Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs)
07th May 2013
Brief Introduction of Transistor
• Invented by a team of – Three men at Bell Laboratories in 1947.– Although it was not a BJT but it was the beginning
of a technological revolution that is still continuing.
– Almost all the electronic devices and systems today are an outgrowth of early developments in semiconductor transistors.
Two Basic Types
• Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)• Field-Effect Transistor (FET)
• Applications of BJTs– Used in two broad areas• As a linear amplifier to boost or amplify an electrical
signal• As an electronic switch
• BJT is constructed with three doped semiconductor regions separated by two pn junction.
• The three regions are called emitter, base and collector.
• One type consists of two n-regions separated by a p region (npn) and the other type consists of two p regions separated by an n region (pnp).
Basic BJT Structure
Junctions in BJTs
• The pn junction joining the base region and the emitter region is called the base-emitter junction.
• The pn junction joining the base region and the collector region is called the base-collector junction.
EBC - Terminals
• A wire lead connects to each of the three regions.• • These leads are labeled E, B and C for Emitter, Base and
• The base region is lightly doped and very thin compared to the heavily doped emitter and the moderately doped collector regions.
– (Assignment Qs, Why is it so?)– The term bipolar refers to the use of both holes and electrons as
carriers in the transistor structure.
• The proper bias arrangement for both npn and pnp transistors for active operation as an amplifier is shown above.
• In both cases the base-emitter (BE) junction is forward-biased and the base-collector (BC) junction is reverse-biased.
Working …• The forward bias from base to emitter narrows the BE depletion region,
and the reverse bias from base to collector widens the BC depletion region, as depicted in figure.
• The heavily doped n type emitter region is teeming with conduction-band (free) electrons that easily diffuse through the forward-biased BE junction into the p-type base region where they become minority carriers.
• The base region is lightly doped and very thin so that it has a limited number of holes. Thus, only a small percentage of all the electrons flowing through the BE junction can combine with the available holes in the base. These relatively few recombined electrons flow out of the base lead as valence electrons causing small base electron current as shown above.
• Once in this region electrons are pulled through the reverse biased BC junction by the electric field set up by the force of at- traction between the positive and negative ions. Actually you can think of the electrons as being pulled across the reverse-biased BC junction by the attraction of the collector supply voltage.
• The electrons now move through the collector region, out through the collector lead, and into the positive terminal of the collector voltage source. This forms the collector electron current, as shown in figure above. The collector current is much larger than the base current. This is the reason transistors exhibit current gain.
Transistor Characteristics and Parameters•
Transistor characteristics and parameters(continued…)