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Biology & Geology. 1st of ESO. Minerals and Rocks.

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 NATURAL SCIENCE 1 st  of ESO MINERALS  AND ROCKS 
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8/17/2019 Biology & Geology. 1st of ESO. Minerals and Rocks.

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NATURAL SCIENCE

1st of ESO

MINERALS  AND

ROCKS 

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 Agate and milky quartz are both quartz , because they have thesame chemical composition and therefore, physical properties.The differences beteen the! are caused by impurities,  otherche!ica" e"e!ents that are inc"uded in the #uart$ durin% the

for!ation &rocess.

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8/17/2019 Biology & Geology. 1st of ESO. Minerals and Rocks.

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NATIVEELEMENTS 

These !inera"s are !ade bya sin%"e e"e!ent.

'o"d, si"ver,co&&er 

OXIDES  They are !ade u& ofO(y%en and one othere"e!ent.

O"i%iste )iron*

SULPHIDES   A !i( of Su"&hur and a +eta" 'a"enaCARONATES  They are !ade of Carbon,

O(y%en and a +eta".Ca"cite

HALIDES  Co!&osed of Ch"oride and a+eta".

a"ite

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a* COLOUR - !inera"s are a"ays the sa!e co"our, no !atter herethey are taen or hat &rocess endured.

b* SHAPE - !inera"s can be !e"metri#  or irre!u$ar .

c* LUSTRE - refers to the ay a !inera" ref"ects "i%t. It can be-

/ Meta$$i# - "ie &yrite.

/ N"% meta$$i# .

d* STREAK - it refers to the co"our of the &oder that a !inera" "eaveshen scra&ed.

e* CLEAVA&E - is the ay a that a !inera" breas. It can brea ins'eets or in #u(es.

f* HARDNESS - !easures ho a !inera" reacts to bein% scratched.

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The Mohs Scale of Hardness

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Detrital Rocks

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Chemical Rocks

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Organic Rocks

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VOLCANICIGNO!S ROC"S

#L!TONICIGNO!S ROC"S

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P$ut"%i# r"#) 

V"$#a%i# r"#) 

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High $ress%re d%e to &eight

Intense heat d%e to magma

Metam"rp'i# r"#) 

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Metam"rp'i# r"#)s

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0eatherin% andChan%es in

usion at hi%h

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0eatherin% anderosion

%te!&eratureand &ressure

usion at hi%hte!&erature


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