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Bovine Brucellosis: Brucella abortus

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Bovine Brucellosis: Brucella abortus. Undulant Fever, Contagious Abortion, Bang’s Disease. Overview. Organism History Epidemiology Transmission Disease in Humans Disease in Animals Prevention and Control Actions to Take. The Organism. The Organism. Brucella abortus - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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  • Bovine Brucellosis:Brucella abortusUndulant Fever, Contagious Abortion,Bangs Disease

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • OverviewOrganismHistoryEpidemiologyTransmissionDisease in HumansDisease in AnimalsPrevention and ControlActions to TakeCenter for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • THE ORGANISM

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • The OrganismBrucella abortusGram negative coccobacillusFacultative intracellular pathogenNine biovarsAdditional Brucellae that affect cattleB. melitensis and B. suisCan persist in the environment

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • HISTORY

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • The Many Names of BrucellosisHuman DiseaseMalta FeverUndulant FeverMediterranean FeverRock Fever of GibraltarGastric FeverAnimal DiseaseBangs DiseaseEnzootic AbortionEpizootic AbortionSlinking of CalvesRam EpididymitisContagious AbortionCenter for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • History of Brucellosis450 BC: Described by Hippocrates1905: Introduced to the U.S. 1914: B. suis Indiana, United States 1953: B. ovis New Zealand, Australia1966: B. canisDogs, caribou, and reindeer Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • History of BrucellosisSir William Burnett (1779-1861)Physician General to the British NavyDifferentiated among the various fevers affecting soldiers

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • History of BrucellosisJeffery Allen MarstonBritish Army surgeonContracted Malta feverDescribed his own case in great detail

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012Professor FEG Cox. The Wellcome Trust, Illustrated History of Tropical Diseases

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • History of BrucellosisSir David Bruce (1855-1931)British Army physician and microbiologist Discovered Micrococcus melitensis

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012Professor FEG Cox. The Wellcome Trust, Illustrated History of Tropical Diseases

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • History of BrucellosisBernhard Bang (1848-1932)Danish physician and veterinarian Discovered Bacterium abortus could infect cattle, horses, sheep, and goats

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012Professor FEG Cox. The Wellcome Trust, Illustrated History of Tropical Diseases

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • History of BrucellosisAlice EvansAmerican bacteriologist credited with linking the organisms in the 1920sDiscovered similar morphology and pathology between:Bangs Bacterium abortus Bruces Micrococcus melitensisBrucella nomenclatureCredited to Sir David BruceCenter for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • EPIDEMIOLOGY

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • Populations at RiskOccupational diseaseCattle ranchers/ dairy farmersVeterinarians Abattoir workersMeat inspectorsLab workersHuntersTravelersConsumersUnpasteurized dairy productsCenter for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • Geographic DistributionDistributionWorldwideEradicated in some countriesNotifiable disease in many countriesWorld Organization for Animal Health (OIE)Poor surveillance and reporting due to lack of recognitionFever of unknown origin (FUO)Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • Brucellosis: Reported cases, by yearUnited States, 1979 2009Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • Brucellosis: U.S. IncidenceAbout 100 human cases/yrLess than 0.5 cases/100,000 peopleMost cases occur in California, Florida, Texas, VirginiaMost associated with consumption of unpasteurized foreign cheesesCenter for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • TRANSMISSION

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • Transmission in HumansIngestion Raw milk, unpasteurized dairy productsRarely through undercooked meatMucous membrane or abraded skin contact with infected tissuesAnimal abortion productsVaginal discharge, aborted fetuses, placentasCenter for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • Transmission in CattleIngestion of/contact with:Reproductive tissues and/or fluidsMilk, urine, semen, feces, hygroma fluidsIn uteroVenereal (uncommon)Artificial inseminationFomitesCenter for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • Transmission in Other AnimalsContact with infected cattleCarnivoresCan be infectedNot a source of infection for others under natural conditionsCenter for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • DISEASE IN HUMANS

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • Disease in HumansIncubation periodVariable; 5 days to three monthsMultisystemicAny organ or organ systemCyclical feverFlu-like illnessMay wax and waneChronic illness possible

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • Human Disease20 to 60% of casesOsteoarticular complicationsArthritis, spondylitis, osteomyelitisHepatomegaly may occurGastrointestinal complications2 to 20% of casesGenitourinary involvementOrchitis and epididymitis most commonCenter for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • Complications of BrucellosisMost commonArthritis, spondylitis, epididymo-orchitis, chronic fatigueNeurological5% of casesOtherOcular, cardiovascular, additional organs and tissuesCenter for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • Treatment and PrognosisRarely fatal if treatedCase-fatality rate
  • DISEASE IN ANIMALS

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • Disease in CattleCowsAbortion, stillbirthWeak calvesRetained placentaDecreased lactationBullsEpididymitis, orchitisInfertility, arthritisCenter for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • Disease in Other RuminantsCamels, bison, water buffalo, bighorn sheep, other ruminantsSigns similar to cattleMooseMay die rapidlyCenter for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • Disease in Other AnimalsCarnivoresAbortion, epididymitis, polyarthritisMay be asymptomaticHorsesInflammation of bursaeSupraspinous (fistulous withers)Supra-atlantal (poll evil)Abortion rareCenter for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • Post Mortem LesionsGranulomatous inflammatory lesionsReproductive tractUdderLymph nodesJointsAbnormal placentaEnlarged liverBulls: swollen scrotumCenter for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • Morbidity and MortalityNave cattleB. abortus spreads rapidlyAbortion storms commonEndemic herdsSporadic symptomsDeath rare in adult animalsExceptions: moose, bighorn sheepCenter for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • Differential DiagnosisTrichomoniasisVibriosisLeptospirosisListeriosisInfectious bovine rhinotracheitisVarious mycosesCenter for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2012

  • Laboratory DiagnosisDirect examinationSerologyBrucella antigen tests, complement fixation, ELISA, othersMilk testingCulture and identificationPhage, biochemical typingPCR

    Center for Food Secur

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