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Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP...

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Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, www.antares.org
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Page 1: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges

NYSERDA EMEP November 2007Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, www.antares.org

Page 2: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Outline

• Biomass Resource– What qualifies as Biomass? – How large is the Biomass Resource (U.S. and NY)? – What constitutes sustainable biomass production? – Under what conditions is biomass power production

carbon neutral?• Biopower Emissions Beyond CO2• Biopower Development Challenges and Policy

Issues

Page 3: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

What Qualifies as Biomass?

Page 4: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Biomass Power Resources

FEEDSTOCKS• Forest Resources

– Unused logging slash– Primary mill residues– Forest fuels treatment biomass

• Timberland• Other forest land

• Agricultural Resources– Crop Residues– Manure Solids & Biogas– Energy Crops

• Urban Resources– Biomass recovered from solid

wastes – Biosolids– Landfill gas– Biogas from waste-water

treatment plants

POWER TECHNOLOGIES• Direct Fired/Steam Turbine• Biomass Cofired in Fossil Fuel

Power Plants• Gasifier/IC Engine• Gasifier/Combined Cycle• Gasifier/Gas turbine • Biogas IC Engines and

Microturbines• Biogas Fuel Cells

Page 5: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Feedstock Production

Food, Fiber, Chemicals,

Wood Products, Plastics

Food, Fiber, Chemicals,

Wood Products, Plastics

Round Wood, Pulp Chips

Grains & Cereals

Forests and Woodlots

Farmland

Products

BiomassEnergy

Feedstocks

BiomassEnergy

Feedstocks

Residuals

Biomass Waste

Whole Tree Chips,

Energy CropsCrop & Wood Harvest Residuals

Forest Management Treatments

Animal manures

Industry

Municipalities

Page 6: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Annual Biomass Production Potential

368 Million Tons wood biomass, 998 MMT Ag biomass (Wood Portion Mapped DOE/USDA Billion Ton Report-2005)

1.2 Billion tons coal producedin 2006 (EIA)

Page 7: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Agricultural & Wood Residues - US

Page 8: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

New York Biomass Power

Year 2005 2012MW (capacity) 400 860

Source Platts NYSERDA 2003

New York Biomass Power Plants

> 5,000 GWh annually in 2012

• Biomass Production Area to generate power projected for 2012 is about 1,200 sq. miles

• Total NY land area 47,214 sq. miles– 29,000 sq. miles of forested area– 11,700 sq. miles are used by the 35,000 farms

Platt's North America Power Plant Database, October 2005, http://www.platts.com Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Resource Development Potential in New York State, Vol. 1, prepared for NYSERDA, 2003.USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service, New York Field Office

Page 9: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Sustainable Bioenergy Production

Page 10: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Criteria for Sustainability

• Netherlands Energy Transition Task Force “Criteria for sustainable biomass production, Final report of the Sustainable Production of Biomass Project Group” July 14th 2006

• Criteria and indicators have been developed in 6 categories – Greenhouse gas balance– Competition with food production, local energy supply,

medicines and building materials– Biodiversity– Economic prosperity– Social well-being– Environment

Page 11: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Sustainable Bioenergy Production to Use

• Feedstock production, harvest & transport– Assuring biological replenishment– Maintaining ecosystem health– Managing inputs (fertilizer, water)– Efficient transport

• Energy conversion – Higher efficiency reduces feedstock demand– New technologies aid removal of contaminants

• End uses– Higher efficiency end use reduces energy demand and

environmental impacts

Page 12: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Feedstock production and harvest

• Energy Crops– Best management practices apply

• Forest Harvests – Forest and Harvest management certifications (SFI, FSC & Tree

Farm)– State and Federal regulations apply

• Forest Products and Agricultural Process Residues– Contaminants from processing must be addressed– Raw material sources will be an issue

• Urban and Industrial Wastes– Complex mix of biomass materials – Stream separation and pretreatment are key

Page 13: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

US Carbon EmissionsU.S. Historical Energy-Related CO2 Emissions

Source: Program on Technology Innovation: An Assessment of the Future Potential for Biomass Electricity Generation in a Carbon-Constrained World. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2007. 1014828.

Key Questions:To what extent will electricity provide transport services?

To which sector will biomass resources be directed?

Page 14: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Biomass Role in Power and Carbon Balance

• US Biomass Power Generation was 61.8 MWh in 2005 (about 1.5% of total electricity produced)– Global potential for more than 10,000 million MWH – Biomass is dominant renewable resource in US on

energy consumption basis (Heat, Power and Fuel)• Among renewable energy technologies for

electricity production, biomass is the carbon neutral, dispatchable, baseload electric generation option.

Source: Program on Technology Innovation: An Assessment of the Future Potential for Biomass Electricity Generation in a Carbon-Constrained World. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2007. 1014828.

Page 15: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Biomass Power - Carbon Cycle

Source: Program on Technology Innovation: An Assessment of the Future Potential for Biomass Electricity Generation in a Carbon-Constrained World. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2007. 1014828.

Net Zero Carbon applies to the GROWTH and CONVERSION portion of biomass energy - additional process steps can tip the balance either way.

Page 16: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

GHG Emissions by Technology

-2.0

-1.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

Coal-fired Natural Gas CC Biomass IGCC

Car

bon

Eqv.

Em

issi

ons

(lb/k

Wh)

Carbon Emission: No LCACarbon Emissons: LCACarbon Emission: LCA w/CCS

Based on Data from: Program on Technology Innovation: An Assessment of the Future Potential for Biomass Electricity Generation in a Carbon-Constrained World. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2007. 1014828.

Page 17: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Potential CCS Impact

Steven J. Smith, Antoinette Brenkert, Jae Edmonds, Biomass with Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS), GTSP Presentation, May 23, 2006.

The MiniCAM is a long- term, partial-equilibrium model of the energy, agriculture, and climate system.

Page 18: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Other Emissions from Biomass Power

Page 19: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

EGrid – NOx Emissions Data

BioPower NOx Emissions

0.00

0.10

0.20

0.30

0.40

0.50

0.60

0 400 800 1,200 1,600 2,000 2,400 2,800 3,200 3,600 4,000

Heat Input (thousand MMBtu/yr)

NO

x Em

issi

ons

(lb/M

MB

tu)

ME:1986

FL:1990CA:1985

ME:1987

ME:1988

ME:1993

NY:1993NY:1992

NSPS Limit

PSD Limit

Page 20: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

EGrid – SO2 Emissions Data

BioPower SO2 Emissions

0.000

0.005

0.010

0.015

0.020

0.025

0.030

0 400 800 1,200 1,600 2,000 2,400 2,800 3,200 3,600 4,000

Heat Input (thousand MMBtu/yr)

SO2

Emis

sion

s (lb

/MM

Btu

)

ME:1986

FL:1990

CA:1985

ME:1987

ME:1988

ME:1993NY:1993NY:1992

NSPS Limit 0.15 lb/MMBtu

PSD Limit

Page 21: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Mercury Concentration

Natural mercury levels in plants range from 0.001 to 0.1 ppm (dry weight).

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Unified Air Toxics Program: Electric Utility Steam Generating Units Hazardous Air Pollutant Emission Study, 2000Mercury Releases from Deforestation, University of British Columbia Department of and Mineral Process Mining Engineering

Page 22: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Biomass Power Development

Benefits and Challenges

Page 23: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

US Biomass Power Plants - 2007

Page 24: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Solid Fuel FiringSolid Fuel Firing

Reforming & Hydrotreating

Reforming & Hydrotreating

FermentationFermentation

Fuels

Power

Heat

EsterificationEsterification

Gasification, Pyrolysis & Digestion &

Decomposition

Gasification, Pyrolysis & Digestion &

Decomposition

Hydrolysis & Steam Treatment

Hydrolysis & Steam Treatment

32

1821

28

Residential ServicesCommercial ServicesIndustrial UtilitiesTransportation

BiomassFeedstocks

Economic Sectors(Primary Quads - 2006)

EIA 2007

Biomass currently provides 2.8 Quads(H&P 2.5, Fuels 0.3)

Conversion and Delivery

Page 25: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Conversion Options – Solid Fuel Firing/Cofiring

Ottumwa, IA

Shasta, CA

Schiller, NH

Page 26: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Conversion Options - Gasification and BIGCC

Amer-9 NL39 MWe of 650 MWe total

Nuon Power, NL~25 MW of 250MW total

USC Cogen1.38 MW +60 klbs/hr

Page 27: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Power Plant Efficiency

Net Output (MWe)

Net Heat Rate (Btu/kWh)

Source

Biomass direct-fired (stoker)

50 14,840Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations, EPRI 1997

Coal – PC sub-critical 500 9,500 – 10,300 (1) EPA Presentation 2006

Coal IGCC 500 8,170 – 8,700 (1) EPA Presentation 2006

Biomass IGCC 50 9,000 Antares in-house resources

(WGA report)

NGCC 400 7,500 EPRI 2000

1). Depends on coal type. Bituminous has lowest heat rate, lignite has the highest.

Page 28: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Conversion Efficiency – Biomass Plants

0

2,000

4,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Plant Scale (MWe)

Net

Hea

t Rat

e (B

tu/k

Wh)

IGCC Heat RateCogen Heat RateGen Sets Heat RateEPI Gen Sets Heat Rate

Engine Gensets IGCC

Page 29: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Gasification Technology

• Gasification is a thermal process to convert a solid fuel into a gaseous fuel

• Biomass gasification includes pyrolysis, gasification and some limited combustion

• Gasification products may be burned to provide heat directly or indirectly to drive the gasification reactions.

• Gaseous fuel can be used in boilers, process heaters, turbines and engines and fuel cells. High conversion efficiencies are possible.

1000oF 1800oF

PYROLYSIS GASIFICATION

1000oF 1800oF

PYROLYSIS GASIFICATION

Page 30: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Challenges for Gasification

1. High moisture content of un-dried biomass2. Commercial availability of gas clean-up

technologies that are sufficiently robust and effective to allow use in a turbine or engine

3. Relatively high cost of gasification equipment, currently built on a custom basis

4. Limited industry experience in using biomass gasifiers in advanced power generation cycles

Page 31: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Biomass Supply Development

Page 32: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Biomass Resource Distribution

Page 33: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Maintaining Healthy Forests and Restoring Fire Adapted Forest Ecosystems

Page 34: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Forestland: 216 MM acres

Timberland: 141 MM acres

Timberland screened for Fire Severity Regime 89 MM acres

Treatment opportunities on WUI and non-WUI timberland: 23 MM acres

Butte Creek Fuels Reduction Treatment Results

WUI 1.4 MM

Non-WUI 21.6 MM

Final Screens:1. Plots with higher fire hazard (CI < 25 mph or CI < 40 + TI < 25)2. Inventoried roadless areas excluded3. Counties with wetter climates excluded

Fire Severity Regime Screens:1. Forest type with a surface or mixed severity fire regimes2. For WUI added limited treatment of high severity fire regimes

Fire Risk Reduction Opportunities

Page 35: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Feedstock Transportation

Source: Langholtz et al. 2006

Page 36: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Current Systems – Trucks & Trains

Page 37: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Policy Challenges

Page 38: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Bioenergy Development

Cumulative Benefits of Biomass Energy Production

Synergies with existing infrastructure – no new transmission capability

Dispatchable

Fire Risk Reduction

Rural Economic Growth And Preservation

Distributed Resources

Productive Use of Byproducts

Carbon Neutral

Page 39: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Challenges for Resource Development

Distributed Resource / Availability• Many small suppliers plus a few large suppliers – aggregators

are important• Competing uses• Variable feedstock quality• Measuring/monitoring sustainabilityTransportation - costs & logisticsTime & investment for energy crop developmentStrategic Use Considerations

Imported Oil ReductionsProtecting Food Supplies

Page 40: Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges...Biopower: Technology and Policy Challenges NYSERDA EMEP November 2007 Edward Gray, P.E., Antares Group, . ... – Landfill gas – Biogas

Bio

Streamline interconnection for distributed

biomass developers

Contracts

Intercon

Power, BioFuels, BioProducts

Power contracts that reflect distributed

long-term benefits ,

Create incentives to make the switch

nection

Feedstocks

Permitting

Consistent permitting rules that recognize all biomass benefits

Build infrastructure to move raw feedstocks to new bioenergy projects

Biomass to Markets Creating an Environment Conducive to Bioenergy Development


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