRITION TYPE HETEROTROPHIC

    HETEROTROPHIC

    HETEROTROPHIC & AUTOTROPHIC

    PARASITIC

    REPRODUCTION ASEXUAL ASEXUAL ASEXUAL COMPLERE

    UNIQUE FEATURES

    CONTRACTILE VACUOLES, CYTOPLASM (ECTO & ENDO)

    MIRONUCLEUS, MICRONUCLEUS, CONTRACTILE VACUOLE, CYTOSTOME & CYTOPROCT.

    PHOTORECEPTOR EYESPOT, PEYRONOID, CHLOROPLAST, CONTRACTILE VACUOLE.

    TINY INFECTIOUS CELL

  • FOOD SOURCES EUTROFICATION

    ROLES IN BIOSPHERE (CO2 FIXATION)

    RED TIDE

  • ZYGOMYCOTA ASCOMYCOTA

    BASIOMYCOTA

  • MULTICELLULAR EUKARYOTES

    SAPROPHYTIC VEGETATIVE STRUCTURE :HYPAE CONSIST OF :ASEPTATE & SEPTATE

  • PHYLUM ZYGOMYCOTA ASCOMYCOTA BASIDIOMYCOTASTRUCTURE *NO SEPTATE

    IN HYPHAE (COENOCYTIC), HAVE LARGE BRONCLED.

    *SEPTA IN HYPHAE.

    *SEPTA IN HYPHAE, LARGE AND HAVE 3 DIMENTIAL STRUCTURE.

    ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

    MYCELIUM FORMED,SPORANGIA PRODUCE SPORE BY CONIDIA.

    REPRODUCTION BY CONIDIA.

    UNUSUAL BUT SPORES IS FORMED.

    SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

    CONJUGATION GIVES RISE TO ZYGOSPORE.

    FORMING IN ASCUS.

    FORMATION OF BASIDIOSPORES OUTSIDE BASIDIA.

    EXAMPLE RHIZOPUS, MUCOR.

    PENICILLIUM, SPERGILUS.

    AGARICUS, CAMPESTRIS.

  • ACTS AS DECOMPOSER FOR FOOD PRODUCTION

    PHARMACEUTICALPHATOGENS

    SYMBIONTS

  • PLANTAE

    BRYOPHYTES PTERIDOPHYTES

    ANGIOSPERM GYMNOSPERM

    PHYLUM :

  • Kingdom Plantae

    Unique Characteristics:

    *Photosynthethic Autotrophs *Multicellular

    *Cell wall : Cellulose

    *Food Storage : Starch

    *Eukaryotes*Non-Motile

    *sexual n Asexual*most Vascular

    tissues

    BRYOPHYTES General Home : Mosses Non-vascular &seedless

    Produced spores• Primitive

    • Rhizoid ~simple root like Structure.

    • Male gametangium : antheridium

    • Female gemetangium :Archegonium

    • Type Bryophytes ~ Bryophyta

    Hepatophyta Anthecerosphyta

    PTERIDOPHYTES• Seedless , simple , vascular

    plant• Has xylem n phloem (tracheid n

    sieve tube )• Sporophytes dominant

    • True roots• Produced spores ~

    Lycopodium : homosporous Selaginella : heterosporous

    • Types Pteridophytes ~ Pteridophyta * Dryopteris

    Lycopodiophyta*Lycopodium *Selaginella

    ANGIOSPERM• Vascular plant• Flowering plant

    • Protected seed in fruits • True root & stem & leaves• Produces sexual n asexual

    • Variety of pollinator• Sporophytes dominant

    • Heterosporous• Double Fertilizing

    • Type Anthophyta ~ Monoctyledonae Dicotyledonae

    GYMNOSPERM• Vascular Plant• Naked Seed

    • Cone : Reproduction Organ• True roots & leaves & stem

    • Sporophyte Dominant• Not required water medium

    • Type Gymnosperms ~ Coniferophyta Cycadopyhta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta

  • DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BRYOPHYTA (MOSS) AND HEPATOPHYTA :

    CHARACTERISTICS BRYOPHYTAEG. (MOSS)

    HEPATOPHYTA EG. (MARCHANTIA)

    HABITAT In a region with high annual rainfall. (moist area) In damp places (the edge of stream)

    VEGETATIVE(SPOROPHYTE) Dioecious, smaller than gametophyte, have foot, seta & capsule. Depends on gametophyte.

    Monoecious & dioecious, have food, seta & capsule

    VEGETATIVE(GAMETOPHYTE) Green thallus, rhizoid (root), has no vascular tissue. Simple conducting tissue (hydroid & leptoid) & leafy structures.

    ASEXUALLY REPRODUCTION Fragmentation.Gemma cup Gemmaegametophyte

    fragmentation.

  • PHYLUM PHYLUM LYCOPODIOPHYTALYCOPODIOPHYTA PHYLUM PHYLUM

    LYCOPODIOPHYTALYCOPODIOPHYTA PHYLUMPTERIDOPHYPHYLUMPTERIDOPHY

    TATA

    EXAMPLEEXAMPLE SELAGINELLASELAGINELLA LYCOPODIUMLYCOPODIUM DRYOPTERISDRYOPTERIS

    TYPE OF SPORESTYPE OF SPORES HETEROSPORESHETEROSPORES HOMOSPOROUSHOMOSPOROUS HOMOSPORESHOMOSPORES

    VEGETATIVE PLANTVEGETATIVE PLANTROOT, RHIZOMES, ROOT, RHIZOMES, STEMS, LEAVES STEMS, LEAVES (MICROPHYLLS)(MICROPHYLLS)

    ROOT, RHIZOMES, ROOT, RHIZOMES, STEMS, LEAVES STEMS, LEAVES (MICROPHYLLS)(MICROPHYLLS)ROOT, RHIZOMES, ROOT, RHIZOMES, STEMS, LEAVES STEMS, LEAVES (MEGAPHYLLS)(MEGAPHYLLS)

    VASCULAR SYSTEMVASCULAR SYSTEM TRACHEIDTRACHEID SIMPLE TRACHEIDSIMPLE TRACHEID COMPLEX TRACHEIDCOMPLEX TRACHEID

    ASEXUAL ASEXUAL REPRODUCTIONREPRODUCTION FRAGMENTATIONFRAGMENTATION FRAGMENTATIONFRAGMENTATION VEGETATIVEVEGETATIVE

    SEXUALSEXUALREPRODUCTIONREPRODUCTION2 TYPES OF 2 TYPES OF SPORANGIUM SPORANGIUM PRODUCE 2 TYPES PRODUCE 2 TYPES OF SPORESOF SPORES

    1 TYPE OF 1 TYPE OF SPORANGIUM SPORANGIUM PRODUCES 1 TYPE OF PRODUCES 1 TYPE OF SPORESSPORES

    1 TYPE OF 1 TYPE OF SPORANGIUM SPORANGIUM PRODUCES 1 TYPE PRODUCES 1 TYPE OF SPORESOF SPORES

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SELAGINELLA, DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SELAGINELLA, LYCOPODIUM & DROPTERISLYCOPODIUM & DROPTERIS

  • Differences between monocotyledon and dicotyledon

    DICOTYLEDONDICOTYLEDON MONOCOTYLEDONMONOCOTYLEDON

    2 SEED LEAVES2 SEED LEAVES 1 SEED LEAVES1 SEED LEAVES

    FLOWERS PART IN 4'S AND 5'SFLOWERS PART IN 4'S AND 5'S FLOWERS PAST IN 3'SFLOWERS PAST IN 3'S

    VASCULAR BUNDLE IN XYLEM IN A VASCULAR BUNDLE IN XYLEM IN A RINGRING

    VASCULAR BUNDLE IN XYLEM VASCULAR BUNDLE IN XYLEM SCATTEREDSCATTERED

    SECONDARY GROWTH PRESENTSECONDARY GROWTH PRESENT SECONDARY GROWTH ABSENTSECONDARY GROWTH ABSENT

    TAPROOT SYSTEMTAPROOT SYSTEM FIBROUS ROOT SYSTEMFIBROUS ROOT SYSTEM

    NET LEAF VENATIONNET LEAF VENATION PARALLEL LEAFPARALLEL LEAF

    LEAF WITH PATIOLELEAF WITH PATIOLE LEAF WITH SHEATHLEAF WITH SHEATH

  • CONIFEROPHYTACONIFEROPHYTA CYCADOPHYTACYCADOPHYTA GINGKOPHYTAGINGKOPHYTA GNETOPHYTAGNETOPHYTA

    LEAVESLEAVES NEEDLE-LIKENEEDLE-LIKE COMPOUNDCOMPOUND FAN-SHAPEFAN-SHAPE BROAD LIKE BROAD LIKE ANGIOSPERMANGIOSPERM

    SEEDSEED IN CONEIN CONE IN CONEIN CONE EXPOSEDEXPOSED CONES CONES ARRANGED IN ARRANGED IN CLUSTERCLUSTER

    XYLEMXYLEM TRACHEIDTRACHEID TRACHEIDTRACHEID TRACHEIDTRACHEID TRACHEID & TRACHEID & VESSEL VESSEL ELEMENTSELEMENTS

    PHLOEMPHLOEM SIEVE TUBESIEVE TUBE SIEVE TUBESIEVE TUBE SIEVE TUBESIEVE TUBE SIEVE TUBE & SIEVE TUBE & COMPANION COMPANION CELLCELL

    TYPE OF TYPE OF PLANTSPLANTS

    MONOCIOUSMONOCIOUS DIOCIOUSDIOCIOUS DIOECIOUSDIOECIOUS MONOECIOUS MONOECIOUS OR OR DIOECIOUSDIOECIOUS

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CONIFEROPHYTA, CICADOPHYTA, GINGKOPHYTA & GNETOPHYTA :

  • MULTICELLULARITY

    No True Tissue

    True Tissue

    Radial Symmetry

    Bilateral Symmetry

    No Body Cavity

    Have Body Cavity

    Pseudocoelomate Coelomate

    Protostome Deuterostome

    POR

    IFE R

    A

    CN

    IDAR

    IA

    PLAT

    YHEL

    MIN

    THES

    NEM

    ATO

    DE

    MO

    LLU

    SCA

    ANN

    ELID

    AAR

    THR

    OPO

    POD

    A

    ECH

    INO

    DER

    MA

    CH

    OR

    DAT

    A

    segmented Join

    ted

    appe

    ndag

    e

    segmented

    CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALIA

  • CHARACTERTISTICS OF PORIFERA

    *No true tissue*No symmetry

    *lack nerves or muscles

    Movement :Adult> sessileLarvae> swim

    Reproduction:*Sexual*Asexual: [email protected]

  • CHARACTERISTICS OF CNIDARIA

    Movement:*polyps> sessile*medusa>motile

    *Diploblastic*radial symmetry

    *polyps typically reproduceAsexually by budding

    To form new polyps or medusa

  • *Has grastular cavity and has one mouth

    *No circulatory system & respiratory system

    *Tripoblastic* Bilateral

    CHARACTERISTICS OF PLATYHELMINTHES

  • CHARACTERISTICS OF NEMATODA

    *Covered by tough cuticle

    *Has no circulatory system

    *Have mouth and anus

  • CHARACTERISTICS OF

    ANNELIDA

    *Body covered by cuticle

    *Chaeta for movement

    *Bilateral*Tripoblastic

  • CHARACTERISTICS OF

    MOLLUSCA

    *Tripoblastic*Most are bilateral cavity

    *Open circulatory system except class cephalopoda

    *Has gill/lung for respiration

  • CHARACTERISTICS OF

    ARTHROPODA

    *True tissue

    *Excretory system-Malpighian tubules

    *Complete digestive system

  • CHARACTERISTICS OF

    ECHINODERMATA

    *Tube feet (each tube feed contain ampulla)

    *Tripoblastic*Bilateral symmetry in

    larva stage*Unsegmented

    *External fertilisation

  • CHARACTERISTICS OFCHORDATA

    *Notochord

    *Pharyngeal cleft

    *Mytome (striated muscle) Arrange in segment

    PowerPoint PresentationSlide 2DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ARCHAEBACTERIA AND EUBACTERIAUnique characteristic (Kingdom Monera)BIODIVERSITY OF BACTERIAIMPORTANCE OF BACTERIA :KINGDOM PROTISTAUNIQUE CHARACTERISTIC KINGDOM PROTISTADIFFERENCES BETWEEN CHLOROPHYTA & PHAEOPHYTA :DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RHIZOPODA, CILIOPHORA, EUGLENOPHYTA & APICOMPLEXAIMPORTANCE OF PROTISTAKINGDOM FUNGIUNIQUE CHARACTERISTIC OF KINGDOM FUNGIDIFFERENCES BETWEEN ZYGOMYCOTA, ASCOMYCOTA & BASIDIOMYCOTATHE IMPORTANCE OF FUNGIPLANTAESlide 17DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BRYOPHYTA (MOSS) AND HEPATOPHYTA :Slide 19Differences between monocotyledon and dicotyledonDIFFERENCES BETWEEN CONIFEROPHYTA, CICADOPHYTA, GINGKOPHYTA & GNETOPHYTA :KINGDOM ANIMALIASlide 23Slide 24Slide 25Slide 26Slide 27Slide 28Slide 29Slide 30Slide 31

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BIODIVERSITY The variability among living organism from all source including terrestrial,marine and other aquatic ecosystem and the ecological complexes within species,between species and of ecosystem Classification system using : level of cell organization a] prokaryote b} eukaryote Organism a] unicellular b] multicellular Feeding mode a] saprophytic b] photosynthesis c] holozoic Type of Biodiversity: Genetic diversity a] gene and chromosome mutation b] sexual reproduction Species diversity a] species richness b] species abundance Ecosystem diversity Hierarchy of classification Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Taxonomy- science of naming and and classifying organism
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