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bipolar transistors

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14
Bipolar Transistors
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Page 1: bipolar transistors

Bipolar Transistors

Page 2: bipolar transistors

Figure 22-1. NPN transistor.

Transistor Construction

Page 3: bipolar transistors

Figure 22-2. PNP transistor.

Page 4: bipolar transistors

Transistor Types and PackagingTransistor classifications

According to type NPN or PNP

According to material used Germanium or silicon

According to major use High or low power, switching, or high frequency

Page 5: bipolar transistors

Transistor Types and Packaging(cont’d.)

Transistor identificationPrefix of 2N followed by up to four digits

Transistor packageProtects transistorProvides means of electrical connectionServes as a heat sinkIdentified with letter TO (transistor outline)

Page 6: bipolar transistors

Transistor Types and Packaging(cont’d.)

Figure 22-3. Various transistor packages.

Page 7: bipolar transistors

Transistor Types and Packaging(cont’d.)

Figure 22-4. Typical transistor packages.

Page 8: bipolar transistors

Figure 22-5. Properly biased NPN transistor.

Basic Transistor Operation

Page 9: bipolar transistors

Figure 22-6. Properly biased PNP transistor.

Page 10: bipolar transistors

Figure 22-7. Resistance measurements of transistor junctions.

Page 11: bipolar transistors

Figure 22-8. Transistor tester.

Page 12: bipolar transistors

Transistor Substitution

Figure 22-9. How to remember the polarity of the collector voltage.

Page 13: bipolar transistors

SummaryA transistor is a three-layer device used to

amplify and switch power and voltageA transistor is classified according to type,

material used, and major useIn a properly biased transistor, the emitter-

base junction is forward biased and the collector-base junction is reverse biased

Page 14: bipolar transistors

Summary (cont’d.)PNP transistor bias sources are the reverse

of NPN bias sourcesWhen a transistor is tested with an

ohmmeter, each junction exhibits a low resistance when it is forward biased and a high resistance when it is reverse biased

Transistor testers are available for testing transistors in and out of circuit


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